Psych Exam 4 Study Guide
Psych Exam 4 Study Guide PSYC 2010-001
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2010-001 at Clemson University taught by Chong H. Pak in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/22/15
Trait SocioCognitive Self Wednesday November 18 2015 756 AM Trait an individual39s durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving They make up personality 0 Examples of Traits o Honest o Dependable o Moody o Impulsive Personality comes from a combination of traits Personality traits remain stable and predictable over time 0 Personality traits remain stable across situations 0 People differ with regard to how much of a particular personality trait they possess Alport s Trait Theory 0 39 Traits that organize and control one39s behaviorin many different situations and are usually apparent to others III quotletter of recommendationquottype traits III Reliable trustworthy etc o 39 Traits that are more specific to certain situations and control far less behavior I Dislike crowds 39 Shy around new people E ysenck s Major Personality Dimensions 0 Emotionalstable A Inrnlnrnrl EVPquotIAV II I II I LI UVCI LCU39EALI CIVCI LCU Biological basis of personality I Their auditory cortex responds differently to a simple one Dimensions of Personality I CConscientiousness III Always on top of things dependable punctual AAgreeableness III Easy to get along with agreeably I NNeuroticism III Anxious irritably moody I OOpenness III Curious created open to new ideas I EExtraversion III Socialable talkative outgoing Objective Personality Tests Characteristics I Asks direct questions about a person I Quantitativer scored Advantages I Efficiency I Standardization Disadvantages I Subject to deliberate distortion NEOPI I General personality assessment MMPI Personlaity Inventory I Diagnosing of psychological disorders Example Questions I quotI worry about work a lotquot quotI like to attend partiesquot quotI get angry easilyquot quotI love to read challenging materialquot You rate how strongly you agree or disagree with statements Test Issues Just like any tests personality tests must be I Reliable III Testing a differenttimes should yield similar scores forthe same person I I llnl III The test should measure what it says it measures and not something else 0 Personality Tests and Employee Selection 0 Using objective personality tests in hiring process can help reduce thefts and other disruptive employee behaviors 0 Problems 39 How well do the tests predict behavior 39 Are the tests an invasion of privacy 39 How will tests be interpreted and used in the future SocialCognitive Perspective 0 Bandura believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and their social context 0 Individualsamp Environment 39 Some ways in which individuals and environments interact III Different people choose different environments III Our personalities shape how we react to events III Our personalities shape situations School you attend and the music you listen to are partly based on your dispositions Personal Control 0 Socialcognitive psychologists emphasize our sense of personal control whether we control the environment or the environment controls us 0 External locus of control perception that chance or outsideforces beyond our personal control determine ourfate 0 Internal locus of control perception that we can control our own fate Learn Helplessness 0 When unable to avoid repeated adverse events an animal or human learns helplessness Stress amp Health Friday November 13 2015 757 AM 0 Health Psychology 0 The field of psychology that looks at 39 How people stay healthy 39 Why they become ill 39 How they respond when they do get ill 0 Goals of Health Psychology 39 Help people understand their role in their health and life expectancy 39 Discover what causes noncompliance 39 Help people to understand the role played by stress 0 Stress and Stressors 0 Stress 39 The process by which we appraise and cope with threats and chaHenges o Stressors 39 The events or situations to which people must adjust 39 The causes of stress 0 The Process of Stress 39 Stressors III Life changes and strains III Catastrophic events III Daily hassles III Chronic stressors 39 Stress Mediators III Cognitive appraisal III Predictability III Control III Coping resources and methods III Social support 39 Stress Responses III Physical III Psychological Emotional Cognitive 0 Behavioral PsychologicalStressors o Psychologicalstressors 39 Any event that forces a person to change or adapt 39 Examples D Catastrophic events such as natural disasters III Life Changes and strains such as divorce The Stress Response System 0 Epinephrine and norepinephrine released from the inner adrenal glands 39 Increasing heart and respiration rates I Mobilizing sugar and fat I Dulling pain 0 Phase 1Alarm 39 Mobilize resources activation of sympathetic nervous systemquotshockquot fight orflight 39 Temperature blood pressure respiration is high 0 Phase 2 Resistance 39 Cope with stressor energy depletion continues 39 But heart rate etc return to normal 0 Phase 3 Exhaustion 39 Reserves depleted prolonged stress damages bodybrain SRSS Sample Items amp Scores 0 Social Readjustment Rating Scale SRSS o The scale does not consider how we perceive or appraise the stress 0 Stress Appraisal o How you appraise the stressor determines your response and how much stress you feel Psychological Responses to Stress o Emotional Responses 0 Cognitive Stress Responses 39 Ruminative thinking and catastrophizing 39 mpairs problemsolving and decisionmaking o Behavioral Stress Responses I FQCQDP and avoidance FPQDOHQPQT aggression huvulvv VIIle Ul39vlvlvlllvv IVUIVVIIUVU UDDI VUUIVII Stress and Personality 0 Type A behavior pattern 39 Competitive verbally aggressive impatient angerprone 39 Pessimistic 0 Type B behavior pattern 39 Easygoing relaxed 39 Optimistic 0 Type A personalities more likely to experience stress and stressrelated health problems Pessimism and Heart Disease 0 Pessimistic adult men are twice as likely to develop heart disease over a 10year period 0 Stress and Gender 0 Males tend to get angry andoravoid stressors or both 39 A fight or flight pattern 0 Females are more likely to help others and to make use of their social support network 39 A tend and befriend style 0 The Immune System and Stress 0 Stress can impair or suppress the immune system 0 Antibody secretion reduced during stressful periods Coping with Stress 0 Reducing stress by changing events that cause stress or by changing how we react to stress is called problemfocused coping o Emotionfocused coping is when we cannot change a stressful situation and we respond by attending to our own emotional needs 0 Stress Mediators o Predictability and Controlof Stressor 39 Predictable stressors vs unpredictable III Predictable exams tax day III Unpredictable deaths accidents 39 Perception of control can dull the effects of stressors III The belief that a stressor is controllable can reduce the impact of the stressor o Perceived Control 39 The absence of perceived control over stressors is a predictor of health problems 0 Social Support o Supportive family members marriage partners and close friends help people cope with stress 0 Their immune functioning calms the cardiovascular system and lowers blood pressure LifeStyle Modification 0 Modifying a TypeA lifestyle may reduce the recurrence of heart attacks Spirituality amp Faith Communities 0 Regular religious attendance has been a reliable predictor of a longer life span with a reduced risk of dying Intervening Factors 0 Investigations suggest there are three factors that connect religious involvement and better health 39 Healthy behaviors 39 Social support Personality Psychodynamic Approach Monday November 16 2015 809 AM Personality The unique pattern of enduring thoughts feelings and actions that characterize a person 0 A psychological contract 0 Not directly observable 0 Can be inferred from behavior Four Main Approaches 1 Psychodynamic 2 Humanistic 3 Trait 4 SocialCognitive Sigmund Freud Believed our personalities behavior and disorder are determined mainly by 0 Basic Drives 0 Past Psych events 0 Proposed that people are partly controlled by the unconscious part of their personality Createdthe o The inter play of various unconscious psychological processes determines thoughts feelings and behavior Elements of the Personality ID the unconscious portion of the personality where love and death instincts reside o Operates on Pleasure Principle 0 Not aware ofthe outside world 0 quotpleasu re at any costquot Superego Portion that dictates what one should and should39nt do 0 Learned internalized rules from society family and culture 0 Your quotconsciencequot Ego Potion responsible for satisfying the demands ofthe ID 0 Operates on Reality Principle 0 Ego is aware ofthe outside world 0 quothow can I obtain pleasure in the real worldquot Ego Anxiety Ego does NOTlike anxiety 0 Conflict between superego and ID 39 Ifyou steal moral anxiety 0 Conflict bt ego and reality 39 When you receive a bad grade and are afraid offailing reality anxiety 0 Conflict bt ID and ego 39 Yourfear you may cheat on your spouse neurotic anxiety 0 In these cases you respond with defense mechanisms Personality Development Freud Psvchosexual stages o Mouth is the center of pleasure 0 Babies like to put everything in their mouth 0 Most infants are starting to be potty trained o Potty training clashes with instinctual pleasure in having bowel movements at will 0 Potty training that is too harsh or late can lead to anal fixation 0 Boys experience sexual desire toward the mother 0 Little boys hate their father who is competing forthe affections oftheir mother 0 Boys fear of being castrated by father causes anxiety to ego 0 Defense Mechanisms cause boy to identify and love father and try to be like him superego develops 0 Girls also love mother have strong attachment Girls realize the they do not have a penis and develop penis envy Penis envy causes girls to transfer love to their father now hate mother Afraid of mom who is in competition with dads love Scared of mom reaction formation kicks in and she develops love for mom superego develops 0000 Assessing Unconscious Processes TAT Thematic Appreciation Test 0 People express their inner feelings and interests through stories they make up Rorschach nkblot Test 0 Peoples unconscious motivations will manifest themselves 0 Projective Test 0 What do you see in the nk blot Projective Tests Criticisms Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability and validity 1 When evaluating the same patient even trained raters come up with different interpretations reliability 2 May diagnose a normal individual as pathological validity griticisms of PsvchoglvnamicTheories All based on case studies 0 Findings based on counseling sessions with a handful of upperclass women in Victorian Europe where sex was Taboo o Lacks generalizability Inherently untestable not scientific 0 Can never be supported or unsupported Overestimated the importance of unconscious drives Inherently biased against females 0 An important basis oftheory is that females are inferior to males Motivation Friday November 6 2015 757 AM Motivation the factors that influence the initiation direction intensity and persistence of behavior 0 Motivation cannot be directly observed it is inferred from what can be observed Theories of Motivation What causes our motivations and why 0 Instincts it is innate biological approach 39 Instincts automatic involuntary and unlearned behavior patterns triggered by particular stimuli BUT Instinct theory decreases behavior does not explain it You can make up many instincts for anything Drive Reduction Theory Imbalance in a system in your body 0 Some system in the body is not physiologically balanced o Creates a NEED 39 A biological requirement for wellbeing 0 Brain interprets the body39s need as a DRIVE 39 Drive is a feeling of arousal III Imbalancegtyou haven39t had water in a long time III NeedgtYou need water to survive III DrivegtYou become thirsty ArousalTheory What is arousal o A general level of activation can be many different things level ofactivity in brain level of sensory stimulation 0 People behave in ways to keep their arousal at optimum levels 0 Boredom low arousal Motivates you to do something to increase arousal A Hierarchy of MotivesNeeds 1970 suggested that certain needs have priority over others Hunger and Eating vo v o o Hunger the general state of wanting to eat 0 Satiety the general state of no longer wanting to eat 0 Stomachs Removed 39 Tsang1938 removed rat stomachs connected the esophagus to the small intestines and the rats still felt hungry and ate food Body Chemistry and the Brain 0 Levels ofGlucose in the blood are monitored by receptors neurons in the stomach liver and intestines 0 They send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain 0 The LH brings on hunger o The reduction of blood glucose stimulates orexin in the LH which leads rats to eat 0 The VMH depresses hunger o Hypothalamusamp Hormones 39 The hypothalamus monitors a number of hormones that are related to hunger Set Point 0 Manipulating the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus alters the body39s quotweight thermostatquot 0 Body regulates hunger and other things to stay at it39s set point 0 Eating Disorders Obesity a BMI over 30 0 Causes are varied o Brains may be slower to realize satiety o Brains may be less sensitive to leptin 39 Leptin hormone that regulates appetite tells you you39re not hungry 39 Secreted by fat cells 0 Genetic predisposition Anorexia Nervosa Eating disorder characterized by starvation excessive preoccupation with losing weight Psychological disorder exacerbated by cultural notions ofthinness Social Effects of Obesity 0 When women applicants were made to look overweight subjects were less willing to hire them Hormones ondSexuoBehovior Sex hormones affect the development of sexual characteristics and especially in animals activate sexual behavior Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation refers to a person39s preference for relationships Origins of Sexual Orientation Homosexuality is more likely based on 0 Biological factors like I Differing brain areas 39 Genetics 39 Prenatalhormoneexposure 0 Not environmental factors nurture Animal Homosexuality A number of animal species are devoted to samesex partners suggesting that homosexuality exists in the animal world Genes amp Sexual Orientation A number of reasons suggest that homosexuality may be due to genetic factors 0 Family homosexuality seems to run in families 0 Twin studies homosexuality is more common in identical twins than fraternal twins However there are mixed results 0 Fruit Flies genetic engineers can genetically manipulate females to act like males during courtship and males to act like females Biological Correlates Hair whorl Indexring finger ratio 0 Performance on tests of spatial ability Hypothalamic responses 0 Birth order with righthanded males only Emotions Wednesday November 11 2015 816 AM Organized psychological and physiological reactions to changes in one39s relationship to the world These reactions are 0 Partly inner or subjective experiences psychological o Partly measureable patterns of behavior and physiological arousal Commonsense View 0 When you become happy yourheart starts beating faster First comes conscious awareness then comes physiological activity Why Do We Feel Emotion o 39 Our awareness ofour peripheral responses is emotion 39 The JamesLange Theory proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience 0 39 Emotions come directly from the brain 39 An emotiontriggering stimulus and the body39s arousal take place simultaneously 0 twofactortheory 39 We interpret events outside and inside our body it is theses interpretations that leads to emotions 39 Suggests our physiology and cognitions create emotions together 39 Emotions have physical arousal and cognitive label Components of Emotion o Psychological subjective experience 39 quothow we feelquot 0 Emotions are behaviors 39 Shouting when angry crying when sad 0 Emotions are physiological responses 39 Increasing heartbeat sweating wo 39 Influenced by our autonomic nervous system Physiological Similarities 0 Physiological responses related to the emotions of fear anger love and boredom are very similar 0 Excitement and fear involve a similar physiological arousal Physiological Differences 0 Physical responses like finger temperature and movement of facial muscles change during fear rage and joy 0 Activity ofthe left hemisphere happy is differentfrom the right depressed for emotions w wo Emotions and Automatic Nervous System 0 During an emotional experience our auto nerv sys mobilizes energy in the body that arouses calms o Pupils contract 0 Dry skin 0 Slow breath slow heart jacks you up 0 Pupils dilate o Sweaty skin 0 Fast breathing 0 Fast heart rate Cognition Can Define Emotion 0 An arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event 0 Arousalfrom a soccer match can fuel anger which may lead to rioting A subliminally presented happy face can encourage subjects to drink more than when presented with an angry face 0 Emotions are felt directly through the For analysis 39 amygdala fast 39 cortex see process longer 0 When fearful eyes were subliminally presented to subjects fMRI scans revealed higher levels of activity in amygdala 0 Scary happy eyes 0 Whalen et Al 2004 Two Route to Emotion Zajoncand LeDoux emphasize that some emotions are immediate without conscious appraisal Lasarus Schachter and Singer emphasize that appraisal also determines emotion Event Appraisal Emotional reaction Detecting Emotion Most of us are good at deciphering emotions through nonverbal communication 0 Angry face pops out before happy face Gender Emotion and Nonverbal Behavior When shown sad happy and scary film clips women expressed more emotions than men Experience Emotion Izard 1977 isolated 10 emotions Most ofthem present in infancy except for contempt shame and guilt The Effects of facial Expression ffacia expressions are manipulated like fu rrowing the brows people feels sad when looking at sad pics Attaching two golf tees to a face and making their tips touch causes the brow to furrow Intelligence Friday November 6 2015 829 AM Intelligence 0 Do we have inborn general mental capacity If so can we quantify this capacity ability to learn from experience solve problems and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations 0 In research studies intelligence is whatever intelligence tests measure 0 Intelligence is o A psychological construct 39 It is not directly observable 39 May be measurable 39 Is theorized to exist 0 Most agree with Sternberg 0 Having knowledge 0 Efficiently using that knowledge to reason about the world 0 Using reasoning adaptively in different environments Cognitive Ability The capacity to reason remember understand solve problems and make decisions 0 Measures of cognitive abilities often determine the educational and employment opportunities people have or don t have Brief History of Intelligence Test M1904 Can French children doing poorly in school be identified Termen introduced concept of IQ Q mental age x 100 chronological age WechslerAdult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition WAlSlll Measures of o Verbal IQ 0 Performance IQ 0 Full Scale IQ Can also calculate factor scores that reflect a person39s 0 Cognitive processing speed 0 Working memory 0 Perceptual memory 0 Verbal Comprehension WechslerAdultIntelligenceScaleforChildrenWISClllR Picture comprehension what part is missing from the picture 0 Picture arrangement put series of pictures in order to tell a story Advantages of Tests Tests are standardized o The conditions surrounding the test are as similar as possible for everyone who takes it o Said to be quotobjectivequot not quotsubjectivequot Tests summarize the test takers performance with a specific number or score 0 Allows for the calculation of norms which describe the frequency of particular scores 0 Low different results onetime to another 0 Highsame results one time to another 39 0 Low inaccurate conclusions and predictions 0 High accurate conclusions and predictions IQ Tests 0 For teenagers and adults reliability is high generally above 90 o Reasonably good validity for predicting certain criteria 39 But not a perfect measure of how quotsmartquot people are 39 future 39 SAT how well you will do in college 39 what you ve learned I Bar Exam forlawyers Factors Affecting IQ 0 Both geneticand environmental factors interact to influence cognitive abilities 0 Gender Differences Very small 0 RacialEthnic differences I Within group differences are much greater than betweengroup differences 39 Differences between two Icelanders is much greater than between Icelanders and Africans Why Are IQ Scores Related to Family Income 0 Parents jobs and status depend on characteristics related to their own intelligence 0 Parents39 income affects child39s environment Motivational differences in socioeconomic levels 0 Those with higher IQs may have greater opportunities to earn more money Conditions that can Raise IQ Scores 0 Development of environment enrichment programs 0 Project Head Starts 0 Intervention programs for at risk infants 0 Do the gains achieved by preschool enrichment programs last 0 Long term benefits are disputed o Fading effects probably due more to reduced motivation not loss of cognitive ability Studying Intelligence PsychometricApproach o This approach emphasizes analysis of the products of intelligence test scores 0 Is intelligence one general thing or a bundle of more specific things III g general ability III High g results in high scores on many different tests III 5 specific factors there are 7 relatively independent primary mental abilities III Numerical ability Reasoning Verbal fluency Spatial visualization Perceptual ability Memory Verbal comprehension I There are 2 types of gfactors III Fluid lntelligenceThe basic power of reasoning and problem solving This mental engine that allows you to learn new things D Crystallized lntelligenceThe specific knowledge gained as a result of applying fluid intelligence Total Sum of your knowledge In formation ProcessingApproach This approach focuses on the processes involved in intelligent behavior not test scores and other products of intelligence Relates basic mental processes thinking reasoning to the concept of intelligence Research suggests that intelligence is o More attentional quotresourcesquot 0 Bigger working memory short tem memory 0 Higher perceptual speed Language Wednesday November 4 2015 800 AM 0 The smallest unit of sound that affects the meaning of speech 0 molecules 0 The smallest unit oflanguage that has meaning 0 Atoms units of language composed of one or more morphemes Babbling Stage 0 Beginning at 4 months the infants spontaneously utters various sounds like agoo o Babbling is not imitation of adult speech universal One Word Stage 0 Beginning at or around his first birthday a child starts to speak one word at a time o The word doggy means look at the doggy out there 0 Two Word Stage 0 Before the 2nd year two word sentences 0 Telegraphic Speech Explaining Language Development 0 Operant Learning 0 Association imitation and reinforcement o BUT 0 Children generate phrases sentences they have never heard before 0 Overgeneralization errors addings to end of word doesn tfit o Chomsky language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained throughjust learning principle and thus most of it is unborn 0 Evidence 0 Critical Periods in language development f lII IJ I II I I IJ o cnnoren never exposed to any language spOKen or Signed py apout age 7 gradually lose their ability to master any language 0 Learning language gets harder with age 0 Aphasias impairments in language speaking or understanding 0 Brocas Aphasia can understand but cannot speak coherently o Wernicke39sAphasia Can speak coherently but cannot understand Thinking Monday November 2 2015 804 AM Mental Representation of Info 0 Categories ofobjects events or ideas with common properties 0 Class freshman vs individuals in that class A concept that can be clearly defined by a set of rules or 0 properties 39 A triangle has 3 sides 39 Less than 56 hours you are a freshman more means yore a sophomore o z a concept that has no fixed set of defining features 39 Prototype a member ofa natural concept that possesses all or mot of its characteristic features III A robin is a prototype of a bird a penguin is not Categorv Hierarchies Concepts are a fundamentalto our ability to THINK and make sense of the world Conceptsinfluence memory 0 Ifsomething is inconsistent with a prototype we are less likely to remember it o Slower to think about it Problem Solving i Trial and error i Algorithms i i Heuristics iv Insight very time consuming exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution Computers use algorithms I 39 nrnracc n F Ql3ll3in a rnnrlllclnn 39l39l onru nr PnlerD n F LIIC JIUDCJJ UI CVCIIUCILIIIE CI DUIIDIUJIUII LIICUI y UI DUUIJC UI action on the basis of the believability ofthe evidence timesaving mental shortcuts rules ofthumb used in reasoning 0 Steve lives in Atlanta He is very shy withdrawn helpful but with little interes in people ort the world of reality He has a need fororder and structure and a passion for detail o Is Steve a salesperson or a librarian 39 Most people say librarian 39 Heavily influenced by description ofSteve 39 Ignored the frequency of sales people in Atlanta 0 Linda is 31 single outspoken and very bright She majored in philosophy As a student she was deeply concerned with issues ofdiscrimination and social justice for women 39 Most said feminist bank teller 39 Bank teller makes more sense 39 Don t narrow down to smallest category Conclusion about whether something belongs in a certain class are based on how similar it is to other items in that class I You ignore info about base rates frequencies 39 There are MANY more sales people than male librarians ltundagt o Gamblers Fallacv 39 You flip a coin 5 times and get 5 heads 39 Think the next is more likely to be heads 39 A false belief that random processes will correct them selves The likelihood ofan event or the correctness of a hypothesis is judged by how easy it is to think of that event or hypothesis 0 Misperceive lowlikelihood events as high likelihood because you see of hear about them a lot 0 It comes to mind easily 0 Media talks about lowlikelihood events all the time Obstacles to Problem Solving The tendency to stick with a problemsolving strategy that worked in the past m The mlnnl lc lanl U IIICIIIIIIUIJIGLY 0 Not every problem is the same or can be solved the same way 0 Our difficulty in using the absence of evidence to help eliminate hypothesis from consideration 0 Russian commanderwho figured that only 5 missiles did not constitute of an attack 0 Ignoreinfo that s against whatyou think 0 Seek out info only confirming your belief
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