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The Living Primates

by: Ayla Sherrill

The Living Primates ANT 105 - 002

Ayla Sherrill
Introduction to Anthropology
Carolyn A Robinson

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About this Document

Learn what it means to be a primate biologically and then follow humans as they go from non-human primates to the genus homo.
Introduction to Anthropology
Carolyn A Robinson
Study Guide
humans, Anthropology, erectus, floresiensis, bipedalism, australopithecus, laetoli, paranthropus, tarsiers, new world monkeys, old world monkeys, apes, homo, mammal, primate, group living, living primates, lemurs, lorises, rhinarium
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ayla Sherrill on Monday November 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 105 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Carolyn A Robinson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.

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Date Created: 11/23/15
The Living Primates Primates as Mammals Origins O O Mammalsgt200 mya Small and nocturnal Primates 65 mya Climate change favors forest ecosystems Development of arboreal species What does it mean to be a mammal anatomy and physiology O 0000 0000 Mammary glands Heterodontic different kinds of teeth Homeothermic endotherms warm blooded Fur K selective versus R selective K selective is a longer life history give birth to fewer offspring and gives more time to these offspring Most are viviparous except monotremes but only 2 Marsupials Placentals Diurnal Longlived Social mammals Complex communication Extended family groups Cooperate to hunt defend against Groom and play Food share with young Primates Today Primates are an order of mammals that includes modern humans 0 Vary in size from several ounces to over 400 pounds 0 O O Diurnal Some inhabit limited areas others range more widely 300400 species What is a Primate 1 Brain a Large brains relative to body size high encephalization quotient b Reduction in olfactory parts of the facial structure c Emphasis on visual parts of the facial structure d Flexible behavior respond to novel situations e Recognize each other as individuals f Distinguish kin from non kin 2 Vision a Forward facing eyes b Binocular stereoscopic vision 101 c Bony Postorbital Bar i This is the ridge of bone directly above eye socket at the level of the forehead Face a Generalized Dentition piercing cutting grinding i Incisors canines premolars and molars ii Molars crushing not piercing 1 Move to more plantbased diet 2 Most are generalized omnivores Hands and Feet a Humans have primarily lost grasping ability in feet b 5 Flexible digits c Opposable thumbs d Nails not claws e Flat eshy pads Limbs a Flexible rotating limb bones b Clavicle collarbone Present i Increased shoulder movement 1 This allows us to have circular motion Reproduction Behavior a Arboreal live in the trees b Quadrupedal walking on four legs c Diurnal sleep at night active during the day d Highly social seen in grooming i Multi male multi female is the most common ii Rare pattern ssionfusion group 1 Large group that breaks up into smaller subgroups for foraging 2 Found in chimpanzees and bonobos 3 Early human ancestors may have had this type of social organization e Dietary Patterns i Frugivores Eat fruit ii Folivores Eat leaves iii lnsectivores Eat insects iv Gummivores Eat gum from things like trees v Omnivores Eat everything f Mother infant Relationship i Core relationship ii Learned behaviors iii Often strong throughout life g Group Living i Bene ts 1 Protection 2 Alloparenting care of offspring by someone other than the mother 3 Foraging 4 Access to mates ii Costs 1 Competition 2 Disease 3 Aggression iii Dominance 1 Nearly linear ranking 2 Access to resources and social interactions 3 Males often dominant iv Displays of Dominance Threat and Subordination 1 DominanceThreat a Baring canines b Direct eye contact c Charging 2 Subordination a Presenting b Grooming c Displacement Living Primates There are ve natural groupings of contemporary primates o Lemurs and orises Lemurs Found only on the Island of Madagascar endemic to Madagascar 0 Ground and tree dwelling Diurnal Lodses Africa 0 South and East Asia Nocturnal Arborea Long pointed snouts Larger nasa cavities Rhinarium moist wet nose Upper lip and gum attached Scent glands Stronger reliance on olfaction Tendency to have a grooming digit Compressed nai claw often 2nCI pedal digit of each foot Smallbodied dog and cat size Long tails Dental combteeth stick out a bit Reduced stereoscopic vision Locomotion vertical leaping and clinging quadrupedal running or walking Nest builders tree hollows Diet insects owers gum fruit pollen Brief gestation periods Often produce twins or triplets Usually 39parked39 in a nest or dense vegetation o Tarsiers Tarsiers are con ned to islands in SE Asia Resemble bush babies The tarsier has led to debate among taxonomists as it shares features which both suborders of primates Features shared with Strepsirhines Presence of a grooming claw Unfused mandible Nocturnal Large eyes Features shared with Haplorhines Absence of the naked rhinarium ie nose is dry and covered with hairy skin 0 No dental comb Elongated tarsal bones Biochemical similarities 0 New world monkeys native to Central and South America Arboreal Prehensile tail grasping tail 0 Old World monkeys native to Africa and Eurasia Arboreal and terrestrial No prehensile tails lschial caosity callous pads on bottoms from sitting Category of large taiess primates Locomotion by brachiation Arm over arm swinging Humans and great apes both have shoulders that rotate 360 degrees allowing for this kind of movement Modern humans and great apes share a common ancestor All great ape species in the wild are endangered Except for humans obviously African Apes Great Apes Gorillas Chimps Bonobos Asian Apes Lesser Apes Orangutans Gibbons Siamangs Humans as Humans Understanding the Human Evolutionary Past 0 What questions interest human paleontologists Age of specimen How do they t in the family tree Cranial capacity Locomotor pattern What did they eat What was their environment like What do they use to address these questions Primatology Human Biology Geochemistry Osteology Anatomy Changing Weather Patterns Changing environments Adaptive radiation of apes Split between nonhuman primates and human ancestors 0 Tropical Rain Forest 0 Tropical Deciduous Forest 0 Open Savannah Australopithecus compared to modern humans 35 mya Africa Small brain and body More prognathic forward facing angular face Bipedalarboreal ocomotor adaptations Chimp like dentition First to use tools Oldowan rst too category Lucy Australopithecus Found in Ethipia 32 mya 40 preserved Female 0 339 8quot 65 lbs AustralopithecusTaung Child Found by Raymond Dart 1925 South Africa Uncovered a face braincase and endocast like a fossil of the shape of the brain ofjuvenile primate 34 yo Intermediate between apes and humans Laetoli Footprints Fresh Volcanic Ash 0 37 mya Anatomy and stride was not equal to modern bipeds Man was mainly prey for quite a while and more than likely a scavenger This can be determined by looking at bones food sources had multiple carnivore markings o Paranthropus the robust hominids 281 mya Africa Evolutionary dead end Brain size and postcrania similar to austrlopiths Variable diet hard items seeds nuts tubers Large crest where chewing muscles attach Huge teeth Emergence of Homo o Homo habilis quotHandy Manquot 1423 mya Post crania similar to Australopithecus and Paranthropus Mixed arboreal and bipedal Cranial features reduced tooth size Associated with Oldowan stone tools Consists of choppers hammerstones and sharp akes Rise of the Genus Homo 0 Adaptive Radiation of Hominins Bipedalism Increased Cranial Capacity 0 Bipedalism Why Heat Dissipation Model 0 Vertical orientation of the body Helps cool body smaller target for sun 0 Catch cooling air currents Hairless body associated Energy Ef ciency Model 0 Ef cient for walking 0 75 more ef cient that Pan quad or bipedalism Long periods of steady searching for food 0 Frees the hands for many other things 0 Problems with Bipedalism Obstetrical dilemma Multiple uses for pelvis Tradeoff between head size and pelvic size Decreased ef ciency with larger pelvis o Expensive Tissue Hypothesis Increased metabolic cost of large human brains offset by a reduction in other metabolically expensive tissues mainly the guy Reduced guy prevents humans from digesting large amounts of ber Bigger brains means better access to higher quality foods 0 Pleistocene Changing Environment 20 mya10kya Extreme cold periods punctuate with warm periods Glacier N America Europe Asia covered in ice Sea levels dropped 400 ft Enabled migration to areas previously inaccessible o Homo erectus Compared to Austalopiticus 178mya400000 years ago Africa China Southeast Asia Europe Increase in brain and body size Decreased prognathism o Homo erectus trends Migration Why migrate 0 00000 Bigger brains means more reproduction Increased problem solving Increased exploitation of resources Increased tools production More complex social organization Increased pressure on resources Stone tool technology 0 More complex than oldowan tools Flaked on both sides bifacial aking Shows an increase in thinking more cause and effect 0 500000 mya China 0 Bene ts 0 Heat 0 Cooking Meat easier to chew and digest Access nutrients plants 0 Source of Light Language 0 Homo Floresiensis Extend hours of activity Social Focus Almost Hobbit like Island Biogeography Dwar sm and Gigantism On islands 0 Small mammals become larger 0 80018 Iqa Indone a Large mammals become smaller Small brains and bodies Dental facial and post cranial anatomy agreement with genus Homo o Homo Sapien neanderthaliensis


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