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CLEMSON / Psychology / PSYC 3060 / What is a paraphilia?

What is a paraphilia?

What is a paraphilia?

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School: Clemson University
Department: Psychology
Course: Human Sexual Behavior
Professor: Bruce king
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Psych 306 Exam 4 Study Guide
Description: Chapter 14: Paraphilias and Sexual Variants What is a Paraphilia?  Researches have attempted to define “normal” or “abnormal” in one of three ways o Statistical approach: behavior is considered normal or conventional if a large number of people engage in it and abnormal or unconventional if only a few people do it o Sociological approach: calls a behavior unconventional if it is not customer withi
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Chapter 14: Paraphilias and Sexual Variants


What is a paraphilia?



What is a Paraphilia?

 Researches have attempted to define “normal” or “abnormal” in one of three ways

o Statistical approach: behavior is considered normal or  conventional if a large number of people engage in it and  abnormal or unconventional if only a few people do it

o Sociological approach: calls a behavior unconventional if it is  not customer within a society

o Psychological approach: focuses on the psychological health of the individual and the impact that behaviors have on this  health

 Historical Perspective

o Thomas Aquinas declared four categories of unnatural acts:  masturbation, bestiality, sodomy and unnatural positions of  intercourse

o Feud believed that any type of sexual behavior that took  precedence over heterosexual vaginal intercourse was an  indication of impaired psychosexual development


Who is thomas aquinas?



o Simon stated that sexual evident is the inappropriate or flawed performance of a conventionally understood sexual practice o Perversion can be thought of as a disease of sexual desire not  If you want to learn more check out What is the role of random mutations in evolution?

only in the sense that it appears to violate the sexual practices of a time and pace, but also because it constitutes a violation  of common understanding that render current sexual practice  plausible.  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the various types of households and families?

o According to Simon, deviance is a problem of control, while  perversion is a problem of desire

o Paraphilia: general term for a group of sexual disorders in  which repeatedly engaging in or fantasizing about unusual  behaviors is a preferred way of obtaining sexual arousal and  gratification- must be negative consequences for it to be a  disorder Don't forget about the age old question of In logic, a premise is what?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the most important key word in the law of diminishing marginal returns?

 Prevalence

o Sexual variant: unusual behaviors that are engaged in for  variety and not as one’s preferred manner of becoming  


Paraphilia refers to what?



sexually aroused.  

o Occasionally fantasies are not unusual

 Multiple and Related Paraphilias

o In a study, 62% admitted to having committed a previously  concealed deviant sexual behavior

o Most had developed their sexual interests and fantasies by age 12 or 13

o Many studies found that individuals in treatment for one type  of paraphilia often engage in other paraphilia’s

The Courtship Disorders

 A group of paraphilias (voyeurism, exhibitionism, frotteruism and  telephone scatopilia) often seen together

 Men who engage in these paraphilias also meet the criteria for  pedophilia and a minority of them engage in rape

 Four-phase sequence when interacting sexually:

o Finding phase- in this phase we locate and appraise a potential sexual partner

o Affiliate phase- in this phase we make verbal and nonverbal  overture (smiling, looking, talking) to the potential partner  o Tactile phase- here, physical contact (touching, hugging,  petting) take place We also discuss several other topics like Microscopic kidney unit that regulates blood composition by what?

o Copulatory phase- sexual intercourse occurs

 Courtship disorders have an extreme intensification of distortion  which one of these four phases

 Voyeurism

o Repeatedly seeking sexual arousal by observing nude  individuals without their knowledge or consent

o Aroused by the risk of discovery

o A similar paraphiliac behavior is an erotic preference for  masturbating to pornographic videos or photographs when  attractive sexual partner of the individual preferred age and  sex are readily available  

o Voyeurism is a disorder of the first phase, the finding phase  Exhibitionism

o Exposing one’s genitals compulsively in inappropriate settings  in order to obtain sexual gratification

o Disorder of the affiliate phase of courtship

o They engage in the behaviors compulsively- it is their  preferred means of sexual arousal

o Most victims are women and children

o In some cases of exhibitionism occur among people who are  intellectually impaired

o Only about half have erections while exposing themselves,  many masturbate right after while fantasizing about the  experience

o Best response is to give no facial or verbal reaction

o Many expose themselves in the same location

 Obscene Phone Callers

o Telephone scatophilia: a condition in which sexual arousal is achieved repeatedly by making obscene telephone calls Don't forget about the age old question of What is moral nativism?

o Disorder of the affiliate phase of courtship

o The arousal is proportionate to the victim’s reaction og  disgust, shock, fear

o They want complete anonymity

o They masturbate either during or after the call

o Most engage in 4 other paraphilias

o Best advice is to hang up immediately

 Frotteurism

o A condition in which sexual arousal is achieved repeatedly by  rubbing ones genitals against others in public places

o Disorder of the third phase, the tactile phase

o Seek out crowded busses

Pedophilia

 A condition in which sexual arousal is achieved primarily and  repeatedly through sexual activity with children who have not  reached puberty yet

 They must repeatedly seek sexual relations with children

Fetishism, Transvestism, and Related Paraphilias

 Fetishism

o A condition is which sexual arousal occurs repeatedly when  using or fantasizing about an inanimate object

o Women’s undergarments, boots, body parts, shoes

o Operant/classical conditioning

 Transvestism

o A condition in which sexual arousal is achieved repeatedly by  dressing as a member of the opposite sex (transvestic  

fetishism)

o Large majority are married men

o Most cross dress in privately

o May masturbate while cross dressing

o 1%-3% of the adult male population

 Related Fetish-Like Paraphilias

o Urophilia: sexual arousal caused by urine or the act of  urination

o Coprophilia: sexual arousal caused by feces or the act of  defecation

o Mysophilia: a condition in which sexual arousal is caused  repeatedly by filth or filthy surroundings

o Klismaphilia: a condition in which sexual arousal is achieved  repeatedly by being given an enema.  

 Many self administer the enema, but some receive it  from partners

 Some use warm water, alcoholic solutions or coffee

o Bestiality: the act of having sexual contact with an animal  17% of boys raised on a farm had sexual contact with  animal

o Zoophilia: using sexual contact with animals as the primary  means of achieving sexual gratification

 Most common is oral-genital

 Vaginal intercourse with female animal

 Masturbating the animal

 Receiving anal from male animal

 Common reasons are pleasurable sex and animal’s  

unconditional love

 Rare and a sign of sever psychological problems

Sadomasochism

 Sadism: a condition in which individuals repeatedly and intentional  inflict pain on others in order to achieve sexual arousal  

 Masochism: a condition in which individuals obtain sexual pleasure  primarily from having pain and/or humiliation inflicted on them  The linkage of the two above behaviors is sadomasochism (S&M) o Many people enjoy being bitten, slapped, pinched, or pinned  down during sex

 Domination: ruling over and controlling another individual. In  sexual relations, it generally involves humiliation of the partner as  well

 Submission: obeying and yielding to another individuals. In sexual  relations, it generally involves being humiliated by the partner   Asphyxiophilia: a condition in which sexual arousal is achieved by  restricting breathing

 Sadism is often focus on unconscious anger directed at one’s mother  Masochism is sometimes explained as sadism directed at oneself  S&M results from early associations of pain or aggression with  orgasm

Other Paraphilias

 Necrophilia: sexual arousal by a dead body

 Some kill to obtain corpses

 Vampirism, narratophilia, vomerophilia, stigmatophilia,  autogynephilia, autoandrophilia

What Causes Paraphilias?

 Genetic predisposition, abnormal brain function, bad experiences  during development, psychological trains and social/learning  processes

 Freudian therapists believe that the are the result of arrested  psychosexual development, often due to failure to resolve emotional conflicts

 Learning theorist attribute it to learn associations

Therapy

 Little evidence that therapy works

 Cognitive-behavioral therapy has had some success  Paraphiliacs are increasingly being treated for hypersexual disorder  Serotonin inhibits which reduces sexual behavior

Chapter 15: Sexual Victimization (Rape, Coercion, Harassment and Abuse of Children)

Sexual Assault

 Stranger Rape: rape committed by someone who is not known by  the victim

 Sexual assault: unwanted or non-consensual sexual contact that  occurs as a result of force or the threatened use of force, as a result  of coercion, or when the person is unable to consent or resist  (asleep, drunk, under age, unconscious)

Rape

 Rape: Non-consensual oral, anal or vaginal penetration obtain by  force, by threat of bodily harm or when the victim is incapable of  giving consent

 Rape has recently declined  

 Some states are more rape prone- Alaska, Colorado, Arkansas,  Michigan and South Dakota

 Crime data, victimization surveys are used to tract rape counts  Woman are more likely to report a rape If they are raped by a  stranger

 Types of Rape

o Acquaintance Rape: a rape committed by someone who is  know by the victim

o Date Rape: a type of acquaintance rape that is committed  during a date or social encounter agreed to by the victim o Very few acquaintance rape are reported

o Victims blame themselves

o Sexual coercion: the act of forcing another person into  unwanted sexual activity by physical or verbal coercion  

(pressure, drugs, alcohol, manipulation)

o Token resistance to sex: saying “no” to sex when one  means “yes”

o Compliance: agreeing to sexual intercourse when you do not  really want to engage in it

o Marital Rape: non-consensual sex in which the perpetrator is  the victim’s spouse

 Battering rape (anger rape), force-only rape (power  

rape), obsessive rape (sadistic rape)

o Gang rape: rape in which a victim is assaulted by more than  one attacker

o Statutory Rape: sexual intercourse by an adult with a  consenting partner who is not yet the legal age of conse.t   Legal age ranges from 16-18

 Mentally handicapped are often protected under this

 Same-Sex Rape and Coercion

o Woman can be assaulted by woman and vice versa for men

o Male rape: rape in which the victim is a male

o Bisexual and homosexuals are victims of sexual assault more  than heterosexuals

o Men can be raped by women

o Anyone can be raped and victims are not to blame

 Some Characteristics of Rapists

o Most convicted rapists are young men of lower socioeconomic  status

o Oversexed or sexually deprived

o Regular access to sex partners

o More sexually aroused by rape stimuli

o Emotionally, sexually and physically abused as a child and  neglected by their caregivers

o Distorted attitudes and beliefs about sex roles and female  behaviors, strong acceptance of rape myths, acceptance of  violence towards women and denial of personal responsibility  for their own actions

 Explanations of Rape

o Psychodynamic Theories

 A character disorder that is very resistant to change  Power rapists: rapists who commit their attacks in  order to overcome personal feelings of insecurity and  inadequacy. Their rapes give them a sense of mastery  and control

 Opportunistic rapist: rapist motivated by desire for  sex who rape impulsively when there is an opportunity  Anger rapists: rapists who commit their attacks out of  hostility or anger directed at their victims or at women in general

 Sadistic rapists: rapist who are aroused by physical  force and who derive pleasure by harming their victims o Feminist Theories

 Rape is common is societies that glorify men dominance  and violence, regard women as inferior

 War rape: rape that is committed by solders,  

combatants, or civilians during times of war, armed  

conflict or military occupation. Used to displace and  

terrorize a targeted community

o Social-Cognitive Theories

 Rapists have disputed schemas about what women  believe and desire

 View women as sexual objects

 Abused themselves as child, witnessed abuse in family  Rapist interpret rejection as seduction and positive cues o Evolutionary Theories

 Ancestral men who actively pursued sexual opportunities and had sex with many partners had higher reproductive success than men who did not

 This does not justify why men rape older women/children o Comprehensive Theories

 Multiple paths to sexual aggression, motivated by both  sex and power to different degrees

 Rape Myths

o Widespread mistaken beliefs about rape

o Myth 1: Women who are raped usually provoked the attack by  their dress and behavior

o Myth 2 and 3: women subconsciously want to be raped; no  woman can be raped if she truly does not want too be

o Myth4: women frequently make false accusations of rape  Reactions to Rape

o By the Victim

 Post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder: a group of  clinical symptoms displayed by man victims of rape;  

previously called rape trauma syndrome it includes an  

acute phase (involving initial physical and psychological  recovery from the attack) and long-term psychological  

reorganization (involving attempts to deal with the long

term effects of the attack and to prevent a future rape)

 Many lose their desire for sex

 Find it difficult to trust others

 Being to engage in high-risk behaviors

 Some suppress their feelings  

o By Significant Others

 Emotional support

 Don’t blame victim

 What happens when rape is reported?

o Rape victim advocate programs

 Investigation, victim is taken to hospital for medical  

exam

 Preventing Rape

o Prevent rapists from feeling like they will get away with it o Decrease chance of a potential victim

o Changing the social perspective of rape

Sexual Harassment

 Each year 23,000-30,000 people filed sexual harassment charges  Behavior is considered harassment when is persists after the  recipient has indicated that it is unwanted

 Verbal or written behavior about persons clothing, appearance or  body

 Sex based jokes

 Visual imagery

 Nonverbal behavioral, facial expressions

 Some Causes of Sexual Harassment

o Power-based

o Common in blue-collar occupations in which women are  underrepresented

o Many men interpreted initial resistance as part of the “game”  Sexual Harassment of Students

o Harassment in college

 30% of female students are harassed by their instructor o Harassment in Middle and High School

 May occur between peers

 Unwelcomes sexual jokes, comments or gestures

 Stalking and Unwanted Sexual Attention

o Stalking: repeated pursuit of another individual who does not  want a relationship

 International, persistent, unwanted and psychotically  averse to the target

Sexual Abuse of Children

 What is Child Sexual Abuse?

o Pubescent children

o Anything from unwanted sexual advance or being spoken to in  a sexual manner, to an incidence of indecent exposure to  inappropriate touching or acts of penetrating

 Who Molests Children?

o Large majority of molestation is by a known adult

o Preference molesters (pedophiles): child molesters who  have primarily sexual orientation to children and who are  relatively in interested in adult partners

o Situation molesters: child molesters who have a primary  sexual orientation to adults. They have sex with children  impulsively and regard behaviors as abnormal

o Pedophilia: a condition in which sexual arousal is achieved  primarily and repeatedly though sexual activity with children  who have not reached puberty

 Personally immature pedophile is most common because he is attracted to children because he has never  

developed the social skills necessary to initiate and  

maintain sexual relationship with an adult

 Regressive pedophile engages with children who are  

strangers

 Aggressive pedophile are aroused with inflicting physical injury

o Median age for fist offense is 16

o Finds positions where he has access to children (teacher, camp counselor, scout leader)

o Online sex offenders

 Use for mutual sexual gratification without direct  

physical contact

 Masturbators

 Stalkers

 Networks or swappers who exchange information  

without pedophiles

 Female Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse

o Type of female sex offenders:

 The experimenter

 The male accompanied molester

 The male coerced molester who passively participates in molest on that is orchestrated by a male

 Nurture or caregiver who uses those responsibilities to  abuse

 The physically disturbed molester who ha some for of  acute psychosis

 The teacher or lover who is typically an adult in a  

position of authority and who views the sex as  

consensual relationship between willing partners

 The traditional offender who molests children for sexual  gratification purposes

 Effects of Child Sexual Abuse

o 2/3 recover within 12-18 months

o Children blame themselves

o Poor sexual health as adults

Incest

 Refers to sexual contact between two closely related persons  Polyincestuous family: a family in which there are both multiple  incestuous abusers and multiple victims, across generations and  within the same generation

 Incest between siblings

o Brothers-sister, sister-brother, sister-sister, brother-brother  Parents-Child Incest

o Greatest emotional response in people

o Step-fathers are more likely to victimize their children than  biological

 Effects of Incest on Children

o Victims blame themselves

o PTSD

o Poor self-image

o Low self-esteem

o Anxiety

o Depression

o Eating disorders/substance abuse

o Sexual problems

 Preventing and Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

o Educate yourself, your child, contact police

Prosecution of Sexual Offenders

 Rape-shield laws: laws that make the prosecution of rapists easier  than that also prevent the victims from feeling as if the are on trial  Sexually violent predatory laws: laws allowing for the civil;  commitment of convicted violent sex offenders after they have  served their prison sentence if it can be show that they pose a  continue threat

Therapy

 Therapy does not work for rapists/molesters unless they want to do  therapy

Chapter 16: Selling Sex- Social and Legal Issues

Pornography

 Comstock Law: a law passed in 1873 that made it a felony to mail  any material regarded as obscene or lewd

 Uses of Sexually Explicit Material

o Some people say they turn to explicit material to learn about  sex

o Allows people to rehearse sexual behaviors, must as fantasy  does

o Many people consider fantasy and masturbation while looking  at sexually explicit material to be a form of safe sex

o many people enjoy the sexual arousal they get from it o people regard sexually explicit material as a form of fantasy  and use it escape from the monotony of their daily routines  Effects of Nonviolent Sexually Explicit Material

o There is no significant link between exposure of adults to  sexually explicit materials and sex crimes or other deviant or  harmful behavior

o Lyndon B Johnson’s commission recommended the repeal of  obscenity and pornography law sand advocated the teaching  of sex education in public schools

 Effects of Violent and Degrading Sexually Explicit Material o A causal relationship exits between sexually violent  

pornography and violence toward women

o Exposure to nudity alone has no detrimental effects on adult  behavior

o After watching violent sexually explicit films, many of the male subjects became less sympathetic towards female rape  victims, showed greater belief in rape myths

o However, looking at violent explicit material does not result in  men committing sex crimes

o Scientists suggest that rather than imposing stricter laws, it  might be easier to educate the public about the effects of  viewing violence so that they can make better choices about  which programs movies and books they choose to expose  themselves and their children

 Internet Sex

o Internet allows anonymity, accessibility, affordability

o “next sexual revolution”

o 75% men and 41% women watch porn

o teens who seek internet porn tend to view women as sex  objects, retain gender stereotypes, have more permissive  sexual attitudes and behaviors

o women in particular are likely to have lowered body image as  a result of watching porn

 Complete Legalization of Censorship

o Studies that when sexually explicit material is made readily  available, less people view it

o Erotica: any literature or are that has sexual theme. This is  morally neutral term

o Pornography: Literature or art with a sexual theme that is  designed to cause arousal and excitement and is considered to be obscene

o Obscenity: in legal terms, the classification of material that  by contemporary community standards depicts patently  offensive sexual conduct, lacks serious value and appeals o  prurient interests  

o We are one of the few countries whose people have the  freedom of expression

Prostitution and Other Sex Work

 Sex worker: a person who exchanges sexual activity for money  Prostitution

o Often referred to as the worlds oldest profession

o Immigration and industrialization resulted in arger urban areas and prostitution flourished in lager urban areas

o $52 billion a year industry

 Definition and Types of Prostitutes

o The exchange of money for sex

o The feature that distinguished a prostitute form other people  who engage in illicit sexual intercourse is the discrimination  with which he or she offers herself or himself to others for hire o Streetwalkers: a prostitute who solicits in public

o Brothel prostitutes: prostitute who work in houses of  prostitution

o B-girls: prostitutes who work in bards and hotels, generally  with the approval of the ownership

o Call girls: the highest-status prostitution, who generally work  out of their apartments by appointment only

o Gigolo: a male prostitute who caters to women

o Hustlers: a male prostitutes who caters to men

 Characteristics of Prostitutes

o Primary reason people engage is prostitution is for money o Street and B-girl do it for drugs

o For the typical streetwalker or b-girl, prostitution isn’t what  they think it is so they end up turning most of their earnings to the pimp and are threaten with violence if they do not

o Many were physically and sexually abused as children o Low self-esteem/identity

o Victims of rape

o Some report it as fun and enjoyment

 The Customer

o Customers are called johns, tricks or scores by prostitutes  o Customers are average men

o Men pay for sex because of feelings of inadequacy with  women, lack f partner, the desire for new partner or a novel  sexual act and the possibility of enjoying sex without the time  of effort required of an emotional involvement

o They feel empowered

o Men who pay for male prostitutes describe themselves as  heterosexual or bisexual and are married

o Not part of the open gay community

o Many of them don’t use condoms

 Force Prostitution and Sex Trafficking

o “Survival sex work”

o Many children and young adults are force into prostitution o World wide 2 million victims each year are trafficked for sex  Sex Work and the Law

o Over 2500 gentlemen’s clubs in the US

o Opponents of prostitution argue that is it often accompanied  by drug addiction and a high risk of contracting STI

o Prostitution is legal is some European countries

o Proponents advocate the licensing and regulation of  prostitutes, including regular required health checks for  sexually transmitted infections

o Proponents of prostitution say that if it was legalized  everywhere, pimps and organized crime would become less  influential

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