Psychology Study Gide Exam 2
Psychology Study Gide Exam 2 Psyc 1101-021
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nihar Desai on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1101-021 at Georgia State University taught by Mr.Flemming in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 6 The Nature of Memory Memory: the retention of information or experience over time. -occurs through three important processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Memory Encoding Encoding: the process by which information gets into memory storage. Attention Selective attention: involves focusing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others. -Attention is selective because the brain's resources are limited—they cannot attend to everything. -These limitations mean that we have to attend selectively to some things in our environment and ignore others Divided attention: involves concentrating on more than one activity at the same time. EX: If you are listening to music or the television while you are reading this chapter, you are dividing your attention. Sustained attention: the ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time. -For example, paying close attention to your notes while studying for an exam is a good application of sustained attention. Levels of Processing Levels of processing: refers to a continuum from shallow to intermediate to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory. -Shallow processing includes noting the physical features of a stimulus, such as the shapes of the letters in the word mom. -Intermediate processing involves giving the stimulus a label, as in reading the word mom. -The deepest level of processing entails thinking about the meaning of a stimulus—for instance, thinking about the meaning of the word mom and about your own mother, her face, and her special qualities. Elaboration Elaboration refers to the formation of a number of different connections around a stimulus at any given level of memory encoding. Memory Storage Storage: how information is retained over time and how it is represented in memory. Atkinson-Shiffrin theory: states that memory storage involves three separate systems: -Sensory memory: time frames of a fraction of a second to several seconds -Short-term memory: time frames up to 30 seconds -Long-term memory: time frames up to a lifetime Sensory Memory Sensory memory: holds information from the world in its original sensory form for only an instant, not much longer than the brief time it is exposed to the visual, auditory, and other senses. -Sensory memory is very rich and detailed, but we lose the information in it quickly unless we use certain strategies that transfer it into short- term or long-term memory. Echoic memory (from the word echo): refers to auditory sensory memory, which is retained for up to several seconds. Iconic memory (from the word icon, which means “image”): refers to visual sensory memory, which is retained only for about ¼ of a second. Short-term Memory Short-term memory: a limited-capacity memory system in which information is usually retained for only as long as 30 seconds unless we use strategies to retain it longer. Two Ways to Improve Short-term Memory -Chunking: involves grouping or “packing” information that exceeds the 7 ± 2 memory span into higher-order units that can be remembered as single units. - Rehearsal: the conscious repetition of information Working Memory Working memory: refers to a combination of components, including short-term memory and attention that allow us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks. Long-term Memory Long-term memory: a relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time. -In simple terms, explicit memory has to do with remembering who, what, where, when, and why; implicit memory has to do with remembering how. Explicit memory (declarative memory): the conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts and events and, at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated. Episodic memory: the retention of information about the where, when, and what of life's happenings—how we remember life's episodes. -EX: Your first date, what you ate for breakfast this morning. Semantic memory: a person's knowledge about the world. It includes one's areas of expertise, general knowledge of the sort learned in school, and everyday knowledge about the meanings of words, famous individuals, important places, and common things. -EX: semantic memory is involved in a person's knowledge of chess, of geometry, and of who the Dalai Lama, LeBron James, and Lady Gaga are. Implicit Memory Implicit memory (nondeclarative memory): memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience. -For example, in the skills of playing tennis and snowboarding, as well as in the physical act of text messaging. Procedural memory: a type of implicit memory process that involves memory for skills. Priming: the activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster. Classical conditioning: a form of learning. -Recall that classical conditioning involves the automatic learning of associations between stimuli, so that one stimulus comes to evoke the same response as the other. How Memory is organized Schema: a preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information. -Schemas can also be at work when we recall information. Script: a schema for an event. -Scripts often have information about physical features, people, and typical occurrences. -This kind of information is helpful when people need to figure out what is happening around them. Connectionism, or parallel distributed processing (PDP): the theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons, several of which may work together to process a single memory. Brain Structures and Memory Functions Memory Retrieval Retrieval: takes place when information that was retained in memory comes out of storage. The serial position effect: the tendency to recall the items at the beginning and end of a list more readily than those in the middle. - The primacy effect refers to better recall for items at the beginning of a list; the recency effect refers to better recall for items at the end. Recall is a memory task in which the individual has to retrieve previously learned information, as on essay tests. Recognition is a memory task in which the individual only has to identify (recognize) learned items, as on multiple-choice tests. Autobiographical memory: a special form of episodic memory, is a person's recollections of his or her life experiences. Flashbulb memory: the memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events. Forgetting Memory Motivated forgetting: which occurs when individuals forget something because it is so painful or anxiety laden that remembering it is intolerable. Encoding failure occurs when the information was never entered into long-term memory. Interference Interference theory: people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember. Two types of Interference - Proactive interference: occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later. -Retroactive interference: occurs when material learned later disrupts the retrieval of information learned earlier. Decay Decay theory: when we learn something new, a neurochemical memory trace forms, but over time this trace disintegrates. Prospective Memory Prospective memory: involves remembering information about doing something in the future; it includes memory for intentions. -Time-based prospective memory is our intention to engage in a given behavior after a specified amount of time has gone by, such as an intention to make a phone call to someone in one hour. - In event-based prospective memory, we engage in the intended behavior when some external event or cue elicits it, as when we give a message to a roommate upon seeing her. Amnesia Amnesia: loss of memory Anterograde amnesia: a memory disorder that affects the retention of new information and events. Retrograde amnesia: involves memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events. Chapter 7 Thinking Thinking: involves manipulating information mentally by forming concepts, solving problems, making decisions, and reflecting in a critical or creative manner. Concepts Concepts: mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics. Important Reasons - First, concepts allow us to generalize. If we did not have concepts, each object and event in our world would be unique and brand new to us each time we encountered it. - Second, concepts allow us to associate experiences and objects. Basketball, ice hockey, and track are sports. The concept sport gives us a way to compare these activities. -Third, concepts aid memory by making it more efficient so that we do not have to reinvent the wheel each time we come across a piece of information. Imagine having to think about how to sit in a chair every time we find ourselves in front of one. - Fourth, concepts provide clues about how to react to a particular object or experience. Prototype model: emphasizes that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical item(s) in that category and look for a “family resemblance” with that item's properties. Problem Solving Problem solving: means finding an appropriate way to attain a goal when the goal is not readily available. Steps in Problem Solving 1. Find and Frame Problems Recognizing a problem is the first step toward a solution. Finding and framing problems involves asking questions in creative ways and “seeing” what others do not. 2. Develop Good Problem-Solving Strategies Once we find a problem and clearly define it, we need to develop strategies for solving it. Among the effective strategies are subgoals, algorithms, and heuristics. -Sub goals: are intermediate goals or intermediate problems to solve that put us in a better position for reaching the final goal or solution. -Algorithms: are strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem. -Heuristics: are such shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest a solution to a problem but do not guarantee an answer. 3. Evaluate Solutions Once we think we have solved a problem, we will not know how effective our solution is until we find out if it works. It helps to have in mind a clear criterion for the effectiveness of the solution. 4. Rethink and Redefine Problems and Solutions over Time an important final step in problem solving is to rethink and redefine problems continually. Obstacle to Problem Solving Fixation: involves using a prior strategy and failing to look at a problem from a fresh, new perspective. Functional fixedness: occurs when individuals fail to solve a problem because they are fixated on a thing's usual functions. Reasoning and Decision Making Reasoning: the mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions. Inductive reasoning: involves reasoning from specific observations to make generalizations. Deductive reasoning: reasoning from a general case that we know to be true to a specific instance. Decision making: involves evaluating alternatives and choosing among them. Confirmation bias: the tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them. Hindsight bias: our tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome. Critical Thinking Critical thinking means thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence. Mindfulness: means being alert and mentally present for one's everyday activities. Open-mindedness: means being receptive to other ways of looking at things. Creative Thinking Creativity: a characteristic of a person, we are referring to the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to devise unconventional solutions to problems. Divergent thinking: produces many solutions to the same problem. Convergent thinking: produces the single best solution to a problem. Intelligence Intelligence: an all-purpose ability to do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems, and to learn from experience. Validity: refers to the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. Reliability: the extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance. Standardization: involves developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test, as well as creating norms, or performance standards, for the test. Culture-fair tests: intelligence tests that are intended to be culturally unbiased. Language Language: a form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols. Properties of Language Phonology: a language's sound system. Morphology: a language's rules for word formation. Syntax: a language's rules for combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentences. Semantics: meaning of words and sentences in a particular language. Pragmatics: the useful character of language and the ability of language to communicate even more meaning than is said. Chapter 8 Human Development Development: refers to the pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the course of life. Nature: refers to a person's biological inheritance, especially his or her genes. Nurture: refers to the individual's environmental and social experiences. Physical Development Preferential looking: technique involves giving an infant a choice of what object to look at. Puberty: a period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence. Cognitive Development Cognitive development refers to how thought, intelligence, and language processes change as people mature. Cognition refers to the operation of thinking and also to our cognitive skills and abilities. Schema is a mental concept or framework that organizes information and provides a structure for interpreting it. Two processes responsible for how people use and adapt their schemas: Assimilation: occurs when individuals incorporate new information into existing knowledge. -As a result of assimilation, the person, when faced with a new experience, applies old ways of doing things. -For infants, this might involve applying the schema of sucking to whatever new object they encounter. Accommodation: occurs when individuals adjust their schemas to new information. -Accommodation means that rather than using one's old ways of doing things, a new experience promotes new ways of dealing with experience. -the infant who has been sticking everything in her mouth might begin to accommodate the sucking schema by being more selective with it. PIAGET'S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1. Sensorimotor stage: lasts from birth to about 2 years of age. In this stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with motor (physical) actions. By the end of this stage, 2-year-olds show complex sensorimotor patterns and are beginning to use symbols or words in their thinking. -Object permanence: Piaget's term for the crucial accomplishment of understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched. 2. Preoperational stage: lasts from approximately 2 to 7 years of age. Children begin to represent their world with words, images, and drawings. Thus, their thoughts begin to exceed simple connections of sensorimotor information and physical action. 3. Concrete operational stage: (7 to 11 years of age) involves using operations and replacing intuitive reasoning with logical reasoning in concrete situations. One important skill at this stage of reasoning is the ability to classify or divide things into different sets or subsets and to consider their interrelations. 4. Formal operational stage: cognitive development at 11 to 15 years of age. This stage continues through the adult years. Socioemotional Development Temperament: refers to an individual's behavioral style and characteristic ways of responding. Attachment Infant attachment: the close emotional bond between an infant and his or her caregiver. Secure attachment: to describe how infants use the caregiver, usually the mother, as a secure base from which to explore the environment. Parenting and Childhood Socioemotional Development Authoritarian parenting: a strict punitive style. The authoritarian parent firmly limits and controls the child with little verbal exchange. Ex: “You do it my way or else” Authoritative parenting: encourages the child to be independent but still places limits and controls on behavior. “You know you should not have done that; let's talk about how you can handle the situation better next time.” Neglectful parenting: distinguished by a lack of parental involvement in the child's life. Permissive parenting: places few limits on the child's behavior. Moral Development Preconventional: The individual's moral reasoning is based primarily on the consequences of a behavior and on punishments and rewards from the external world. Conventional: The individual abides by standards learned from parents or society's laws. Postconventional: The individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then develops an increasingly personal moral code. Chapter 10 Psychodynamic Perspectives Personality: a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world. Psychodynamic perspectives on personality emphasize that personality is primarily unconscious (that is, beyond awareness). Structures of Personality Id: consists of unconscious drives and is the individual's reservoir of sexual energy. Ego: Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality. Superego: the harsh internal judge of our behavior. The superego is reflected in what we often call conscience and evaluates the morality of our behavior.
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