Study Guide Exam 4
1. What is kin selection in evolutionary theory?
Evolutionary theory explains prosocial behavior in four ways. The first is kin selection, the idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection, in the greater likelihood that genes held in common will survive. E.g. Individuals are more likely to help their own child than a stranger’s child, more likely to help a sibling than a cousin, and more likely to help a cousin than a stranger.
Second, the norm of reciprocity, the expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future. Third, group selection, the idea that social groups with altruistic members are more likely to survive in competition with other groups.
2. Can you explain the frustration-aggression hypothesis? The theory that any unpleasant stimulation will lead to emotional aggression which then leads to aggression.
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The internal state that accompanies the disappointment of an attempt to achieve.
Individuals act aggressively when they feel disappointed in their attempt to reach a goal.
3. What types of love exist?
Compassionate love: self-giving and care-giving type of love Passionate love: involves intense emotional arousal and physical attraction Companionate love: characterized by deep caring for another person, comfort and trust, and enjoyment of shared experiences E.g. elderly people
4. What types of aggression exist?
Hostile Aggression: aggression that is intended to harm another, with no other goal or motive
E.g. spreading rumors
Instrumental Aggression: hurting someone to accomplish a non-aggressive goal
E.g. one member of a couple says hurtful thing in order to bring about a breakup
Relational Aggression: aggression that is focused on the destruction of relationships or social status
E.g. A rumor designed to damage someone’s reputation; excluding someone from a social group; telling someone they can’t join a group unless they do a favor
Displaced Aggression: targeting of aggression towards a person or entity that is not the true target
E.g. Throwing a pencil at the wall, since your boss made you angry Triggered-displaced Aggression: displaced aggression towards a person who is not the actual cause of aggressive feelings, but who has done something minor to evoke those feelings Don't forget about the age old question of comm 223 concordia
E.g. the person you’re upset with did something minor to annoy you, but your reaction to the minor event is really due to the larger event that happened earlier
Violence: Physical aggression that has the potential of severely harming someone
E.g. A gunshot to the chest is violence; a slap on the cheek is better known as aggressive behavior
Direct: an attempt to hurt face to face
E.g. physical fight
Indirect: Attempt to hurt but not face to face
E.g. Rumors spread by teenage girls
Emotional Aggression: Hurtful behavior from angry feelings E.g. Child throwing a temper tantrum
5. Is Freud’s death instinct compatible with evolutionary logic? No, since it’s incompatible with the logic of natural selection E.g. animals that best promote their reproduction and own survival will have more offspring
6. Know Milgram’s findings.
Stanley Milgram completed a study of obedience where participants were asked to follow the orders of an experimenter despite the protests of a victim.
In his study, 62.5% of participants were fully obedient.
7. What is love?
Passionate-Physiological Arousal (Longing)
Intimacy-Close Bonding (Sharing, Support)
8. What is the belief in a just world phenomenon?
The belief that good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people.
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9. Is empathy a form of altruism?
No, since empathy is evidence of altruism.
Empathy engages pure altruism and overrides selfish activities.
10.What general pattern describes human heterosexual mating preferences?
Looks at attractiveness overall
Evolutionary, since they look at who could reproduce the healthiest and best offspring
Prefer status over age and attractiveness
Evolutionary, since women need help to raise an offspring and want a strong male to provide food and income
11.What is pluralistic ignorance?
The tendency to collectively misinterpret situations when a certain number of individuals are present.
E.g. Everyone waiting outside an empty lecture hall, thinking that it is being used, but nobody actually looks inside to check, they just assume it was being used since people were waiting inside
12.What situational factors can go in to suppressing helping behavior?
Risk is great than reward.
We may be in a hurry.
Other are around us (diffusion of responsibility and audience inhibition) Perceived relationship between individuals, event seems ambiguous.
13.What does bystander intervention research tell us about helping behavior?
Make the emergency situation noticeable.
Make it obvious that the event is an emergency. Don't forget about the age old question of uci gender and sexuality studies
Make sure someone takes responsibility for providing help (single someone out)
Make the type of help you need evident and do what you can to reduce cost and increase benefits. If you want to learn more check out tcu internet banking
15.What’s the difference between normative social influence and informational social influence and what research can you cite? Normative Social Influence: how other people influence our behavior through social behavior (we conform because we want to be liked and accepted) We also discuss several other topics like restaurants near wsu
Informational Social Influence: Conforming because we believe the crowd may know something we don’t
16.What kinds of games do social psychologists use to study competition/cooperation?
Non-Zero Sum Games: games in which outcomes need not to sum to zero With cooperation, both can win. With competition, and both can lose. Zero Sum Games: One player’s gain is another player’s loss.
17.What is attachment theory?
Based on the relationship that infants develop with their primary caregiver (Explains attachment behaviors later on in life)
18.What does the investment theory say about long-term relationships?
Animals making a higher investment in their offspring, will be more careful in choosing mates.
20.What is unrequited love?
Love that is not reciprocated.
21.What is our need to belong?
The need for frequent positive contact with others.
The need for enduring connections marked by mutual concern for the welfare of other.
22.What do we know about ostracism?
It’s the exclusion from a group.
E.g. In a virtual study, where people stop passing you the ball. When you step out of the study, you feel hurt and distraught.
1. Kin Selection
Closer genetic similarity there is the greater likelihood to help someone out
2. Natural Selection.
Animals that bet promote their reproduction and own survival will have more offspring
3. Parental Investment Theory
Theory of why women are more caring in general, and men with more than one wife is more common than vice versa.
4. Survival of the Fittest
The one that has adapted to the environment the best
5. Frustration-aggression hypothesis
The theory that aggression is an automatic response to any blocking of goal-directed behavior
6. Hostile Expectation bias
Refers to the tendency to assume that people will react to potential
conflicts with aggression
7. Relational Aggression Theory
Aggression that is focused on the destruction of relationships or social status
If your boss makes you angry and instead of punching him, you punch the wall instead because you want to keep your job.
The practice of persuading someone to do something by force
Going along with a group in actions or beliefs
13. Audience Inhibition
Inhibition of action (helping) that occurs because of embarrassment or self-consciousness in the presence of other people
14. Pluralistic Ignorance
The tendency to collectively misinterpret situations when a certain number of individuals are present E.g. Everyone waiting outside an empty lecture hall, thinking it’s being used. Nobody checks inside to see if it’s being used, since people are outside waiting.
15. Norm of Reciprocity
When others do something for us, we feel obligated to do something for them
16. Diffusion of Responsibility
The parceling out of responsibility to help in a large group, with the result of less helping in an emergency situation when a number of individuals are present
Wife of Laius and mother/wife of Oedipus
Kills herself when she learns truth of what has actually happened Describes the latent love a mother has for hers son
Sexual component of life, the intimate love
Ills his father and marries his mother (without knowing)
Oedipus complex is the male’s unconscious desire for the
exclusive love of his mother
Drive to destroy or drive to halt
Battles with Eros
Psychological condition of a person who has suffered (usually persistent) emotional, physical, or sexual abuse from another
Tells us that others don’t value us as much as we value them
Repeated and unwanted attention, harassment, contact or any other behavior directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fear
24. "unrequited love"
Love that is not reciprocated
25. social acceptance
Acceptance of a person into a group
The feeling that one is without desired social connections
Not influenced or controlled by others in matters of opinion, conduct (thinking or acting for oneself)
Natural feeling of being drawn to other individual and desiring their company, usually due to having a personal liking for them
29. Belief in a just World
The belief that good things happen to good people. Bad things happen to bad people. A person’s actions are inherently inclined to bring morally fair consequences.
30. kin selection
Closer genetic similarity there is the greater likelihood to help someone out
Act in which one person has received a benefit form another in return chooses to provide an equivalent benefit back
32. Rule of Law
Principle that all people and institutions are subject to and accountable to law that is fairly applied and enforced
33. Zero-sum games
One player’s gain is another player’s loss
34. non-zero-sum games
Games in which outcome need not to sum up to zero.
With cooperation, both can win and with competition, both can lose. 35. Commons Dilemma
Social dilemma of whether to continue to use resources at the expense of the future of others or sacrifice our own dire for those resources for the sake of the common (California Drought with reduction of water use) 36. Equity games
Receiving benefits proportional to what one provides. According to the equity theory, it’s not the overall amount one receives from a relationship that is important, it’s whether or not what one gives and what one gets are equlal
37. Informational Social Influence
Conforming because we believe the crowd may know something we don’t know
38. Normative Social Influence
How other people influence our behavior through social behavior (we conform because we want to be liked and accepted)
39. Obedience to Authority
Milgram completed a study of obedience where participant were asked to follow the orders of an experimenter despite the protests of a victim. In his study, 62.5% of partcipants were fully obedient
40. the power of social roles.
Ideas for expected or normal behavior are reinforced both by the individual and by society.
The expectations, responsibilities, and behaviors we adopt in certain situations.
41. social loafing
The tendency for individuals to produce less or not work as hard when working with others
A strategy for coming up with ideas as a group involving generating as many ideas as possible, with encouragement to combine, improve, or expand, improve, or expand on previous ideas
A decision making process that occurs when a desire for harmony and consensus within the group interferes with appropriate information seeking and leas to bad decision making
44. social facilitation
The tendency for the presence of others to increase the dominant response tendency.
For an easy or well-learned task, the dominant response tendency is to do well.
For a difficult or new task the dominant response is to do poorly. 45. The Commons Dilemma
Social dilemma of whether to continue to use resources at the expense of the future others or sacrifice our own desire for those resources for the sake of the common
46. Prisoner's dilemma
A social dilemma involving two individuals. If both compete, both lose. If they both cooperate, they have the best collective outcome. The best individual outcome comes when one compete and the partner cooperates. 47. The Matching Game
A tendency to have relationships with those who match us in physical attractiveness
48. The Naïve Bystander Circle
The tendency for individuals to be less likely to help in an emergency situation when others are present, due to a combination of factors including pluralistic ignorance, diffusion of responsibility, and audience inhibition.