PSYC Exam 3 Study Guide!
PSYC Exam 3 Study Guide! PSYC 10213
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maycie Tidwell on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 10213 at Texas Christian University taught by Wehlburg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Science at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
PSYC: Exam 3 study guide Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12 Thinking: cognition. A process that involves knowing, understanding, remembering, and communicating. Thinking involves a number of mental activities: 1. Concepts 2. Problem solving 3. Decision making 4. Judgment formation Concepts: The mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. There are a variety of chairs but their common features define the concept of a chair. We organize concepts into category hierarchies. Development of Concepts: We form some concepts with definitions. For example, a triangle has three sides. Mostly, we form concepts with mental images or typical examples (prototypes). For example, a robin is a prototype of a bird, but a penguin is not. Problem solving strategies include: 1. Trial and Error 2. Algorithms 3. Heuristics 4. Insight Organizational psychology: considers how work environments and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity. Organizational Psychologists modify job supervision in ways that boost morale and productivity. Personnel Psychology: applies psychology’s methods and principles to selecting and evaluating workers. Personnel psychologists match people with jobs, by identifying and placing well-suited candidates. Algorithms: Are very time consuming, exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. Computers use algorithms. (how to find the right answer) (unscrambling letters) Heuristics: simple, thinking strategies that allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Heuristics are less time consuming, but more error-prone than algorithms. *Heuristics make it easier for us to use simple principles to arrive at solutions to problems. Ex: picking cereal at the grocery store. Heuristics are much easier and faster for problem solving than algorithms. *Sometimes heuristics can give us a wrong answer The Belief Perseverance Phenomenon: Belief perseverance is the tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Ex: If you see that a country is hostile, you are likely to interpret their ambiguous actions as a sign of hostility. Ex: if you think a student is bad, then anything they do wrong will be extremely wrong. And vice versa. Availability heuristics: Why does our availability heuristic lead us astray? Whatever increases the ease of retrieving information increases its perceived availability. *If we have just had info. presented to us, is what we will look for and see most. How is retrieval facilitated? 1. How recently we have heard about the event. 2. How distinct it is. 3. How correct it is. Representative heuristics: Judging the likelihood of things or objects in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, a particular prototype. Ex: You’d think that a small man with glasses who likes poetry is more likely to be an Ivy League professor rather than a truck driver. Overconfidence: Intuitive heuristics, confirmation of beliefs, and the inclination to explain failures increase our overconfidence. Overconfidence is a tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments. Ex: In the stock market, both the seller and the buyer may be confident about their decisions on a stock. Ex: thinking you’re really good at basketball and will become a professional/ don’t need to go to college. Exaggerated Fear: The opposite of having overconfidence is having an exaggerated fear about what may happen. Such fears may be unfounded. Ex: The 9/11 attacks led to a decline in air travel due to fear. The Effects of Framing: Decisions and judgments may be significantly affected depending upon how an issue is framed. When we only look at things with a specific perspective. Ex: Will you buy 25% fat beef or 75% lean beef? You’ll buy 75% lean! Even though they’re exactly the same. Language: our spoken, written, or gestured work, is the way we communicate meaning to ourselves and others. *Children learn their native languages much before learning to add 2+2. *We learn, on average (after age 1), 3,500 words a year, amassing 60,000 words by the time we graduate from high school. Stages: Babbling Stage: Beginning at 4 months, the infant spontaneously utters various sounds, like ah-goo. Babbling is not imitation of adult speech. *even deaf born children babble. One-Word Stage: Beginning at or around his first birthday, a child starts to speak one word at a time and is able to make family members understand him. The word doggy may mean look at the dog out there. Two-Word Stage: Before the 2nd year, a child starts to speak in two- word sentences. This form of speech is called telegraphic speech because the child speaks like a telegram: “Go car,” means I would like to go for a ride in the car. Longer phrases: After telegraphic speech, children begin uttering longer phrases (Mommy get ball) with syntactical sense, and by early elementary school they are employing humor. You never starve in the desert because of all the sand-which-es there. Explaining Language Development: 1. Operant Learning: Skinner (1957, 1985) believed that language development may be explained on the basis of learning principles such as association, imitation, and reinforcement. *We learn language from being rewarded. (Clapping and smiling) 2. Inborn Universal Grammar: Chomsky opposed Skinner’s ideas and suggested that the rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, and thus most of it is inborn. * We learn language so fast that there MUST be something in our brain that helps us learn a language. *Childhood is a critical period for fully developing certain aspects of language. Children never exposed to any language (spoken or signed) by about age 7 gradually lose their ability to master any language. *Learning new language gets harder as you get older Language Influences Thinking: *Language and thinking intricately intertwine. Linguistic Determinism: Whorf (1956) suggested that language determines the way we think. For example, he noted that the Hopi people do not have the past tense for verbs. Therefore, the Hopi cannot think readily about the past. *When a language provides words for objects or events, we can think about these objects more clearly and remember them. It is easier to think about two colors with two different names (A) than colors with the same name (B) Semantics: the branch of language that concerned with meaning. Fixation: An inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. This impedes problem solving. An example of fixation is functional fixedness. *Something that gets in the way of us from looking at something in a new perspective. Ex: when you need a hammer so you spend time going to look for one, when you could have just used a shoe as a hammer. Ex: The Matchstick Problem: How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles? Ex: mounting a candle on a bulletin board. Functional fixedness: a cognitive bias that limits a person to using an object only in the way it is traditionally used. The concept of functional fixedness originated in Gestalt Psychology, a movement in psychology that emphasizes holistic processing. Wolfgang Kohler: was one of the founders of Gestalt psychology. He did research on insight learning, which he tested on chimpanzees. Kohler attempted to prove that animals arrive at a solution through insight rather than trial and error. In one experiment, Kohler placed bananas outside Sultan's cage and two bamboo sticks inside his cage. Neither stick was long enough to reach the bananas so the only way to reach the bananas was to put the sticks together. Kohler demonstrated to Sultan the solution by putting his fingers into the end of one of the sticks. However, this did not help Sultan solve the problem. After some contemplation, Sultan put the two sticks together and created a stick long enough to reach the bananas outside his cage. Kohler described three properties of insight learning. First, insight-learning is based on the animal perceiving the solution to the problem. Second, insight- leaning is not dependent on rewards. Third, once a problem has been solved, it is easier to solve a similar problem. Ch. 10: Intelligence Intelligence: (in all cultures) is the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations. In research studies, intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures. This tends to be “school smarts.” Charles Spearman: The idea that general intelligence (g) exists. He helped develop the factor analysis approach in statistics. *Athleticism, like intelligence, is many things. Spearman proposed that General Intelligence: is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysis. - For example, people who do well on vocabulary examinations do well on paragraph comprehension examinations, a cluster that helps define verbal intelligence. Other factors include a spatial ability factor, or a reasoning ability factor. Convergent Thinking: the ability to give the "correct" answer to standard questions that do not require significant creativity. Divergent Thinking: a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. Creativity: the ability to produce ideas that are both novel (new) and valuable. It correlates somewhat with intelligence. 1. Expertise: A well-developed knowledge base. 2. Imaginative Thinking: The ability to see things in novel ways. 3. A Venturesome Personality: A personality that seeks new experiences rather than following the pack. 4. Intrinsic Motivation: A motivation to be creative from within. 5. A Creative Environment: A creative and supportive environment allows creativity to bloom. Savant syndrome: a condition in which a person with a mental disability, such as an autism spectrum disorder, demonstrates profound and prodigious capacities or abilities far in excess of what would be considered normal. Emotional intelligence: the ability to perceive, understand, and use emotions (Salovey and others, 2005). The test of emotional intelligence measures overall emotional intelligence and its four components. 4 Components: 1. Perceive emotion: Recognize emotions in faces, music and stories 2. Understand emotion: Predict emotions, how they change and blend 3. Manage emotion: Express emotions in different situations 4. Use emotion: Utilize emotions to adapt or be creative Alfred Binet: Alfred Binet and his colleague Théodore Simon practiced a more modern form of intelligence testing by developing questions (by Age) that would predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system. Lewis Terman: In the US, Lewis Terman adapted Binet’s test for American school children and named the test the Stanford-Binet Test. The following is the formula of Intelligence Quotient (IQ), introduced by William Stern: IQ= (Mental age/chronological age) x100 Standardization: Standardizing a test involves administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful comparison. *Always given in the exact same way. Reliability: A test is reliable when it yields consistent results. To establish reliability researchers establish different procedures: 1. Split-half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are. 2. Test-Retest Reliability: Using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency. Validity: Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict. Ex: going in to a psychology class and being given a geometry test. (reliable but not valid) Ex: measuring head sizes (reliable but not valid) 1. Content Validity: Refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait. 2. Predictive Validity: Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait. Normal curve: Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve. (between high intelligence IQ 135 and mentally retarded IQ 70). Bias in Intelligence Testing: Pencil and paper IQ tests may be intrinsically biased towards Western culture. Furthermore, while African-Americans (less schooling) have historically scored lower than white Americans on intelligence testing, this gap as been lessening in recent years. Chapter 11: Motivation: a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. Ex: Aron Ralston was motivated to cut his arm in order to free himself from a rock that pinned him down. 4 Perspectives on Motivation: 1. Instinct Theory (replaced by the evolutionary perspective) 2. Drive-Reduction Theory 3. Arousal Theory 4. Hierarchy of Motives Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned. Ex: Where the human builds different kinds of houses the bird builds only one kind of nest. Drives and Incentives: When the instinct theory of motivation failed, it was replaced by the drive-reduction theory. A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. Incentive: Where our needs push, incentives (positive or negative stimuli) pull us in reducing our drives. Ex: A food-deprived person who smells baking bread (incentive) feels a strong hunger drive. Drive Reduction Theory: created by Clark Hull. He said that the reduction of drives is the primary force behind motivation. Ex: when you are hungry (hunger =a drive) you are more motivated to get food. Hull says that your body works to maintain homeostasis, or a certain state of balance or equilibrium. Hull suggests that we will repeat any behavior to reduce drives such as thirst, hunger or need for warmth. A Hierarchy of Motives: Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that certain needs have priority over others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, self-esteem, and the need for recognition. Hierarchy of Needs: Anorexia Nervosa: A condition in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent woman) continuously loses weight but still feels overweight. Bulimia Nervosa: A disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, using laxatives, fasting, or excessive exercise. Obesity and Weight Control: Fat is an ideal form of stored energy and is readily available. In times of famine, an overweight body was a sign of affluence. Obesity: A disorder characterized by being excessively overweight. Obesity increases the risk for health issues like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, and back problems. Ostracism: Social exclusion leads to demoralization, depression, and at times nasty behavior. Attitudes towards work: People have different attitudes toward work. Some take it as a: 1. Job: Necessary way to make money. 2. Career: Opportunity to advance from one position to another. 3. Calling: Fulfilling a socially useful activity. Sources of Achievement Motivation: Why does one person become more motivated to achieve than another? Parents and teachers have an influence on the roots of motivation. - Emotional roots: learning to associate achievement with positive emotions. - Cognitive roots: learning to attribute achievements to one’s own competence, thus raising expectations of oneself. People with a high need to achieve tend to: Choose tasks that allow for success, yet Still require skill and effort, and Keep persisting until success is achieved. Flow & Rewards: Flow is the experience between no work and a lot of work. Flow marks immersion into one’s work. People who “flow” in their work (artists, dancers, composers etc.) are driven less by extrinsic rewards (money, praise, promotion) and more by intrinsic rewards. James-Lange Theory: the idea that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience. (This theory opposed the commonsense view). Cannon-Bard Theory: proposes that an emotion-triggering stimulus and the body’s arousal take place simultaneously. Two-Factor theory: suggests that our physiology AND cognitions create emotions. Emotions have 2 factors: physical arousal and cognitive label. (Explains why 2 people might feel 2 different emotions in the same situation) *ex: some people like scary movies, and some people hate them. Some people hate rollercoasters, some hate them). The cognitive label is taking context into consideration. Feel Good Do Good phenomenon: When we feel happy, we are more willing to help others. Ex: donating to charity. Catharsis: Venting anger through action or fantasy achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.” This hypothesis is not always true because anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit-forming. Cognition and Emotion: What’s the connection between how we think (cognition) and how we feel (emotion)? Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking? Ex: Going into something that you are scared of with a different attitude to help you not be afraid. Emotion: Expressed emotion: emotions are expressed on the face, by the body, and by intonation of voice. *Is this nonverbal language of emotion universal? Detecting Emotion: most of us are good at deciphering emotions through nonverbal communication. (in a crowd a people, an angry face with pop out more than a happy one) Culture and Emotion: pretty much universal, not learned behavior. (part of our genetic makeup) *Charles Darwin speculated that our ancestors communicated with facial expressions in the absence of language, and that’s how they survived. Emotional Influences: based on 3 levels Biological Influences Psychological Influences Social-Cultural Influences (learned) *Shame and guilt are learned behavior (not shown in infants) *Anger is very powerful and the causes of anger include: 1. People generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they’re willful, unjustified, and avoidable. 2. People are also angered by foul odors, high temps, traffic jams, and aches and pains. *Anger builds on anger. Ex: Malcom in the middle scene with the cars. *Happiness. Happy people see world as safer place, make decisions easier, more cooperative, rate job applicants higher, and live a healthier, energized and satisfied lives. * Money and wealth does NOT cause happiness. Stress: any circumstance (real or perceived) that threatens a person’s well being. Stress can be adaptive. We need some stress, its not always bad. (It’s about how we react and respond to stress that can cause problems) We only need short term stress Too much stress (chronic stress) over time can increase illness and health problems When we feel severe stress, our ability to cope with it is impaired. Stress and Stressors: Stress is a slippery concept. At times it is the stimulus (missing an appointment) and at other times it is a response (sweating while taking a test). Stress is not merely a stimulus or a response. It is a process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges. The Stress Response System: Cannon proposed that the stress response (fast) was a fight-or- flight response marked by the outpouring of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the inner adrenal glands, increasing heart and respiration rates, mobilizing sugar and fat, and dulling pain. It’s important to have a positive cognitive response to be less stressed out. General Adaptation Syndrome: According to Selye, a stress response to any kind of stimulation is similar. The stressed individual goes through three phases. Phase1: Alarm phase (mobilize resources) Phase 2: Resistance (cope with stressor) Phase 2: Exhaustion (reserves are depleted) Stressful Life Events: Catastrophic Events: Catastrophic events like earthquakes, combat stress, and floods lead individuals to become depressed, sleepless, and anxious. Significant Life Changes: The death of a loved one, a divorce, a loss of job, or a promotion may leave individuals vulnerable to disease, also moving to a new school/making new friends. 18-19 year olds deal with the most stress. Daily Hassles: Rush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, and becoming burnt-out are the most significant sources of stress and can damage health. Stress and the Heart: Stress that leads to elevated blood pressure may result in coronary heart disease, a clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle. Personality Types: Type A is a term used for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people. *Type A personalities are more likely to develop coronary heart disease. Type B refers to easygoing, relaxed people. Stress and Susceptibility to Disease: A psychophysiological illness is any stress-related physical illness such as hypertension and some headaches. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a developing field in which the health effects of psychological, neural, and endocrine processes on the immune system are studied. B lymphocytes fight bacterial infections, T lymphocytes attack cancer cells and viruses, and microphages ingest foreign substances. During stress, energy is mobilized away from the immune system making it vulnerable. Stress and Colds: People with the highest life stress scores were also the most vulnerable when exposed to an experimental cold virus. Stress and AIDS: Stress and negative emotions may accelerate the progression from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Stress and Cancer: Stress does NOT create cancer cells. Researchers disagree on whether stress influences the progression of cancer. However, they do agree that avoiding stress and having a hopeful attitude cannot reverse advanced cancer. The more calm and less stressed you are, the better your body can deal with recovering. Coping with Stress: Reducing stress by changing events that cause stress or by changing how we react to stress is called problem-focused coping. Emotion-focused coping is when we cannot change a stressful situation, and we respond by attending to our own emotional needs. We change how we respond to things that we can’t change. Perceived Control: Research with rats and humans indicates that the absence of control over stressors is a predictor of health problems. It's all about whether we believe that we have control over something. When we believe we can control things, we can endure much worse situations. Explanatory Style: People with an optimistic (instead of pessimistic) explanatory style tend to have more control over stressors, cope better with stressful events, have better moods, and have a stronger immune system. Social Support: Supportive family members, marriage partners, and close friends help people cope with stress. Their immune functioning calms the cardiovascular system and lowers blood pressure. Managing Stress Effects: Having a sense of control, an optimistic explanatory style, and social support can reduce stress and improve health. Ex: choosing the classes you take in college can help you feel more in control and less stressed. Aerobic Exercise: Can aerobic exercise boost spirits? Many studies suggest that aerobic exercise can elevate mood and well-being because aerobic exercise raises energy, increases self-confidence, and lowers tension, depression, and anxiety. A great way to deal with stress. Biofeedback, Relaxation, and Meditation: Biofeedback systems use electronic devices to inform people about their physiological responses and gives them the chance to bring their response to a healthier range. Ex: monitoring your heart rate! Fitbit! Relaxation and meditation have similar effects in reducing tension and anxiety. Lowering your heart rate can help lower stress! Life-style Modification: Modifying a Type-A lifestyle may reduce the recurrence of heart attacks. Changing jobs Going to yoga, etc. Spirituality & Faith Communities: Regular religious attendance has been a reliable predictor of a longer life span with a reduced risk of dying.
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