Exam 4 Study Guide
Exam 4 Study Guide BIOL 2601 - 01
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BIOL 2601 - 01
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Suzanne Notetaker on Tuesday November 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2601 - 01 at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Asch in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 142 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 11/24/15
ll 12 13 14 What type of DNA is used in gene cloning a Recombinant b Bacterial c Linear d Your e None of the above What is the purpose of the vector DNA and what are the common vectors In step 2 in gene cloning DNA is cut using and is linked paste using What is the goal of gene cloning Once a vector carries a selectable marker growth on ampicillin plates indicates bacteria contain with the marker a Recombinant b Plasmid c Viral d DNA e None of the above Recircularized plasmids form colonies and desired recombinant vectors form colonies a Red white b White red c White blue d Blue white e Pink white What is the purpose of electrophoresis The rate at which the DNA travel is based on Explain the three components of the Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR denaturation primer annealing and primer extension Which artificial chromosome contains more base pairs bacterial or yeast In Dideoxy chaintermination method ddNTPs are missing a 3 OH group b 5 OH group c 3 H group d 5 H group e Both A and B What are the two technologies that are used in biotechnology Prokaryotes usually have chromosomes and often have plasmids a 46 b Linear c 92 d Circular e A and D Venter Smith and Colleagues sequenced the first complete genome using What are two strategies to map a large genome 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 T or F Genome size is the same as the number of genes T or F Most of the genome is noncoding What are transposable elements and what are their roles T or F DNA transposons have identical DNA sequences but run in opposite direction T or F One of the goals of the Human Genome Project was to sequence the entire human genome Proteomes are larger than genomes due to alternative splicing and What is a ortholog What uses a genetic sequence to find homologous sequences in a large database What is the heritable change in one or more characteristics from one generation to the next a Mutation b Adaptation c Natural selection d Evolution e None of the above Brie y describe how these people contributed to the theory of evolution a Buffon b Lamarck c Malthus Empirical thought relies on observation to form a hypothesis while uniformitarianism hypothesis is Who formulated the theory of evolution and noticed distinctive traits of island species a Buffon b Lamarck c Wallace d Darwin e C and D Evolution or the descent of medication is based on and T or F The horse is a prime example of how evolution involves adaptation to changing environments fossil record What is endemic Where two difference species from different lineages show similar characteristics because they occupy similar environments a Convergent evolution b Homology c Selective breeding d Microevolution e None of the above What programprocedure modifies traits in domesticated species artificial species a Convergent evolution b Homology 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 c Selective breeding d Interbreeding e None of the above Anatomical developmental and molecular are the three homologies Explain them What are paralogs What is horizontal gene transfer T or F Population is the study of genes and genotypes What is a gene pool What is a group of individuals of the same species that occupy the same environment and interbreed HardyWeinberg Equation p2 2pq q2 1 What does each component mean What are the conditions of the HardyWeinberg even though in reality no population meets them T or F Microevolution is a change in a single gene in a population Natural selection are beneficial heritable traits that become more common in successive generations and result in Brie y describe the four natural selection patterns a Directional b Stabilizing c Disruptivediversifying d Balancing Sexual selection is Where certain traits make it more likely for individuals to findchoose a mate Brie y describe the two types a change in allelic frequency due to random chance a Bottleneck b Genetic drift c Speciation d Cladogenesis e Founder effect A natural disaster that dramatically reduces the population is an example of What a Genetic drift b Speciation c Founder effect d Cladogenesis e Bottleneck T or F The Founder Effect is When a large group of individuals separates from the population T or F Neutral evolution is cause by genetic drift Brie y describe the three types of nonrandom mating a Assortative b Disassortative c Inbreeding Macroevolution is evolutionary changes that create new species and 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 Morphological physical traits can cause a problem in identifying a species because members of same species can look and members of different species can look Brie y explain the five Prezygotic barriers of reproductive isolation a Habitat isolation b Temporal isolation c Behavioral isolation d Mechanical isolation e Gametic isolation Brie y explain the three Postzygotic barriers that block the development of fertile individuals a Hybrid inviability b Hybrid sterility c Hybrid breakdown What is a unique set of habitat resources a species requires and its in uence on the environment a Speciation b Cladogenesis c Gradualism d Adaptation e Ecological niche Speciation is the formation of a new species Explain allopatric and sympatric speciation What is the division of species into two or more species a Cladogenesis b Polyploidy c Adaptation d Gradualism e None of the above Gradualism is where a species evolves over long spans of time What is punctuated equilibrium What is the science of describing naming and classifying living and extinct organisms and viruses a Systematics b Taxonomy c Binomial nomenclature d Bioinformatics e None of the above What is the highest taxon level In binomial nomenclature the genus and species name is Phylogenetic tress describe phylogeny which is New species can be formed by cladogenesis and different species Cladistics studies and classifies species based on 0139 single species evolves into 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 What is Symplesiomorphy and synapomorphy T or F The ingroup is the group we re interested in in the phylogenetic tree T or F Most mutations are neutral Extremophiles or can live in environments with high salt content high acidity high methane levels and high temperatures Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria abundant in fresh water oceans and wetlands and surfaces of arid soils that generate and give rise to Mitochondria and plastids come from a Proteobacteria b Cyanobacteria c Eukaryotes d A and B e None of the above What are the shapes of bacteria listed a Spheres b Rods c Commonshaped d Spiralshaped What are the functions of mucilage Gram positive is thick and a dye is held in the layer Gram negative is thin and a stain is on the cells What two things helps the cell move Akinetes are found in cyanobacteria and develop when comes Endospores is a touch protein coat found in some gram bacteria Brie y describe the organisms of nutrition classification a Autotrophs b Photoautotrophs c Chemoautotrophs d Heterotrophs e Photoheterotrophs f Chemoorganotrophs Brie describe the organisms of oxygen response classification a Obligate aerobes b Facultative aerobes c Obligate anaerboes d Aerotolerant anaerobes What are the symbiotic roles of biotechnology applications a Symbiosis b Parasitism c Mutualism d Pathogens ANSWERS WNQMPP PF 11 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 A Carrier for DNA segment to be cloned Plasmid and viral Restriction enzymes DNA ligase Recombinant vector taken up by bacteria B D Separate macromolecules DNA or proteins on a gel Charge sizelength and mass Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR a Denaturation heat DNA to separate strands b Primer annealing lower temp so primers can bind to template DNA c Primer extension incubate at higher temp Yeast 10 Insulin transgenics GMOs 12 13 14 15 16 17 A D Haemophilus in uenza Extensive mapping and Shotgun DNA sequencing False True DNA that move from original site to a new site Can insert themselves and replicate do harm and benefit a species new genetic combinations True True Posttranslational covalent modification Homologous genes in different species BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool D Brie y describe how these people contributed to the theory of evolution a Buffon life forms change over time b Lamarck some animals change while others don t c Malthus only fraction of population will survive and reproduce Slow geological process that leads to substantial change D Variation natural selection True Naturally found in particular location A C Anatomical developmental and molecular are the three homologies Explain them a Anatomical set of bones undergo evolutionary change Vestigial no function but resemble common ancestor b Developmental similar in embryonic stage but differ as adults 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 c Molecular similar at molecular level and evolved from ancestor Homologous genes within single species Exchange of genetic material among different species False All of the alleles for every gene in a population Population HardyWeinberg Equation p2 2pq q2 1 What does each component mean a p29 homozygote dominant 2pq9heterozygote qz homozygote recessive Conditions a No new mutations b No natural selection c Population is large d No migration between different populations e Random mating True Adaptations Brie y describe the four natural selection patterns a Directional individuals with extreme phenotype have advantage b Stabilizing individuals with intermediate average phenotype have advantage c Disruptivediversifying favors two or more genotypes and produce different phenotypes not being average d Balancing maintains genetic diversity Intrasexual between members of same sex competition Intersexual between members of opposite sex female s choice showy males B E False True Brie y describe the three types of nonrandom mating a Assortative similar phenotypes mate b Disassortative dissimilar phenotypes mate c Inbreeding mate based on genetic history Diversity Different similar Brie y explain the five Prezygotic barriers of reproductive isolation a Habitat isolation geographic barrier prevents contact b Temporal isolation reproduce at different time of dayyear c Behavioral isolation important in mate choice d Mechanical isolation size in genitalia prevents mating e Gametic isolation gametes fail to unite Brie y explain the three Postzygotic barriers that block the development of fertile individuals a Hybrid inviability fertilized egg can t progress past early embryo 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 b Hybrid sterility interspecies hybrid viable but sterile c Hybrid breakdown hybrids viable and fertile but subsequent generations have genetic abnormalities E Allopatric members of species become geographically separated Sympatric members of species Within same range diverge into two or more species A Species in equilibrium for long periods and then short rapid bursts of change B Domain Italicized or underlined Evolutionary history of species Anagenesis Evolutionary relationships Symplesiomorphy shared primitive character inherited from ancestors older than last common ancestor Synapomorphy derived character originated in most recent common ancestor True True Archaea Oxygen plastids A What are the shapes of bacteria listed a Spheres cocci b Rods bacilli c Commonshaped vibrios d Spiralshaped spirochaetes exible sprilli rigid Evade host defenses and hold colony together biofilms Purpleblue pink Flagella and pili Winter Positive Brie y describe the organisms of nutrition classification a Autotrophs produce all or most of own organic compounds b Photoautotrophs uses light energy for synthesis of organic compounds c Chemoautotrophs use energy from chemical modification of inorganic compounds d Heterotrophs require at least one organic compounds often more e Photoheterotroph use light energy to make ATP but must take in organic compounds from environment f Chemoorganotroph obtain organic molecules for energy and carbon source Brie y describe the organisms of oxygen response classification a Obligate aerobes require oxygen b c d Facultative aerobes can use oxygen or not Obligate anaerboes can t tolerate oxygen Aerotolerant anaerobes don t use oxygen but not poisoned by it 77 What are the symbiotic roles of biotechnology applications a b c d Symbiosis organism lives in close association With one another Parasitism one partner bene ts from other s expense Mutualism association benefits both partners Pathogens parasitic microbe cause disease systems by obtaining organic compounds from liVing hosts parasites
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