International Politics Identifications Study Guide
International Politics Identifications Study Guide PSC 1003
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jaimee Kidd on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Talmadge in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
International Politics Midterm Identifications • War aversion • Define: War aversion would mean that a state is actively pursuing policies that would deter them from getting involved in war. They would be focused on diplomatic policies and defensive build ups of power so not to trigger another state into thinking they are acting aggressively. • Importance: Leads into the basis for international theories, explains state actors • Class Connection: Security & Cooperation • Realism • Define: Begins with the core assumption that the function of international relations is anarchy - not meaning chaos, but lack of hierarchy. Also assumes that states are rational state actors, acting in their own interest. (Unitary rational actors.) “Self-help system.” Leads to conflict and balancing. There is defensive realism which adds the security dilemma. There is offensive realism which includes buck-passing and the idea that states need to maximize their power. Lastly, there is motivational realism which brings the cause of power maximization on states motivations; being greedy or security seeking. This idea includes bandwagoning. • Importance: International theory explaining conflict throughout the course • Class Connection: Security & Conflict • Liberalism • Define: Focuses on interdependence, emphasizing that international politics are highly independent. Looks at values and preferences of states, what do states want? This theory includes a lot of trade, democracy, cooperation, and progress. Neo-Institutional Liberalism is a piece of this theory which utilizes all the assumptions of structural realism except for security. It follows that rules and norms are in place to reduce transaction cost, spread information, have reputations in place, and further cooperation. Secondly, Democratic Peace Theory/Democratic Liberalism explains that democracies don’t fight wars with other democracies. • Importance: International theory explaining cooperation and trade • Class Connection: Security & Cooperation • Anarchy • Define: An assumption of the international system made by realism. In this context it does not mean chaos, but lack of hierarchy. • Importance: Assumption made of the international system in realism • Class Connection: Security & Conflict • Security seekers vs. greedy states • Security Seeking states are states that will pursue foreign policy that will keep them secure and increase their chance of survival. They will only become reactionary in the international system when other states infringe upon their security. Greedy states, however, actively pursue additional territory in their foreign policy. They have offensive and aggressive military plans and aspects. • Democratic peace (normative and institutional/structural) • Define: Liberal theory that argues that democracies do not fight wars with other democracies • Importance: Applies to the broader idea of liberalism, implies that if the whole world is democratic there will be no war • Class Connection: Security & Cooperation • Issue indivisibility • Define: State Actors can physically not come up with a bargain meaning war is inevitable to happen in order to resolve a conflict • Importance: Explains why even rational actors might go to war • Class Connection: Security & Conflict • Spiral model • Define: Security seeking states are afraid of greedy states but there is uncertainty as to what the other state is in terms of security seeking or greedy; key points: rational actors, security seeking, fear • Importance: Connection to the Peloponnesian War, different foreign policies based on this, explains conflict (one explanation of conflict) • Class Connection: Security & Conflict • Deterrence model • Define: This model can work in two ways: (1) In reaction to the knowledge of an existing greedy state, opposing states can make threats by building up their own armies in order to increase the cost of war and thus DETER the greedy state, however, this only works when you don’t actually go to war. (2) In reaction to uncertainty, building up of an army or some sort of aggression like this will fall into the spiral model. • Importance: Explains foreign policy models • Class Connection: Security & Conflict • Quadruple Alliance • Define: Consisted of UK, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. These countries wanted to check the power of France and also did not want outside powers to have say in their affairs, an alliance would do both of these. Created the Concert System to avoid conflict. • Importance: Balancing, trying external balancing against France, connections to realism • Class Connection: Security & Cooperation • Cobden-Chevalier Treaty • Define: Liberalization of trade—free trade agreement between Britain and France. When you give things to one country and have trade agreements, you have to with other states ▯ spread of liberalism. • Importance: Liberalism • Economics & Cooperation • Gold Standard • Define: Britain is the main actor in the Gold Standard fixing the pound to gold to fix exchange rates to incentivize international trade and the opening up of new markets. This created a high stability of currency. However, it proved to have some problems such as the inability to manipulate currency when there were recessions. In which case countries would have to lower prices, creating high unemployment rates and people would not buy things. • Importance: WW1 Debts and the Great Depression • Economics & Cooperation • Crowe Memorandum • Define: Crow is a British diplomat in foreign relations. This is his memo stating that Germany is a greedy state seeking hegemony in Europe and then the world. Warns that you should not appease Germany because of their greedy motivations. • Importance: Uncertainty of state type, Start of WW1, motivational realism • Class Connection: Security & Conflict • Buck-passing • Define: Comes from offensive realism. If I have an ally and I know they are going to get attacked first, I let them do the balancing before I do. In other words, buck- passing is passing along the responsibility of something, in this case balancing, to someone else. • Importance: Alliances, Realism • Class Connection: Security & Conflict • Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg • Define: From Germany, plays a role in the Reassurance treaty and the Blank Check that Germany issues • Helmuth von Moltke (the younger) • Define: The Schlieffen Plan • Gustav Streseman • Define: German Chancellor and then Foreign Minister during the Weimar Republic, basically held it together as much as possible before Hitler came in • Importance: Post world war economics and conflict • Class Connection: Security/Economics & Conflict • Lender of Last Resort • Define: Last resort of lending money because no one else is able to give money. Example, US private banks in the after math of WW1 • Importance: Dawes Plan, German Reparations, Hegemon Stability Theory • Class Connection: Economics & Cooperation
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