Psych 202 Second Midterm Study Guide
Psych 202 Second Midterm Study Guide 202
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bayann Alkhatib on Wednesday November 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 202 at University of Oregon taught by Jeff Measelle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Mind and society in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 11/25/15
PSYCH 202 Midterm 2 Study Guide Week 6 Developmental Psychology: focus on developmental psychologic is on change • across the life span and the emergence of greater levels of complexity • Continuous Development: Quantitative differences possible but in the same developmental function or behavior • Discontinuous Development: stages separated by rapid growth, Qualitative differences Critical period: age range during which certain experiences must occur for development to • proceed normally (e.g. prenatal development, acquisition of ones native language). • Sensitive period: an optimal age range for certain experiences, but if experiences occur at another time, normal development is still possible • Synaptic pruning: is the brain’s way of doing away with neural connections that are not being used • Parentese: infant-directed speech (not baby-talk) Preferential Looking: infants look longer at stimuli that they ﬁnd more interesting. • • Orienting Response: infants pay more attention to novel stimuli than stimuli to which they’ve been habituated • Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Model: 1. Sensorimotor (birth-2 years) • acquire information through their senses and motor exploration recognize the self as an agent of action and begin to act intentionally • achievement of object permanence; sometime around 6-8 months; signiﬁcant • cognitive achievement! • But not an all-or nothing skill: A-not-B error 2. Pre-operational (2-7 years) • uses language, begins to represent object with images and words • reasons intuitively and largely based on appearance… egocentric thinking (early months of stage) • However, begins to think symbolically: - can pretend - beginning to attribute mental states: Theory of Mind (when humor and other characteristics begin to take place) 3. Concrete Operational (7-12 years) • increased classiﬁcation skills • beginning of logical reasoning • end of egocentrism 4. Formal Operational(12+ years) able to think logically and abstractly • • able to generate and systematically hypothesis • able to consider multiple viewpoints at once • cognitive limitations related to limited experience; invincibility • Assimilation: process of ﬁtting new information into pre-existing cognitive schemes, new experiences are reinterpreted to ﬁt into, or assimilate with, old idea Accommodation: process of taking new information in one’s environment and altering pre- • existing schemas in order to ﬁt in the new information, this happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation. • Socialization: integration of the individual and the social world • Theory of Attachment by John Bowlby (1908-1990): Security threats activate attachment system: separation anxiety example of early activation of security threat • Attachment could be deﬁned as: need for survival and contact/closeness rather than a bonding based on need for nourishment. Week 7 • Psychopathology: the word refers to mental disorders and mental distress • How do we determine what is abnormal as it relates to psychopathology? A. personal suffering: subjective distress B. violates normal standards and conduct C. disability: harmful dysfunction D. statistical approach: abnormal if rare E. diagnosable: behavior conforms to speciﬁed patterns • Diathesis-Stress Model : Combines biology and environment • “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,” or DSM, is document meant to be a scientiﬁc document and reﬂect developmental psychology, but then again this is made by human beings with professional impulses and opinions - Strengths: categorize disorders in terms of observable symptoms + common language to talk about presenting problems - Weaknesses: implies person is disordered or not, does not handle comorbidity well, culturally insensitive, and developmentally insensitive • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Social deﬁcits in: nonverbal communications (absent/ atypical use of eye contact and facial expressions or “wooden” body language), developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships, restrictive, repetitive behaviors, and/or interests (hand ﬂapping, lining up toys, parroting of words) Mood Disorders: characterized by persistent/episodic disturbances in emotion that • interfere with normal functioning in at least one realm of life. • Major Depression: severe, negative moods or lack of interests in normally pleasurable activities, eat less or more, feeling of hopelessness. • Bipolar Disorder: Less common than depression, episodes of major depression and episodes of mania (manic episodes: elevated mood, increased anxiety, diminished need for sleep, racing thoughts, extreme distractibility) • Schizophrenia: Symptoms of psychosis that alter a patient’s affect, thought, perceptions or consciousness • Types of schizophrenia: 1. paranoid: marked by delusions of persecution 2. catatonic: marked by motor abnormalities 3. disorganized: marked by loss of reality, inapt affect 4. undifferentiated: marked by multiple features 5. residual: history of at least one episode: still has negative symptoms • Anxiety Disorders: characterized by intense and pervasive anxiety or fear in absence of true danger • PTSD: Experienced by some after a traumatic event, extreme stressors. Symptoms: - Re-experiencing of the traumatic event - Emotional numbing and detachment - Hyper-vigilance and chronic arousal • Generalized Anxiety Disorder: conscious and unconscious thoughts are focus on the threat, leading to chronic anxiety • OCD: Characterized by presence of - Obsessions: recurrent persistent thoughts, impulse of image that feels intrusive or inappropriate and is difﬁcult to suppress or ignore - Compulsions: repetitive behavior or mental act that a person feels compelled to perform in response to an obsession (cant control actions have to do it) Week 8 Attention Deﬁcit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD): Difﬁculty sustaining attention in tasks or • play activities, difﬁculty following instructions, ﬁnished schoolwork, chores, etc, and difﬁculty organizing tasks and activities • Eating Disorders: Persistent disturbance of eating patterns that results in altered consumption of food • Anorexia Nervosa in the DSM-5: Restrictive eating, loss of control, fear of fat, disturbed body image. • Bulimia Nervosa in DSM-5: Episodes of binge eating, Lack of control, unusual large quantities of food, induced vomiting and excessive exercise • Binge Eating (BED) in the DSM -5: Eating more rapidly than normal - eating until uncomfortable full - Eating large amounts when not physically hungry - eating alone due to embarrassment - feeling of disgust, depression or guilt afterwards - Episodes of binge eating • Who Provides Treatment? 1. Clinical psychologists 2. Counseling Psychologists 3. Psychiatric 4. Clinical social workers 5. Psychiatric Nurses 6. Paraprofessionals (limited advanced training) 7. Spiritual provider, clergy • How do we treat psychological disorders? 1. Biologically-Based Interventions • Reﬂect medical approached to illness/disease 2. Psychologically-Based Interventions (Psychotherapy) aimed at changing patterns in thought, emotion, and/or behavior • • Psychotropic Medications: drugs that change brain neurochemistry and affect the mental process • Three general drug categories: 1. Anti-anxiety • “Tranquilizers” • Benzodiazepines (e.g. Xanax)—increase activity of GABBA • Used for short-term treatment of anxiety • Pros: - Reduced anxiety - Promotes relaxation • Cons: - Causes drowsiness - Highly addictive 2. Antidepressants Primarily used to treat depression but also used for anxiety • A. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MOA): inhibits the break down of serotonin in the synapse, resulting in more serotonin being available in synapse, also raises levels of norepinephrine and dopamine B. Selective Serotonin repute inhibitors (SSRIs): inhibit the intake of serotonin 3. Antipsychotics • used to treat schizophrenia and other disorders involving psychosis • reduce hallucinations and delusions • binds to dopamine receptors, thus blocking the effects of dopamine • Not always effective: irreversible side effects and cannot treat negative symptoms of schizophrenia • Newer antipsychotic: Clozapine: - acts on dopamine receptors and also serotonin - used only for those who don’t respond to antipsychotics - effective but risk of other side effects: low white blood cell count, seizures and diabetes • Alternative biological treatments 1. Trans-cranial Magnetic stimulation (TMS) • Electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld, which induces an electoral current in the brain • Mainly used for severe depression • Stimulation interrupts neural function of selected region 2. Surgery • Last resort in the modern day • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) 3. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) • Surgery implant electrodes deep in brain Electricity used to stimulate brain (similar to pace maker) • • Effective for treating Parkinson’s • Used for depression and OCD • “Waves” of Psychotherapies First wave = classical behaviorism • • Work with externally observable behaviors via reinforcement/punishment • Therapies for First wave: - Exposure therapy for speciﬁc phobias, OCD: grades exposure to feared stimulus - Behavioral activation depression: “fake it till you feel it: - Behavioral modiﬁcation and skills training: replacing unwanted behaviors with more adaptive ones. Modeling prosocial, appropriate behavior Second wave = cognitive behavioral approach • • Modify cognitions, emotions and behaviors • Find “errors” in thinking/replace with more adaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors • Therapies for Second wave: - Cognitive behavioral therapy (CVT) - Treats a variety of disorders, but typically depression and anxiety - Theory: Maladaptive thoughts and feelings play a fundamental role in shaping behavior • Third wave = acceptance/mindfulness-based approach • Interest in internal experience, understanding what function adaptive and maladaptive thoughts and feelings play… “play a different battle: less energy trying to get rid of it and put that energy in accepting it” - Change relationship to thoughts, rather than thoughts themselves - Draw on a variety of techniques • Therapies for Third wave: - Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) - Effective for treating a wide variety of conditions that extend beyond traditional DSM clinical disorders - Theory: psychological suffering is caused by attempting to control thoughts and feelings. Psychological suffering is normal - Mindfulness Practices also therapy for Third wave: Change in brain patterns and depression symptoms following mindfulness training
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