Exam 3 Study Guide- APK3110c: Exercise Physiology
Exam 3 Study Guide- APK3110c: Exercise Physiology APK3110c
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Adams on Monday November 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to APK3110c at Florida State University taught by Dr. Robert Moffatt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 274 views.
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Date Created: 11/23/15
Aerobic Capacity ch quotit pp 234 242 l Exercise Physiology EXAM lll Expiain the concept of V02 max include what it measures how you determine if a subject has reached it and explain clearly how this information can he used V02 max is the maximai oxygen uptake or maximal aeroloic capacity It integrates aspects of the oxygen transport system Pulmonarya de llb Blood Volume and Q Blood Flow Aerobic Metabolism integrates respiration Cardiovascular System and Neuromuscular System Provides a quantitative measure of an individuais capacity for aerobic ATP resynthesis This is an important marker of physical fitness This is also defined as the region where oxygen consumption plateaus or increases only slightly with an increase in workload It is widely accepted as the single best measure of cardiovascular tness and maxquot aerobic power men 40 60 higher than women V02 max does provide important information about the capacity of the long term energy system and also conveys important physiologic meaning because attaining a high V02 max requires integration of high levels of pulmonary cardiovascular and neuromuscular function This makes V02 max a fundamental measure of physiologic functional capacity for exercise Criteria A lack of increase of 21 mllltg l mlni with an increase in workload o RER offstid o Attainment of age predicted max llR i 10 bprn o Blood lactate levels of 8 10 mmol or higher What are some of the factors that can affect V02 max Mode of Exercise 0 Exercise modality affects V02 max by the amount of muscle mass activated during the activity This may change the V02 max for instance from hike to treadmill there is a 101 200 difference because on a treadmill you engage more muscle mass Treadmill tests are more common for evaluating fitness as they can easily quantity as well as regulate exercise intensity Modality criteria includes Activation of large muscle groups intensity and Duration lndependent of subject skill strength size and speed Hereditary o Changes seem to be related to genotype genetic makeup in other words how they respond to physiologic stimuli and thus how they perform Genetic effect for V02 max is 25 40 50 for HR and 7DOO for physical working capacity Research regarding Identical Twins vs Fraternal Twins shows 93 variation in V02 max StDohomogeneity in short term glycolytlc energy system and 86 homogeneity in max heart rate Therefore most of the physical characteristics that are demonstrated area resuit of high incidence of lnheritability Difference between a responder and nonresponder and the fact that if one sibling can respond to training the other will respond likewise Component A I Genetic Contribution in V02 max r MES40 r Subrnax Response 7 2000 H Muscular Fitness 7 W 2030 Blood Lipid Profile 7 r 3050 Resting Blood Pressure 7 r r 30 V Total Body Fat I 25 77 Regional Fat Distribution 0 r 7 in 30 Habitual Activity Level 77 r 3000 Heart Rate W V r i 50 So what contribution does genetics play in aerobic capacity or is itjust a result of training o Research indicates that there is a genetic dependency for the sensitivity in response to aerobic and anaerobic training as well as intramuscular enzymes 0 State of Training 0 Can contribute between 5520 of variation in V02 max improved training can affect Aerobic Enzymes Capillary Density Cross section of ST fibers Oxidative capacity of FT fibers Glycogen Stores a Gender o Women have 1530 untrained 15 trained lower than men Dn chart hemoglobin is not accounted for Women by virtue of being women have more body fat lower hemoglobin levels etc however excluding these is virtually nonexistent Men on average have less body fat and more muscle mass therefore requiring more oxygen than women in addition men have on averag 10 14 more hemoglobin and can facilitate increased oxygen transport Therefore factors in uencing body composition and hemoglobin can affect V02 a Body Size and Composition Cl Variations in body mass explain nearly 70 of the differences in V02 max scores among individuals This limits interpretations of exercise performance or absolute values for oxygen consumption when comparing individuals who differ in body sizelcomposltion There is a 43 difference in V02 max Lt mln for an untrained man and woman differing considerably in body sizelcomposition but when expressed per unit of body mass mLkgmin the V02 max of the woman remains about 20 lower than the man Expressing aerobic capacity by FFlVl reduces subject difference even more 09 Expressing oxygen consumption per unit of appendicular skeletal muscle mass negates the differences between men and women of similar training status The size of contracting muscle mass activated in exercise largely accounts for gender differences in aerobic capacity Even when corrected for FFM there is still a difference between males and females This is because men have more muscle mass and more hemoglobin 2045 years of age have the highest aerobic capacity Over time V02 max tends to decrease due to deterioration of tissue enzymatic activity of cells compliance Issues with lungs issues with vessels This may be offset in people who are more aerobically active than sedentary people however the slope of the line will not change it will always decline as you age After 25 years of age V02 max declines about 1 per year so at 55 the an V02 max is about 27 below that ofthe average 20 year old This is Independent of activity level lt is still a possibility to maintain high levels of fitness and a higher V02 max than a sedentary counterpart Explain some of the factors responsible for the improvement in V02 max through exercise lnlcude the cardiovascular changes one might expect to see with exercise training 3 G O 3 Cardiovascular Changes HR Endurance training creates an imbalance between tonic sympathetic accelerator activity and depressor parasympathetic neurons in favor of greater vagal dominance This is mediated by an increase in parasympathetic activity and decrease in sympathetic discharge Training also decreases intrinsic firing rate of SA node tissue These adaptations contribute to the resting and submax bradycardia in conditioned endurance athletes or aerobically trained individuals 3V Endurance training causes the heart39s stroke volume to increase during rest and exercise regardless of age or gender Max stroke volume occurs between 4050 of V02max l l O l20bpm untrained Four factors produce this i increased internal left ventricular volume due to plasma volume expansion and mass ii Reduced cardiac and arterial stiffness iii increased diastolic filling time training induced bradycardia iv Possibly improved intrinsic cardiac contractile function 0 Q An increase in maximum cardiac output represents the most significant adaptation in cardiovascular function with aerobic training Max heart rate generally decreases slightly with training thus increased cardiac output is a result of increased stroke volume 4 How does the concept of specificity apply when talking about V02 max here include mode of exercise subject fitness status and different types of equipment one might use to measure V02 max a Training is specific while runningfbiking for a swimmer may improve cardiovascular health it will not improve through the particular range of motion needed for competition Therefore the mode of exercise needs to be adjusted to fit the needs of said athlete Regarding Fitness level sedentary individuals could see 30 improvements in aerobic capacity in 1012 weeks because they have more room for improvement as opposed to an in shape person who already has a higher V02 max less room for improvement A treadmill bike swim flume or arm crank may be used to test 9 Physiological Adaptations After subjecting the body to training over time the body will become more efficient by making adjustmentsladaptations For example increasing storage fuels capillary densities enzymatichormonal influences These allow you to run farther and utilize foodfuelr39OZ Biochemical hormonal and muscular heart lungs skeletal adaptations also occur a Research shows that the Treadmill produces the highest V02 max Bench stepping has produced results that are virtually identical to the treadmill and are significantly higher than those on a cycle Arm Crank is 70 of treadmill swimming only 80 of treadmill running Research also shows that elite athletes in their respective sport can achieve values similar to the treadmill on modes such as the cycle and in the swim flume 5 What factors account for gender differences in V02 max e Women usually have more body fat and less hemoglobin Vocabulary e V02 Peak peak oxygen consumption Applies when leveling off does not occur or max performance appears limited by local muscular factors rather than central circulatory dynamics it is the highest value of oxygen consumption measured during a graded exercise test often occurring in the last minute of exercise Secondary criteria include attainment of age predicted HR RER gt MS blood lactate 8 10 mmol or above Absolute lern o mim mlrkgl39rnin generally better to use when comparing individuals as to exclude any discrepancies of weight and is therefore more accurate Overview of V02 and VOZmax An important principle in exercise physiology any work performed requires energy and in order to maintain a specific work rate or running velocity over a long distance ATP must be supplied to the cross bridges as fast as it is used As duration increases there is a greater reliance on ATP production yia oxidatiye Phosphoryiation to maintain cross bridge cyciing Consequently the rate at which oxygen is used during prolonged submax exercise is a measure of the rate at which ATP is generated VO2max is defined as the max amount of oxygen that can be taken in or consumed and used at the cellular level during maximal exercise The paradigm postulates that there is an upper limit to oxygen uptake there are interwindiyidual differences in VOZmax and a high VDEmax is a prerequisite for success in middle and long distance running The general indication is a plateau in oxygen consumption during exercise despite an increase in workload There are times when a plateau is not reached but there are other variables that are used that reflect discomfort 10 beats of max heart rate 220 age RPE e18 RER over 11 The RER should be over 11 because C302 is formed from buffering tactic acid this is nonmetabolic 302 and is produced at a much greater rate at max exercise when we are relying more and more on anaerobic energy pathways Factors influencing O E gl w V02 Q x a VOZ difference VOZmax Qmax x aa VOZ difference max o The Fick Equation states that V02 is influenced both centrally and locally by cardiac output and a VOZ difference respectiyeiy Central Factors are representative of the ability to deliver oxygen to the working musctes during a particular activity if we cannot effectiveiy deliver biocd to these tissues we wilt not be able to consume or take up the oxygen for use Cardiac output is the central factor in the Fisk Equation o Cardiac Output is the volume of blood pumped by the ventricles per unit of time typically expressed in Lfmi n It is also expressed as the product of heart rate and stroke volume Q l lR x 8V Average at rest is 5 Ltmin The layerage adult has a total blood volume of about 5 liters so at rest all blood is pumped through the circuit once per minute During exercise untrained people can have a Q of 20 25 Li lmin 3935 Lmin in trained athletes H rt aie first component of cardiac output and is defined as the number of times the heart beats per unit time per minute Heart rate is influenced by thought breathing emotions posture and exercise Heart rate is controlled internally SA Node and externatly cerebrum hypothalamus and brainstem in response to said factors c wise Volume Volume of blood ejected per beat EDVESV Frank Starling Law increase in venous return amount returned to heart Muscle Pumps when contracting muscle pumps compress vessels Respiratory Pumps respiratory muscles compress vessels when contracted during inspiration I Increase in EDV volume in left ventricle at end of ventricular diastole 1 l Increased stretch of ventricle resulting in greater pressure in the ventricle resulting in a stronger contraction and increased stroke volume In The opposite is true with decreased venous return At the cessation of exercise muscle and respiratory pump activity decreases sympathetic activity decreases thereby resulting in a decrease in venous return and a decreased stroke volume CardiacContractility is the ability to contract the heart With training the heart muscle may hypertrophy increase in size increases the ability to contract resulting in a higher stroke volume Trained athletes will have lower heart rate due to stronger muscle contractions and a higher stroke volume with cardiac output remaining the same Remember heart rate and stroke volume are components of cardiac output a very important central factor influencing VOZmax An increase in Qmax may result in an increased VOEmaxf o LocallPeripherat Factors even with adequate oxygen delivered to tissues we still must be able to extract it from blood a VOZ difference is representative of the ability of muscles or other tissues to consume oxygen af vFOZ Difference a Arterial venous oxygen difference Difference in oxygen concentration in the arteries and veins just outside the tissue examined muscle Venous oxygen concentration is less than arterial oxygen concentration due to extraction of oxygen by muscle On average as 100 mL of blood passes through the capillaries and 20 ml of oxygen are carried 5 mL out of the 20 mL of oxygen carried are used at rest with 15 mL of oxygen remaining bound on the venous side Thus average a VO2 difference at rest is 5 mL The average a VOZ difference during heavy exercise is higher than at rest The greater the difference the more oxygen the muscle excreted from the blood This is influenced by a multitude of factors Mitochondria a important in meeting metabolic demands aerobically With endurance training there is an increase in both number and size of mitochondria This allovvs for the ability to use more oxygen to meet metabolic demands aerobically thus potentially needing an increase in a VOZ difference gagiilary Beds Endurance training also increases capillary density increased number of capillary beds near the trained muscles Capillaries are located closer to the muscles themselves These two adaptations ailovir for more blood to flow past the muscles at one time as well as a decreased distance for the oxygen to travel before entering muscle increasing the amount of oxygen consumed Myoglgbjg acts as hemoglobin in muscle lt transports oxygen from the surface of the muscle to the mitochondria vvhere it can be used for producing energy Training increases myogiobin count allovving for an increased ability to transport oxygen to mitochondria This may also result in a greater asVOZ difference a VOZ difference is the local factor effecting V02 or V02max The greater the anVOZ difference at maximum work the greater the potential for an increased V39O2max NOZmax is dependent on both central and local factors ln other words it is in uenced by both the ability to deliver oxygen to muscles as well as extract it from blood anth training the individual will be abie to increase workload requiring a larger cardiac output A persons abiilty to increase the cardiac output to a necessary ievel will be partially indicative of their VOZmax o 4 Factors Limiting VOZmax c Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity I At sea level the lungs do a great job of saturating blood with oxygen Even during max work the arterial blood is about 95 saturated For most the pulmonary system is not a limiting factor unless the exercise is performed at an altitude or they have asthma or COPD o Cardiac Output i it is estimated that 7580 of increases in VOZmax after training are exclained by increases in cardiac output This suggests the ability of the body to deliver oxygen to muscles is the main limiting factor to VOZmax Since HR does not change with training increases in VOZmax are a factor of SV 0 Oxygen Carrying Capacity I ls a factor of how many REC an individual has thus how much hemoglobin With training there is an increase in oxygen carrying capacity which is partly responsible for the increase in VOEmaxz That is why blood doping which increases REC volume is illegal At 9 increases in V02mam Skeletal Muscles I Abiiity to extract 02 is a factor of increases in muscle mitochondria as well as the capillary density surrounding muscles But increases in mitochondria account for only a small increase in VOZmax instead increases in mitochondria increase performance by allowing athletes to use more fat and spare glycogen and thus produce less lactate However increases in capillary density does increase VOZmax by increasing the amount of biood passing a particular muscle in a given time thereby allowing greater exchange of gases Even without these adaptations under normal conditions the muscle has a much greater ability to extract oxygen than the circulatory systems ability to deliver it so these are not necessarily limiting factors Training Principles for Aerobic Exercise ch 231 1 Be familiar with factors which affect the aerobic training response intensity duration etc o FITT 0 Frequency Intensity o Time c Type a Frequency 6 With 2 days a week 3045 minsession one can see improvements The key principle for improvements is intensity However people who frequently train 7 days a week may see oyertraining issues above normal RHR physiological factors While extra time may not produce VOZmax gains it wili result in greater caloric expenditure to produce weight loss one should have 60 minute sessions at sufficient intensity to expect 300kcal or more Typical aerobic programs take place 3 days a week with single rest days separating them o Intensity o Measured through Heart Rate radial artery is the best but also determined by calories consumed and percentage of oxygen consumed At 50 of V02 HR is roughly 60 of max The higher the intensity the higher the cardiovascuiar improvement a TimeDuration o The longer the duration the greater the improvement in oxygen consumption Duration Threshold 2 12 mins obviously with lower duration there is a higher intensity However if you were to train at twice the daily volume you wouldn39t see any better results a TypeMode o Training is specific For instance if you compete freestyle you wouldn t practice using the backstroke While it does improve cardiovascular it will not improve through the particular range of motion needed for competition MTThe stimulus for aerobic training probably links closely to exercise intensity and total work accomplished rather than sequencing of training days 2 Maintenance of aerobic fitness gains a By not working as hard as it took to get there Significant improvement training 5 daysfwk at training threshold then after 4 daysrwk still improvements seen 3 dayswk wouid maintain o 2 daysfwk some drop off o i dayfwk drastic drops a With intensity held constant the frequency and duration of exercise required to maintain a level of aerobic fitness remain considerably lower than that required to induce improvement in contrast a small decline in intensity reduces V OZmax Thus intensity plays a principal role in maintaining the increase in aerobic capacity E D 3 Understand various cardiovascular adaptations that occur with chronic training a Long term aerobic training generally increases the hearts mass and volume with greater left ventricular end diastolic volumes during rest and exercise Moderate cardiac hypertrophy secondary to longitudinal myocardial cell enlargement reflects a fundamentai and normal training adaptation of muscle to an increased workload independent of age This enlargement is characterized by an increased size of the left ventricular cavity eccentric hypertrophy and modest thickening of its walls concentric hypertrophy Exercise also increases contractile properties with increased sensitivity to activation by Ca2 changes in forcealength relationship and increased power output Myocardial overload stimulates greater cellular protein synthesis with concomitant reductions in protein breakdown increasing trained muscle s RNA content accelerates protein synthesis individual myofibrils thicken and the number of contractile filaments Increases Aerobic athletes average a 25 larger heart volume than sedentary individuals Duration also affects cardiac ales and structure so Some research shows no change in cardiac dimensions with short term training despite gains in V02max and submax exercise heart rate response As intensity increases the left ventricle volume increases but also decreases with a decrease in intensity therefore enlargement is not a permanent adaptation o increases in Plasma Volume RBC Mass Total Blood Volume Ventricular Compliance internal Ventricular Dimensions Venous Return Myocardial Contractiiity End Diastolic Volume Ejection Fraction Maximum Stroke Volume Maximum Cardiac Output Effectiveness of Cardiac Output Distribution Optimization of Peripheral Fiovv Blood Flow to Active iviuscie c 7 Regarding Plasma Volume afterWSPB exercise bouts iZ ZUDo increase in volume in fact a measurabie change occurs within 24hrs ofthe first exercise bout with expansion of ECF volume vvithin several weeks This means that cardiovascular adaptations occur with short term exercise training S v increases during exercise refiect the combined effects of increased left ventricular and diastolic dimension preload and increased systolic ejection lntravascuiar volume expansion directly relates to increased syntheSls and retention of plasma albumin Plasma voiume increases enhance circulatory reserve and increases EDV SV Oxygen Transport VDZmax and temperature regulating ability during exercise 4 Explain the concepts of overload reversibility where it applies to training Understand different ways you can apply the overload principie Regular application of a specific exercise overload enhances physiologic function to induce a training response Exercising at intensities greater than normal stimulates highly specific adaptations so the body functions more efficiently Achieving the appropriate overload requires manipulating training frequency intensity duration with a focus on exercise mode Regarding Reversibility detraining loss of physiologic and performance adaptations occurs rapidly when a person terminates participation in regular physical activity Only 1 or 2 weeks of detraining reduces both metabolic and exercise capacity with many training improvements fully lost within several months Even in highty trained athletes the beneficial effects of many years of prior exercise training remain transient and reversible For this reason most athletes begin a reconditioning program several months prior to the start of competitive season or at minimum maintain some moderate level of offseason sport specific training to slow the decline in physiologic functions from detraining What is the Kar vcnen forumla What is an optimal target heart rate for cardiovascular adaptations use the Karvonen formula to calculate Aerobic capacity improves if exercise intensity regularly maintains heart rate between 55 and 70 of maximum During lower body exercise this heart rate increase equals about ifUPS UDo ofthe V02max for college aged people this is 1201t40 bpm The Karvonen formula is used to determine training threshold it requires that subjects exercise at a heart rate equal to 60 of the difference between resting and maximum 713 of maximum can be done without discomfort for most people This is known as conversational exercise achieving sufficient intensity to stimulate a training effect yet does not produce discomfort As aerobic fitness improves HR will decrease by 10 20 bpm To keep pace with physiologic improvement the exercise level must increase periodically to achieve desired exercise The greater the training intensity above threshold the greater improvement for V02 max More fit people require higher threshold levels to stimulate a training response than less fit persons This ceiling for intensity remains unknown although about 85 V02 max 90 HRmax probably represents the upper iirnit THRHRmax HRrest 60 RHR o THR 392 Target HR o HRmax max HR ZZOage o HR rest a measure radial pulse at rest a RHR resting HR Need to achieve THI R in order to maximize improvements of training Ifthe heart is not stimulated enough then you will not see effects Training at a higher HR than THR then improvements are more likely to occur As RHR lowers the range will differ as age increases there will also be changes in THR 17 What are the advantages of training at the lactate threshold quot Lactacte threshold is the level that our bodies buffer system can no longer keep up with the amount of lactate that it is producing As you know you produce lactate with intense exercise and our body has a mechanism to clear it as soon as is produced At a certain level though the blood lactate is created faster than it can be cleared this is lactate threshold At this point Blood lactate will skyrocket and exercise will most likely cease very soon 9 By training at this level we can train our body to slowly adapt to higher and higher levels of blood lactate The body adapts to the environment With a higher blood lactate one can exercise at a higher intensity for longer periods So take two athletes in similar fitness level so similar V02 but one has a higher lactate threshold This means that at the same intensity the one with the higher lactate threshold will be working less so they can outperform the other 3 What is interval training and what is the rationale for its use 139 interval training is a set workload with a set rest period repeated for a set repetition An example would be running a mile w 3 min rest 4 times or 200m x 12 times w a min ret between This training is the best method to increase lactate threshold and V02 max as opposed to long distance training or steady state Another very positive use is that this is the BEST type on training to burn fat mass This is me speaking outside of his notes that I know of He might of talked about it though Interval training does not directly burn as many kcal as long distance since the amount of time working is less but it evokes the EPOC effect This goes back to the first test with oxygen debt since you enter an increasingly larger deficiency with each repetition you don39t have enough rest to recover 100 the oxygen debt is very larger depending on the intensity This means that your metabolism will be significantly elevated post exercise sometimes as much as 6 hours so you will burn fat much more effectively versus with long duration exercise 5 Understand task specificity 9 When training for specific aerobic activities the overload must be 1 engage the appropriate muscles required by the activity and 392 provide exercise at a level sufficient to stress the cardiovascular system Little improvement occurs when measuring aerobic capacity with dissimilar exercise the greatest improvement occurs when the test exercise duplicates the training exercise This also applies to patients with coronary disease Vocabulary Overload regular application of a specific exercise overload enhances physiologic function to induce a training response Exercising at intensities greater than normal stimulates highly specific adaptations so the body functions more efficiently Achieving the appropriate overload requires manipulating training frequency intensity duration and exercise mode Planned systematic and progressive increase in training to improv performance Exercise Training Specificity a adaptations in metabolic and physiologic functions that depend upon the type and mode of overload proposed Specific Adaptations to imposed Demands 3MB specific exercise elicits specific adaptations to promote specific training effects RPE Rate of Perceived Exertion can be used in addition to oxygen consumption heart rate and blood lactate to determine exercise intensity RIPE of 13 714 somewhat hard coincides with 70 l lRmax 11 12 coincides with the lactate threshold it is effective in estimating blood lactate limited if repeated bouts of exercise are done in the same session o MOne important distinction between Li HRmax and lactate threshold is that toHRmax establishes a level of exercise stress to overload the central olrculation QSW whereas the capability of the peripheral vasculature and active muscles to sustain steady rate aerobic metab dictates exercise intensity adjustments based on lactate threshold Lactate Generating Capacity To improve energy transfer capacity by short term lactic acid energy system training must overload this aspect of energy metabolism Blood lactate rises to peak levels within t minute of anaerobic exercise rest 3 5 minutes before another bout is known as lactate stacking producing a higher blood lactate level than just one all out exhaustive effort Anaerobic conditioning should be done at the end of session as to not to hinder aerobic training yeirtraining can relate to increased incidence of infections muscle soreness general malaise and loss of interest in training plus an increased chance of injury Two forms o Sympathetic Form less common characterized by increased sympathetic activity hyperexcitabiiity restlessness impaired performance iviay reflect psychologicalliemotional stress from training competition and normal life o Parasympathetic Form dominance of vagal activity during rest and exercise Termed overreaching in the early stages Excessive and protracted exercise overload with inadequate recovery and rest leads to overreaching Symptoms include poor performance altered sleep patterns and appetite frequent Infections persistent fatigue altered immune and reproductive functions acute and chronic alterations in systemic inflammatory responses mood disturbances maiaise and loss of interest in training Overreaching Unplanned excessive overload with inadequate rest Poor performance is observed in trainingi competition Successful recovery should result from short term interventions Overtraining Syndrome Untreated overreaching that produces long term decreased performance lv lay require medical attention Aerobic Training a proper endurance training overloads all components of oxygen transport and use 0 cardiovascular overload must be intense enough to sufficiently increase overload stroke volume and cardiac output cardiovascular overload must occur from activation of sport specific muscle groups to enhance local circulation and the muscles metabolic machinery O Types of Aerobic Training interval Training Permits completion of intense exercise without appreciable lactate buildup because intramuscular high energy phosphates anaerobic glycolysis provides the primary energy source The intensity must activate the particular energy systems that require improvement Prescription evolves from four considerations 0 Intensity 0 Duration o Length of Recovery 0 Number of reps relief interval Continuous Training long slow distance training involves steady paced prolonged exercise at either moderate or high aerobic intensity 6080 VOZmax Pace may vary but it must meet a threshold intensity to ensure aerobic physiologic adaptations Ideally suits novices looking to maximize caloric expenditure for weight loss when applied to athletes usually represents overtraining Allows endurance athletes to exercise at nearly the same intensity as actual competition motor recruitment depends on intensity so it may best apply to endurance athletes desiring adaptations at the cellular level in contrast interval training places stress on fast twitch motor units not slow twitch units predominantly recruited in endurance competition Fartlett Training Billean of continuous and interval training using alternate running at fast and slow speeds over level and hilly terrain It is manipulated by the individual on how it feels RPE When properly applied it overloads one or all of the energy systemsquot Provides ideal general conditioning and off season training strategies although it lacks systematic and quantified approaches of interval and continuous training but it does add freedom and variety to workouts tieuromuscular Adaptations to Resistance Training ch 22 1 What are the goals of strength training 0 In simple terms resistance training is putting a stress on your muscles 3 weight and providing muscle contraction to overcome that stress lift it This process eventually overloads your muscle breaks down the sarcomeres and then your muscle will go through a shit ton of responses to rebuild stronger This is the point of resistance training 39 Here is a lot more detail on resistance training This is defined as high frequency of motor unit firing with a major force production Resistance training acts to increase the cross sectional area ofthe muscle to a great extent and has a little effect on the oxidative capacity of the muscle unlike endurance training Your muscles will adapt to produce a greater force production with an increase in its myofibrils its contractile protein actin and myosin and the development of its SR 2 What factors modify strength Neural Adaptions Recruitment frequency and synchronization o Muscular force capacity or strength can improve due to enhanced neural activity Typical enhancements in neural activity and strength are a result of resistance training The neuromuscular system determines the capacity in which a muscle can produce force Enhancements to motor unit recruitment and firing patterns are the most prominent neural adaptions observed All or None Principle when a motor neuron tires all its associated fibers contract maximally o On the neural level improvements in muscular force capacity or strength is due to increased i Motor Unit Recruitment especially Type ll Motor Unit Firing Rate frequency II Patter of Motor Unit Firing synchronization quot Muscular Adaptions Hypertrophy 0 Resistance training increases the size and strength of whole muscules through 2 mechanisms Hypertrophy increases in the size of the individual muscle fibers Causes whole muscle growth Hyperplasia increase in the number of individual muscle fibers still debatable in humans Hypertropth Mechanisms 0 Protein synthesis the body s protein status is a balance of protein synthesis and degradation Resistance training increases synthesis with a minor effect on protein breakdown increased protein content within the muscle cell expands the size of the beh o Myonuclear Genesis Myonuclear Domain Theory it is common to see increases of 30 40 in strength with resistance training yet the muscles usually don t increase to this extent What gives The rest of the strength comes from neurological adaptations Basically your body gets better at using the muscles that it has Your body recruits more motor units by increasing the electrical stimulation of the neurons which lead to faster quotfiring rates this is what recruitment is It also becomes more efficient at using its highthreshold units or its type 2a and 2x fibers Motor units will learn to fire faster and will start to fire together be synchronized Think of someone benching for the first time in their life What do they look like during the lift Their arms are shaking and they seem to be lifting uneven Then after a week of training they look much smoother with lifting This is because of motor units learning to fire together This all occurs significantly within the first 34 weeks of introducing the body to new stimuli so its neurons will adapt first and lead to a huge increase in strength TH E N the muscles will undergo hypertrophy o This is why some people don t get results when they work out They lift for a few weeks and don t see any results but they are gaining neural adaptations so they stop before the hypertrophy starts 0 Muscles respond to stimuli by adapting and two theories are hypertrophy and hyperplasia Hypertrophy occurs when the muscle fibers increase their cross sectional area so they increase in size This happens when muscle breaks down and increases its number of actin and myosin in the sarcomeres via increased protein turnover Just know that you have a protein pool in the muscles and you want protein synthesis obviously to create new actin and myosin Hyperplasia is when the actual fiber number increases Both of these make sense as adaptations to training yet ONLY hypertrophy occurs in humans Hyperplasia has been evidenced in other mammals such as cats and birds but it does not occur in human muscle cells Although it d be col if it did The myonuclear theory is just that first a muscle nucleus there are many on a muscle will grow in proteins actin and myosin then once it gets too large for its area the muscle will create more nuclei and continue to grow This is done though satellite cells chemotaxic muscle stem cells 39 It is very important to remember that adaptations are clue to neural and muscle gains Neural gains always come first 3 Know different methods used to assess muscle strength Tensiometrv O 0 Measures static strength One end of the cable is attached to an immovable object and the other to a limb segment The tensiometer is placed somewhere between the two xated points increasing the force on the cable depresses the riser over which the cable passes Tensiometer is attached to a gauge that measures force in relative units Dynamometry O O Q A device that measures power force or torque Handgrip and back leg lift dynamometry An external force is applied to the dynamometer which compresses a steel spring and moves a pointer The force required to move the pointer a given distance determines the external force applied 391 Onerepetition maximum 0 O O O O A dynamic procedure that measures maximal strength The maximum amount of weight lifted 1 time Can be tested on any lift to establish strength 39 Squat bench deadlift shoulder press biceps curl etc increased risk of injury compared to submaximal t RM can also be estimated 39 Computerassisted force and power output determinations 0 Force plates I Measure external application o39l force by a limb o Electromechanical resistance instrument I Isok inetic dynamometer 0 Biodex Contains a speedcontrolling mechanism that accelerates to a preset constant velocity with force application The machine adjusts loading automatically to provide a counterforce to variations in force generation by muscle throughout the entire ROM 4 Outline procedure for assessing 1 RM 39 Warm up neuromuscular and muscular system Q But not enough to cause fatigue or truly achieving 1 RM is compromised 39 Warmup Guidelines Estimate subject s 1 RM Set 1 510 reps of light or easy load Set 2 4 3 5 reps of increasing weight Still easvl 39 10 20 lbs 13 10 for U3 30 401 lbs 10 20 for LB 0 Set 46 single repetitions with weight slowly approaching estimated max 0 Change in weight is relative to estimated 1 RM OO O 0 Rest 13 minutes between sets 39 1 1RM test 0 Use the last warm up lift and EYE test to decide the first attempt 0 Example i lF last lift was 2015 and it looked like the lifter could barely complete the lift 205 is probably the 1 l ilVl or only 510 lbs away I OR did the lifter push up the weight quick and make if look easy This could justify a 20 40 lb increase in weight for 15quot 1FiM attempt Test is continued until lifter can not successfully achieve the lift 9 Rest between sets 3165 minutes 0 Ensure ATPEPC restoration No more than 3 5 attempts MAX should he should be taken otherwise volume will compromise achieving TRUE 1 RM o More than 5 attempts means you are horrible at estimating What if the lifer FAILS o 24 minute rest 0 Decrease the load subtracting weight I 5 10 lbs ZS 5 for U8 ll 15 20 lbs 5 10 for LB 139 Reasons for estimating lRM with subamaximal effort or Injury recovery 0 Age 0 Disease Ways to estimate 1 RM 0 Multiple repetitions 5 1RM 0 Training load Chart 0 Equations Table l Estimating 39l strength in a given liftsexercise can he achieved by performing a set to failure with suhmaximal weight and then calculating the LRM using 1 table like this Table adapted from 1 l Number of Percent of Multiply Weight Repetition 1Repetlrtlon Lifted By Performed 1 H77 100 7 H 10 l m we smeww39 on U1 3 all 4 Lu w 11 Hiref f f quot l 143 12 fiiim yer 149 715 65 f 154 39 Calculating lalRM o When calculating maximal strength different equations are used for untrained v5 trained individuals 0 RET alters the relationship between submaximal performance 7 10 reps and maximal lift capacity 1 rep I Untrained 1RM 155411 rep s 5181 I Trained 39 1RM 1172 x reps 7704 5 Define concentric eccentric and isometric muscular movements 391 Concentric muscle shortens and joint movement occurs as tension develops Eccentric external resistance gt muscle force therefore muscle lengthens while developing tension isometric muscle generates force and attempts to shorten but cannot overcome external resistance 6 Name and give examples of different muscle actions Staticn muscle activation but no change in fiber length aka isometric 0 Example When a barbell is held at the midpoint of39the bicep curl the biceps exert force but do not change in length As in the graphic where the athlete places resistance against the curling movement the biceps neither overcome the resistance nor are they overcome by the resistance The muscle length does not change even though it is contracting Dynamic oppositel change in muscle fiber length Produces movement of skeletal system 0 Concentric muscle shortening I Example Bending the arm at the elbow from straight to fully flexed as when performing a Biceps Curl movement taking the hands from your hips to your shoulder causing a concentric contraction of the biceps brachii muscle the muscle attachments draw closer together 0 Eccentric muscle lengthening I Example The opposite of a concentric muscle action The downward phase of a bicep curl requires the eccentric action of the biceps muscle The muscle exerts force to control the speed of the downward movement but its length increases 7 Describe the metabolic neural and musculoskeletal adaptations that occur with strength training In initial phases neural adaptions contributes to strength gains As training duration increases hypertrophy of muscles becomes more contribut irve of strength gains After plateau is reached then periodization can be used to increase strength During typical 8 week training period 0 During first 2 weeks 90 of strength gains attributed to neural adaptions 0 ln the next 2 weeks 4050 strength gains die to neural adapt ions o Thereafter majority of strength gains due to muscular adaptions hypertrophy 8 Describe plv ometric training and its application 39 P lyometrics also known as jump training are exercises in which muscles exert maximum force in short intervals of time with the goal of increasing power speed strength This training focuses on learning to move from a muscle extension to a contraction in a rapid or explosive manner such as specialized repeated jumping 39 Used by athletes such as sprinters and high jumpers to improve their performance and are uses in the fitness field to a much lesser degree 9 Describe the differences that exist with strength training between gender and age Be able to compare absolute and reiative uppers and lower body strength between men and women 39 Gender Differences O 0 Muscle cross sectional area CSA Human muscle generates 21530 N of force per sq cm of muscle area regardless of gender individuals with the largest muscle CSA generate the greatest absolute force Men have more muscle than women BUT little difference in strength exists between men and women with the same size muscle Absolute muscle strength E Total force exerted in lbs or kgs I Men gt Women 39 50 difference in upperbody strength 30 difference in lowerbody strength Relative muscle strength C A comparative ratio calculated by dividing maximal strength lifted weight by a measurement of body mass total body weight FFM or muscle CSA I Levels the playing field for comparison Allosteric Scaling Ii Allosteric scaling mathematical procedure used to establish relationships between body size height body mass RPM and another factor of interest strength endurance power jump height speed Differences reported between sedentary and trained males and female upper and lower body strength 10 Explain differences in RET goals and programming for athletes us non athietes and young as old 391 Children 0 Can they benefit from strength training O Undeveloped and still growing Risk for injury I Epiphyseal fracture ruptured interyertebral disks lower back bony disruptions acute lower back trauma Lower anabolic hormone profile rarepubescent Supervised training I using only CON contractions I Low intensity high reps Gains in strength most likely from neuromuscular adaptations I Older Adults O O O O Baby Boomers are getting into their 60 s I Families during this time had more children than subsequent generations 19461964 Why should older adults 2 65 yrs lift I Sarcopenia I Frailty I increased dependence I Falls I Hospitalizations GOAL maintain muscle or slow atrophy prevent falls increase BMW and maintain independence Can older adults benefit I YESlli 1 muscular strength and power I Upper and lower body 1 muscle volume and size improved physical performance I Gait speed I Chairistand time I Balance I Handgrip strength PRE used to minimize skeletal muscle injury Greatest strength gains during high intensity training 280 LEM Greatest improvements in performance with power training 39 Athletes 0 O 0 GOAL optimize muscle strength power and hypertrophy 1 6 RM training loads Higher training frequency higher intensity higher volume o Skill specific exercises o Gains in strength dependent on initial training status ll 40 untrained 20 moderately trained 15 trained 10 advanced 2 elite athletes 39 NonAthletes c GOAL increase muscle lose fat improve health Dr s Rxl o ACSM Recommendations for RET I Minimum of 2 nonmconsecutive days per week I 1 x 812 for healthy adults 810 exercises that target all the major muscle groups 0 PRE to minimize injury in novice and sedentary adults 11 Know the different models of strength training Explain progressive resistance training 0 Say you lift run or whatever you do You willl improve but eventually you will reach a plateau in your training and with perioditatlon you can get around it The GAS is the general order that one goes through in response to a stress exercise training 0 First there is the alarm phase This is when the muscle encounters a new stress This causes the muscle to break down and you will momentarily get weaker till your muscle repairs itself This is when you are sore after lifting for the first time or when you change your workout to shock your muscles This is good by the way because you have successfulin overloaded the muscle 0 Then after the muscle adapts to this stress it will rebuild itself or compensate for that stress and getter stronger This will keep happening up to a point 0 The plateau phase will be reached when the muscle is no longer stressed to overload The muscle no longer as a need to hypertrophy and adapt to the old stress thus you will stop gaining strength Well you are done getting stronger But since muscles are adaptive if you place a higher stress on them increased weight or intensity you will continue to have gains This is the concept of periodization Train till you get all the benefits and then switch up the program in some cases the athlete might enter exhaustion This is also referred to as overtraining Basically your muscles get tired and decline in strength 39 Then you just have to look at the different types of periodization 1 Progressive resistance training provides a practical application of the overload principle and forms the basis of most resistancetraining programs 12 What is training specificity Specificity is the principle of training that states that sports training should be relevant and appropriate to the sport for which the individual is training in order to produce a training effect An isometricallv trained muscles shows the greatest strength improvement when measured isometrically similarly a dynamically trained muscle tests nest when evaluated in resistance athletes that requires movement In dynamic exercise muscles trained through movements over a limited ROM show the greatest strength improvement when measured in that ROM Even body position specificity exists Resistance training specificity makes sense because strength improvement blends adaptions in two factors o The muscle fiber and connective tissue harness itself 0 Neural organization and excitability of motor units that power discrete patterns of voluntary movement 13 What is muscle soreness and how is it caused What is the current model used to explain DOMS Muscle soreness is the soreness and stiffness in exercised joints and muscles following an extended layoff from exercise or performing unaccustomed exercise Temporaryquot soreness may persist for several hours immediately after such unaccustomed exercise whereas delayedonset muscie soreness DOME appears later and can last for 3 or 4 days Any of the following seven factors may produce DOMS 0 Minute tears in muscle tissue or damage to its contractile components Osmotic pressure changes that produce fluid retention in surrounding tissues Muscle spasms Overstretching and tearing of the muscles connective tissue harness Acute inflammation OOOOO Alteration in the cell s mechanism for calcium regulation 0 Combination of above factors Current mode Unaccustomed exercise using eccentric muscle actions downhill running s lcnrorlrlr lowering weights etc 39J39 High muscle forces damage sarcolemma causing rlease of cytosolic enzymes and myoglobin Damage to muscle contractile myofibrils and non contract ile structures Metabolites ex calcium accumulate to abnormal levels in the muscle cell to produce more cell damage and reduced force capacitv iv39w Delayedaonset muscle soreness considered to result from inflammation tenderness pain The inflammation process begins the muscle heals the adaptive process makes the muscle more resistant to damage from subsequent exercise 14 Understand the force development and forcevelocity and relationship The isometric lengthtension curve represents the force a muscle is capable of generating while held at a series of discrete lengths When tension at each length is plotted against length a relationship is obtained Force velocity relationship The force generated by a muscle is a function of its velocity Historically the forcevelocity relationship has been used to define the dynamic properties of the cross bridges which cycle during muscle contraction 39 The forceavelocity relationship like the lengthtension relationship is a curve that actually represents the results of many experiments plotted on the same graph Experimentally a muscle is allowed to shorten against a constant load The muscle velocity during shortening is measured and then plotted against the resistive force Muscles are strengthened based on the force placed across the muscle Higher forces produce greater strengthening Therefore exercises performed with muscle activated in a way that allows them to contract at high velocities necessarily imply that they are also contracting with relatively low force This is intuitively obvious as you lift a light load compared to a heavy loadathe light load can be moved much more quickly However these rapid movements would have very small strengthening effects since the muscle forces are so low Body Composition Chapters 28 and 30 lecture notes and lab 1 Know and understand the principle of Archimedes and how it applies to the procedure of human body volume measurements This is the trick that Archimedes found out when he had to figure out if a crown was made of solid gold When an object is submerged in water it will displace its volume in water This means that to find the volume of an object it is placed in water Then the volume of the water that is displaced is equal to the volume of the object So when a person is placed in water the volume of the person is equal to the volume of the water that they displace This is useful because there is a formula to find percent fat mass from the density of an object Density is equal to massvolume Finding the mass of a person is easy just weigh them but this is the easiest way to find the VOIleE of a person The density is also called the specific gravity 2 Understand the differences and usefulness of different body composition and anthropometric assessment procedures discussed in the text and class What are the general assumptions used by indirect measures Different procedures exist to measure body composition Among these is the skin fold the bioelectrical impedance BIA underwater weighing explained in question 1 x ray and calculating BMI Direct means that they are taking it at an autopsy Clearly not too practical These are all indirect and they assume that all mass in the body is either muscle or fat they don39t take into account water mass bone weight or air volume Skin folds are the most common and this is based on the fact that most of our fat is subcutaneous meaning that a majority is found at the surface of the body Using this knowledge seven skin fold sites are pinched with caliper andl these numbers are plugged into a formula to get percent body fat All the pinches should be made on the right side of the body This method is not that accurate depending on if the tester sucks and can be affected by many things like exercise this will increase the thickness of your skin being dehydrated decrease thickness of the skin and age As you age fat moves to being more visceral so an old person would be calculated as having less fat Then we have the underwater weighing This is the gold standard and yields the best result but it isn t that practical like the skin fold is Fat is less dense than water so the more fat that someone has the less they will sink The Bills is a hand held device that sends a current from one hand to the other Fat does not contain electrolytes so it doesn t conduct current as well as lean mass which has electrolytes So the lower the current reaches back to the machine the more fat a person supposedly has As you can probably see a lot of things can affect this If you are dehydrated then you will have more electrolytes in your blood because of less water and will conduct the current faster and your body fat will be underestimated if you are hydrated the opposite will happen and the fat amount will be overestimated if your skin is warm then the current will travel much faster and underestimate it then if your skin is cold the current will travel very slow This had me at 2 ones time Clearly not right Xaray will reveal bone mass and you can calculate fat mass from this and BMW is an anthropometric measurement taken from one s weight in kg and height in mAZ It is in the units of kgmAZ This will put someone in ranges of underweight normal overweight and obese lt185 is underweight 185 249 is normal 25293 is overweight and above 30 is obese But this is not the best measurement for fit people as it doesn t take into account muscle which weighs more than fat Another anthropometric is waist circumference girth This is a really good measurement for the amount of fat that is in the abdominal region Fat in this region is bad The two common classes are android and gynoid shape Then you can get fancy with the bod pod a 1000 machine The machines measures the volume of the machine and then measures the volume with you in it and finds the difference This is fairly accurate yet expensive o So the best one is underwater weighing and waist circumference for anthropometric But underwater weighing is the gold standard for measuring body fat o The norms are around 15 for men and 26 for women 3 What are the body composition differences between males and females Males have less body fat because only 3 is essential whereas 12 is essential in females This is due to the fact that females need fat for their menstrual cycle and all that good stuff El Understand the difference between essential and storage fat and the difference between FFM and LBM Essential fat is what the organs need to function properly This is needed for the bone marrow nervous system for example 39 Storage fat is just that storage This is extra fat you accumulate from your lifestyle It can be subcutaneous right under the skin or visceral surrounding the organs 5 How does energy balance and weight loss affect body composition lfyou consume more kcal than you burn off or metabolism than you will store those kcal as adipose or fat simple The things that determine your metabolism are the thermic effect of food this is the energy that your body uses to actually digest and absorb the food protein has the highest your activity level and your resting metabolism to the highest impact based on your muscle mass A pound of fat is equal to 31500 kcal 16 Understand the potential impact of diet and exercise on obesity eg what are the differences of dieting alone as compared to dieting and exercise combined Exercise is not as effective as cleaning one s diet Exercise is great and all but no matter how much you exercise if your diet sucks you will not lose as much weight Diet is also great by itself but you will not gain lean body mass muscle without exercise Both of these have to be prescribed to have the best effect on obesity The best plan is the exercise 30 min a day four times a week The diet only group will lose weight but not as much as if combined with exercise If you exercise alone you will lose weight and gain lean body mass but you will lose more weight if you combine this with diet but combined you will not gain as much lean muscle Moral of the story Exercise and control your diet to get the best results on weight loss Understand the concept of the energy balance equations The equations give you the basal metabolic rate which is the amount of kcal that your body burns to complete its normal functions This is normally around 15002500kcal it depends on your age weight and height There are two formulas one for men and one for women to calculate this They are called the harrisbenedict formula Look it up if he asked to memorize this Know the changes that occur in fat cells during weight gain and weight loss Fat cells called adipocy tes get smaller with weight loss With weight gain they will first hypertrophy and then increase in number called hyperplasia Remember from the last test that muscles don t undergo hyperplasia EXCEPT for fat cells So you will increase the number of fat cells to accommodate the added fat Here s the catch though once you increase this number they will never disappear unless you have surgery So once you gain weight and make more fat cells even if you lose a lot of weight you will always have the same amount of fat cells They will just all shrink This is why obese people have problems keeping weight off 9 What is BMI 10 11 This is body mass index taken by weight over height This number is based on the population so it s not the best number to go by if you have muscle and our fit since the majority of the population is overweight Muscle weighs more than fat so a body builder or even someone with a lot of muscle will be considered overweight maybe even obese Now if someone is clearly obese or not fit this number is important if above 302 you are considered obese and you need to change your lifestyle Fat is stored in the abdominal region and this can lead to a lot of problems insulin resistance is one and this will contribute too many other problems So a high BMI doesn t necessarily mean trouble but if they are not fit then pay attention to it A high number means more disease risk What are the common techniques used to assess body composition Explained already in question We have the underwater weighing skin fold BIA BMI and xiray Underwater weighing is the best not the most practical skin fold is easy to do but not the best and Blejust plain sucks How do skinfolds and girth measurements provide meaningful information about body fat and its distribution Skinfolds measure the subcutaneous fat so this number is good but remember that this test is not the most accurate Girth or waist circumference is a really good test since it measures the size of your waist Fat stored in the abdominal region is what leads to all the problems of obesity Waist circumference is a much better anthropometric measure than BMI Waist circumference should be done first to classify someone in a risk category there s categories for the number then BMI should be done This is my opinion not what Dr Moffatt said 12 Identify the anatomical locations for frequentlyP measured skinfolds and girths All the skin folds are to be taken on the right side of the body Skiniold is done with the calipers that pinch the skin The theory that most of our fat is subcutaneous shifts ratio with age There are seven standard areas to take measurements and also a three area test Always take measurements on the right side Can have up to a 4 error more it the person measuring it sucks 0 measurement is taken diagonally at the chest One is talcen at the subaxillarv vertically middle of armpit and hip One is at the abdominal vertically One is suprailliac diagonally above the hip bone One is in the middle of the tricep vertically One is on the thigh vertically The last in on the subscapular diagonally GOODGO
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