Inequality and Poverty Exam Study Guide
Inequality and Poverty Exam Study Guide SOC 101- Intro to Sociology
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joy Sasnett on Wednesday November 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101- Intro to Sociology at Tri-County Technical College taught by Aristide Sechandice in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views.
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Date Created: 11/25/15
Inequality and Poverty 1 Aspects of Social Structure A The Ubiquity of Social Strati cation l Strati cation a phenomenon that is nearly universal in which all societies have some sort of vertical ranking system few societies do not have this 2 Age Grad group with people who are similar in age economic functions in this case is distributed by age a mobility is possible and guaranteed b square 0 common in horticulture societies d primitive agriculture society isolated tribes 3 Status one individual s particular location in a class a an individual may have more than one status eX high in one context and low in another 4 Role what you do that goes along with your status a multiple role con icts eX addiction counselors who s job is to help people but you do not want to overspend and waste money B Inequality and Poverty Distinctions and Differences different economic levels have different cultures US has smallest welfare of the developed countries 175month l Varieties of InEquality Inequality increasing in some countries they X the population of people in poverty by using government action Equality equality of outcomesresults however much someone works they are not awarded anymore than the would normally get equality of returns get out what you put in equality of opportunity eX the american dream 2 Measures of Poverty Absolute Poverty income standard under the level of being poor Relative Poverty measure income assess people where they stand compared to the median gives rise to anomalies 3 Poverty in Global Perspective different economic levels have different cultures US has smallest welfare of the developed countries 175month if the poor did not have resources their hole is dug deeper poor pay more to do some things just because they are poor eX interest rates Relative Deprivation feelings of being deprived relative to another group Absolute Deprivation without necessary survival needs poorest people are not likely to revolt as much as non poor Revolution of Rising Expectations if gap is growing and people don t feel the higher group doesn39t deserve what they39re getting they are more likely to revolt a Political Consequences of Poverty Distributive J ustice people feel that they do not get what they deserve if people feel this way their feelings are bitter and more likely to revolt 11 Why Does Inequality Exist A Functionalist Perspective Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore thinks that things in society work for everybody or most everybody Functionalist every society has some problems that need to be answered gtkhow are we going to do all tasks gtkand with what 3 Variables 1 the more necessary the more we pay 2 the more skills the more we pay 3 the more desirable the less we pay B Con ict Perspective Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels suggests that a small number of people who are elites that oppress the mass working class is dependent on elite class of jobs 111 What is it Like to be Poor not much middle class among the elderly A The High Cost of Being Poor Poor pay more to do the same things as the rich but because they are poor using even one dollar is a big deal IV Why do Inequality and Poverty Persist A Individuallevel explanations of Poverty about an individual Aspects of Poverty Traps cannot get out of poverty like quicksand 1 If you re poor no future you live in the present 2 Poor are fatalistic they39re doomed no control over their destiny Inter city Poverty someone in their prime of the life are not able to take any life chances or opportunities around them one of the worst types De ciency of poor argument poor lacks something that keeps them form moving up out of poverty lacks the set of traits behavior The poor keep making themselves poorer 1 no motivation 2 drugs and alcohol 3 babies before they can afford it Culture of Poverty Theory Oscar Lewis poor are not taught to behave similarly to each other they just do Culture Capital Theory Pierre Bourdieu knowledge of hi ghmiddle classes comes natural to lower class Habitus someone carries their class with them hi ghermiddle people of the same class open doors for each other Human Capital Theory Gary Becker problem lack of resources given that poor people do not have an income they cant provide all the luxuries to their kids ex education Neighborhood Effects Thesis William Julius Wilson focuses on inter city poverty not a lot of opportunities neighborhood pulls you back down even when you try to get out Transmission of Wealth Argument middle classrich have major differences between them and the poor poor depend on others for sh B Societylevel Explanations of Poverty about society and poverty is good for some groups in society Inequality and poverty are necessary for the perpetuation of capitalism best anti poverty if poor people are going to do well so do rich people no government in the way and let capitalism do its thing everyone will be wealthy Hegemony Theory Antonio Gramsci cultural messages only people understand cloak inequality and make it seem somewhat good Plutocracy wealth begets opportunity wealth and opportunity more opportunities Meritocracy opposite of plutocracy everyone gets what they get based on talent education etc not based on who you knowconnections Textbook Reading for Inequality and Poverty p 5459 189195 201206 367 Social Structure the interweaving of people s interactions and relationships in more or less recurrent and stable patterns Status a position within a group or society Ascribed Status a status that is assigned to a persongroup Achieved Status a status that is earned or chosen individually by a person group Master Status a key or core status that carries primary weight in a person s interactions and relationships with others m a status that carries with it a certain set of culturally de ned rights and duties Role Performance the actual behavior of a person who occupies a status Role Set a single status may have multiple roles attached to it ex a student can be a student peer member of a sports team a citizen etc Role Con ict results when individuals are confronted with con icting expectations stemming from their simultaneous occupancy of two or more statuses Role Strain occurs when individuals nd the expectations of a single role incompatible so that they have dif culty performing the role Role Exit occurs when people stop playing roles that have been central to their lives and to their social identities
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