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Hopkins Geology Geography Watersheds Discussion 2 Chapter 4

by: Katie Mulliken

Hopkins Geology Geography Watersheds Discussion 2 Chapter 4 GEOG1125

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Geology > GEOG1125 > Hopkins Geology Geography Watersheds Discussion 2 Chapter 4
Katie Mulliken
GPA 3.91

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Hopkins Geology Geography Resources, Society and the Environment. "10 Cases in Environmental Ethics Edition Watersheds 4" Book class discussion 2 chapter 4.
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geography geology
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Mulliken on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG1125 at University of Georgia taught by HOPKINS in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see RESOURCES, SOCIETY, AND THE ENVIRONMENT in Geology at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 03/31/16
1) Have people relied too much on antibiotics? How so? People have become increasingly more reliant on antibiotics within the last few decades due to its reputation as the ‘magic bullet’ conquerer of disease. It has been (and still is) historically overprescribed, because it works so well and seems to be the quick and easy fix for most diseases. It is “the standard medical practice, especially in pediatric practice” (pg 60). Antibiotics can offer a cure for many diseases from a common cold to lethal illnesses, making them the easiest, cheapest, and most effective way to fight infections. However, this practice makes the proliferation of resistant germs alarmingly more prevalent. The over-reliability of antibiotics that humans have today has backfired as now many germs have become resistant to the antibiotics not only for people who have overused them, but because the resistant germs are spread more easily today than ever with increased globalization, transportation and increasingly more crowded and diverse urban settings. A clear example of this over reliance turned fatal is in South Africa where diseases such as HIV/AIDs and Tuberculosis are prevalent, thus using antibiotics to treat them. The misuse of antibiotics in Africa (not finishing treatment, overuse etc) basically ensures that a resistance will be built up across the globe and will be useless in coming decades. 2) What’s wrong with Western medical practices, that they have produced antibiotic resistance? How might they be improved? Western medical practices have produced antibiotic resistance through the irresponsible practices of doctors and the entire medical system. Overprescribing of antibiotics, noncompliance, and the existence of diseases that impair or destroy the immune system’s ability to rid the resistant germs all help to spread antibiotic-resistant germs. "Extraordinary number of antibiotics have been introduced into the ecosystem of the human community, where all those who have taken them have become discrete sources of antibiotic resistant microbes” (59). Hospitals can be the most fertile sites for bacterial proliferation. For example, in 1998, officials at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that about 2 million patients developed hospital-squired infections and about 90,000 of them die annually and about 70% are due to at least one resistant antibiotic and the current rate for contacting an infection in a hospital is 1 and 5 (pg 60). With less time to spend with each patient, it is easy to give a drug that they know will work. Also, with limited resources for time and tests, doctors are more likely to order broad-spectrum drugs rather than carefully narrowed antibiotics specified for particular illnesses. It can be improved by slowing the heavy use of antibiotics, thus ‘persuading’ bacteria to abandon their resistance. It can be argued that if antibiotics are non-existent in humans, then bacteria will tend to release their resistance-carrying plasmids due to evolution. 3) What’s wrong with Western agricultural practices, that they have produced antibiotic resistance? How might they be restructured? Western agricultural practices have produced antibiotic resistance due to the extraordinary amount of antibiotics used in agriculture today, especially in raising livestock, hogs and cattle. “75% of pigs, 6% of cattle, 25% of chickens and 50% of turkeys are fed antibiotic food. Animals that are fed daily doses of antibiotics need less food yet grow faster and larger. This is due to the fact that animals are most likely not fighting bacterial infections. From a business standpoint, it makes sense, as it’s most efficient and effective economically. The scary part is, that people who eat these antibiotic filled animals are then more likely to create a resistance, even without ever taking the antibiotic themselves. Alternatives include very careful sterile procedures, livestock spread over more space to eliminate the spread of germs, and organic farming (which restricts the use of sewage sludge, pesticides, hormones or antibiotics in feed) (referred to page 65). The fact that western agricultural practices have been so irresponsible as to create an entire world dependent on antibiotic-fed animals is disheartening, as the western world has some of the most advanced and intelligent scientists, researchers and intellects that have warned against the widespread use of these drugs. Yet, we have reached a point where we are now forced to question what the future will hold with 2 very scary, yet very real, options: a digress of efficiency and amount of food produced, or the possibility of working together to create a environmentally, economically and socially sound world.


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