Exam 4 Material
Exam 4 Material PHCL2600
Popular in Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I
Popular in Pharmaceutical Sciences
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHCL2600 at University of Toledo taught by Williams,F in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I in Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of Toledo.
Reviews for Exam 4 Material
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/22/15
Lecture 9: Thyroid Problems o Hypothyroidism Little thyroid hormone Disorders Hashimoto’s disease Cretinism Endemic thyroid disease Myxoedema or Gull’s disease o Hyperthyroidism Too much thyroid hormones Disorders Grave’s disease Plummer’s disease Tumors Hypothyroidism o Thyroidectomy o Radioactive destruction of thyroid Causes of Hypothyroidism o Thyroid problems Most common thyroid disorders o Non-thyroid problems Secondary disease Anterior pituitary problems o TSH Tertiary disease Problems in the hypothalamus o TRH and/or TSH release o No goiter develops here Hypothyroidism Symptoms o Symptoms Low metabolic rate (BMR) Overall fatigue (14-16 hrs sleep/day) Muscle fatigue Increased weight Fat breakdown and metabolism Sensitivity to cold Decrease in heart rate Constipation Menstrual irregularities Slow speech and mental sluggishness Symptoms of Hypothyroidism Hashimoto’s Disease o HD or thyroiditis – most common Autoimmune disease partial destruction of thyroid gland High levels of circulating antibodies Against thyroid peroxidase (common) Against thyroglobulin (less common) Against TSH receptor (may be present) It is more prevalent in women and peaks at the age of 30-50 years Negative feedback on TSH TSH release Enlargement of thyroid or goiter Hypothyroidism: Gull’s Disease o Gull’s disease – Myxoedema Atrophy of thyroid gland Accumulation of fluid and mucous under the skin Thickening of the facial features o Treatment – thyroid hormone replacement o Symptoms Coarse skin Thickening nose and skin Puffiness of the eyes and swollen lips Other hypothyroidism symptoms (mental disturbances, muscle pain and lethargy) Cretinism o Decreased thyroid hormones in newborn Congenital defect deficiency of thyroid hormone during prenatal development (iodine deficiency) Incomplete development of the thyroid (only a rudimentary gland) inability of the gland to produce 3 and T4 Arrest in physical and mental development Acquired Hypothyroidism (after birth) o Signs Puffy-appearing face, dull look and thick and protruding tongue Dwarfism, mental retardation, sluggishness, slow heart rate Must be treated early – before 3 months of age Endemic Thyroid Disease o Dietary deficiency in iodine iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) o Decreased T an3 T pro4uction and release o Negative feedback system is activated o Increased TSH Causes hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the thyroid gland Leads to production of goiter Hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism o Thyrotoxicosis excess T &3T 4 o Grave’s disease – most common form Autoimmune thyroid disorder Incidences 60-90% thyrotoxicosis Most common in 20-50 year Most common in women Plummer’s Disease – second most common Benign tumors of the thyroid Toxic uninodular or toxic multinodular goiter Hyperthyroidism Symptoms o Symptoms Increased BMR Restlessness and irritability Decreased attention span Weight loss Increased body temperature Warm, moist skin (adrenergic sweating) Increased HR (tachycardia, arrhythmias) Diarrhea Menstrual irregularities in females Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism Grave’s Disease o Characterized by: TH in circulation Diffuse goiter Exophthalmos Presence of IgG antibodies o Pathogenesis Immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies that bind and activate the TSH receptor Grave’s Disease o Autoimmune disorder o Body makes antibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor o Antibodies mimic the action of TSH o Antibodies are not subjected to negative feedback Plummer’s Disease o It is rare o Caused by toxic adenoma (a small non-cancerous growth or toxic nodular goiter) on the thyroid o The nodule (or nodules) secretes excessive amounts of T an3 T 4 o Hyperthyroidism symptoms, but no bulging eyeballs o Toxic nodular goiter involves an enlarged thyroid gland Diagnosis o Serologic tests for antibodies and hormones level in blood o Condition: Normal TSH levels: Normal T 4evels: Normal o Condition: Hyperthyroidism TSH levels: Low T 4evels: High o Condition: Hypothyroidism Primary TSH levels: High T 4evels: Low o Condition: Hypothyroidism Secondary TSH levels: Low T 4evels: Low Treatment of Thyroid Diseases o Hypothyroidism Hormone replacement therapy Synthetic T4hormone levothyroxine (synthroid) o Hyperthyroidism Synthesis inhibitors Iodide uptake blockers Inhibitors of hormone release Gland ablation Calcitonin o Parafollicular C cells secrete calcitonin o Directly regulated by blood Ca levels Blood Ca levels drop calcitonin levels drop 2+ Blood Ca levels rise calcitonin levels rise o Helps regulate concentrations of Ca in body fluids 2+ Stimulates Ca excretion by the kidneys Targets the skeleton to Inhibit osteoclast activity and the release of calcium from the bone matrix Stimulate calcium uptake and incorporation into the bone matrix o PTH is an antagonist for calcitonin Calcitonin Effects and Regulation o Increased calcitonin will cause a negative feedback inhibition of parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'