PSY101 Exam 4 Study Guide
PSY101 Exam 4 Study Guide PSY 101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Phoebe Chang on Friday November 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Robert Short in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 738 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 11/27/15
Social Psychology ● Attributions—dispositional and situational ➢ The tendency to find reason for something ➢ Dispositional ○ aka Internal Attribution ○ Tend to attribute the fault on the person ➢ Situational Attribution ○ aka External Attribution ○ Tend to attribute the fault on the situation ● What is the fundamental attribution error and is it influenced by culture? ➢ aka Correspondence Bias ➢ Fundamental attribution error is the bias to attribute one’s behavior to disposition than situation ➢ Cultural Influence ○ Different culture provides different expectations in terms of frames, scripts, and schemas. ○ Our inferences on other’s behavior is based on the expectations ○ Biases are how the same phenomenon can be interpreted differently by two people due to cultural influences. ● Know that your attitudes, thoughts and behaviors may be influenced both by what other people do (normative influence—such as why teens start smoking) and by information (informative influence). ➢ Normative influence ○ Attitudes, behaviors or thoughts result from the desire to be approved or fear to be disapproved by others ➢ Informative influence ○ Attitudes, behaviors or thoughts result from the willingness to learn the true knowledge or more certain information from others ● Who was Stanley Milgram and what did he find? ➢ Background ○ Yale psychologist aiming to find out how far people are willing to follow instructions when it involves harming the others. ○ The relationship between obedience to authority and personal conscience ○ Trying to see if Germans killed people as Nazi due to obedience to authority ➢ Experiment details ○ All participants were set up to be teacher; whereas the researchers are pretending to be the participant alearner. ○ There were 30 switches on the shock generator marked from 15 volts (slight shock) to 450 (severe shock) ○ Every time when the learner gives the wrong answer (on purpose of course), the teacher is supposed to give him a shock ○ There were 4 prods told if the teacher wasn’t obeying the experimenter ‣ Please continue ‣ The experiment requires you to continue ‣ It is absolutely essential that you continue ‣ You have no other choice but to continue ➢ Findings ○ 65% of the participants continued to the highest level (450 volts) ○ All participants went up to 300 volts at least ➢ Conclusion ○ People tend to follow orders given by an authority figure even if it means you’ll kill an innocent human being ○ People tend to obey when they recognize their authority as morally right or legal (e.g. family, school, workplace) ➢ Reasoning ○ Autonomous state: individual takes responsibility for themselves ○ Agentic state: individual acts as agent for another person’s will ○ To change from autonomous state to agentic state, you need ‣ Orders given are qualified to direct the individual as they are seen as legitimate ‣ The individual believes the authority will take full responsibility ● What is the footinthedoor phenomenon? Doorintheface phenomenon? ➢ Footinthedoor ○ Asking for a smaller request first so the person will more likely to agree again with the bigger request later ➢ Doorintheface ○ Asking for a bigger request that the person will most likely to reject, so one can request something milder later which the person will then accept Emotions ● JamesLange theory of emotion ➢ The state of our body determines our emotion ➢ E.g. smiling makes you feel happy ➢ We can lack emotional responses but we don’t have emotional feelings without emotional responses (responses trigger feelings) ● Who was William James? ➢ Functionalism: focusing on functions of mind ➢ Argument: Psychology is how mind functions so one can adapt to environment ● What does the amygdala do and what influence does it have on aggression? ➢ Crucial role in fear, rage and aggression ➢ Increase activities in amygdala causes increased stress response ➢ Generates hormones and autonomic reactions that accompany strong emotions ➢ If damage will cause “psychic blindness”; the inability to recognize fear in facial expressions and voice ➢ Having temporal lobe tumors that comprise the amygdala may lead to aggressive behavior such as spontaneous fits of anger or deep sadness ● According to Schachter, What would happen if you injected participants with epinephrine prior to spending time with either a euphoric or an irritated person? ➢ TwoFactor Theory: Event → Arousal → Cognitive Labels → Emotion ○ Four groups of participants ▸ Not informed with side effect of the injection ▸ Informed with the side effect of the injection ▸ Informed with the wrong side effect of the injection ▸ Placebo injection without being told what side effect to expect ○ Two condition ▸ Euphoria spending time with euphoric person ▸ Anger spending time with irritated person ○ Result ▸ Euphoric Condition ∗ Misinformed ones are the happiest ∗ Ignorant ones are the second ▸ Anger Condition ∗ Ignorant ones are the madest ∗ Placebo ones are the second ○ Explanation ▸ Epinephrine (Adrenaline) raises psychological arousal ▸ Attributing physiological responses to emotion arousal due to situational stimuli ● What types of lives predict Life Satisfaction according to our talk from Seligman? ➢ The Pleasant Life ○ Have as much fun as possible ○ Enjoy basic pleasures like environment, bodily needs, companionship, etc ➢ The Good Life ○ Finding unique virtues and strengths, and employ them creatively ➢ The Meaningful Life ○ Deep sense of fulfilment by using our strengths more than for ourselves Health ● What kinds of estimates do people make regarding the amount of calories they consume and the amount of exercise they engage in? (Hint: Considering obesity at near epidemic proportions, what do you think?) ➢ Underestimate the calories we consume ➢ Overestimate the amount of exercise we engage in ● Hypertension is most likely to afflict what class of people? ➢ aka High Blood Pressure ➢ Low socioeconomic class are the most afflicted class ➢ Due to high work amount, stress level; bad eating habit, less exercises. ● What is the Type A personality, characteristic and its relationship to health? ➢ Competitive / Selfcritical ○ Life Imbalance ○ High work involvement ○ Easily wound up ○ Tend to overreact ○ Tend to have high blood pressure (hypertension) ➢ Time Urgency ○ Constant struggle against clock ○ Impatient with delays and unproductive time ○ Schedule commitments tightly ○ Multitasking person ➢ Hostility ○ Easily aroused to anger or hostility ○ Tend to see the worse in people ○ Involves aggression, bullying, lack of compassion, envy ○ Linked to eart disease and coronary risks ● How does personal control and optimism relate to well being? ➢ Optimism and good control are cognitive influences for the production of epinephrine which then will result in happier, healthier life ● What is the sympathetic nervous system and its responsibilities? ➢ Nervous system (NS) → Peripheral NS → Autonomic NS→ Sympathetic NS ➢ Reacts to more stressful situation ○ Dilates pupil ○ Inhibits digestion and bladder constraction ○ Accelerates heart rate and blood pressure ○ Converse glycogen to glucose (more energized) ○ Secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline (flight or fight) ➢ What are lymphocytes? ○ In lymphatic system immune system ○ White blood cell release toxic chemicals ▸ Large ones: natural killer cells (destroy abnormal cells) ▸ Small ones: T cells / B cells (recognize and destroy antigens) ○ High number of lymphocytes = virus infection ○ HIV/AIDS infection ▸ T cells are destroyed by virus until the body cannot protect itself from other infections ▸ Vulnerable to getting really ill due to T lymphocytes are gone Personality ● What are projective tests? ➢ Personality test that individuals answer to vague scenarios, words or images ➢ Intend to reveal individuals’ needs, feelings, and personality ➢ E.g. Ink blot test ● Where does the ID derive pleasure according to Freudian psychoanalysis? ➢ The ID derive pleasure from fulfilling biological impulses immediately ○ Eating, drinking, fucking, pooping, avoid pain ➢ Operates out of conscious thought; extremely selfcentered ● What is locus of control? ➢ Locus of control = perception of responsibility for events in life ➢ Internal locus of control ○ One believes that oneself can control one’s life ➢ External locus of control ○ One attributes their success or failure to outside influence ● What are defense mechanisms in Freud’s theory and explain them ➢ Ego employs defense mechanisms in order to ward off unpleasant feelings or make good things better at an unconscious level ➢ 8 Mechanisms ○ Repression ▸ Keep disturbing or threatening thoughts from becoming conscious ▸ E.g. Traumatized soldier has no memory associate with death ○ Denial ▸ Blocking external events from awareness; refuse to experience it ▸ E.g. Smokers refuse to admit smoking is bad for health ○ Projection ▸ Individuals attributing their bad feelings to another person ▸ E.g. You are rude, you accuse others are rude to you instead ○ Displacement ▸ Redirecting impulses or emotional feelings with a substitute object ▸ E.g. Boss was mean to you, you go home and scream at your wife ○ Regression ▸ When facing stress, one reversion to earlier psychological time ▸ E.g. Sucking one’s thumb again when facing stress ○ Reaction Formation ▸ Behaving completely opposite of one’s true feelings ▸ E.g. Anger employee instead of quitting the job, she turns too nice ○ Rationalization ▸ Creating false excuse to justify unacceptable behavior ▸ E.g. Telling yourself ‘everyone else does it too’ when you cheat ○ Sublimation ▸ Channeling bad cognitions to more socially acceptable ones ▸ E.g. Exercises to channel out strong sex drive ● What is factor analysis and how has it been used? ➢ Statistical analysis conducted to identify closely related variables ➢ Five categories ○ Extraversion ▸ One having interest outwards especially social contacts; positive ○ Neuroticism ▸ Instability anxiety or aggression; negative ○ Openness to experience ▸ Reflects the degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity and variety ○ Agreeableness ▸ Tendency to be compassionate or cooperative ○ Conscientiousness ▸ Controlled by inner moral ● What is central to the humanist approach to personality? ➢ Focus on human tendency to create belief systems and to govern our lives ➢ Abraham Maslow’s Humanism ➢ Hierarchy of needs (low to high) ○ Physiological food, water, sex ○ Safety health, employment, resources ○ Love/Belonging family, friendship ○ Esteem confidence, respect, achievement ○ Selfactualization ▸ Autonomous, independent, democratic and appreciative ▸ Accurate perceptions of reality about oneself, others and society ▸ Feels as one with nature Psychological Disorders ● What types of schizophrenia exist and what are the common symptoms? ➢ Paranoid Schizophrenic ○ Dominated by delusions of danger and fame ➢ Disorganized Schizophrenic ○ Failure of adaptive behavior; emotional disinterest, social withdrawal ➢ Catatonic Schizophrenic ○ Motor disturbances; from muscular rigidity to random motor activity ➢ Undifferentiated Schizophrenic ○ Mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms; whichever doesn’t fit the those three ➢ Common Symptoms ○ Delusions (false beliefs), failure of normal behaviors, hallucinations (false perceptions), disturbed emotions ● What is the medical model and how does it approach mental illness? ➢ Created during 18th century ➢ Viewing abnormal behaviors as a ‘disease’ ➢ Approaching mental illness with a scientific view ● What is multiple personality? ➢ aka Dissociative Identity Disorder ➢ A reaction to trauma as a way to help a person avoid bad memories ➢ Presence of two or more distinct personality identities ➢ Each have unique name, personal history and characteristics ● What characterizes generalized anxiety disorder? ➢ Excessive worries about a variety of everyday problems for at least 6 months ○ Expect disaster, exaggerated anxiety on health, money, family, work, etc ➢ Interferes with daily activities ➢ Seen more frequently in females ➢ Lifetime prevalence is 5% ● What are the criteria listed in your book and in class for determining if something is a psychological disorder? ➢ Deviance ○ Deviate from the social and cultural norms ○ E.g. Transvestic fetishism ➢ Maladaptive ○ Everyday life is being disrupted due to certain behavior ○ E.g. Drug addiction ➢ Personal Distress ○ Anxiety level ● What characterizes manic episodes? ➢ Bipolar disorder ➢ One’s mood becomes elevated to strong euphoria ○ Extremely high selfesteem ○ Hyperactivity; restlessness ● What is the DSMIV? ➢ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder ➢ Classify mental disorders including definitions, symptoms, characteristics ➢ Recognized and used by all psychologist and clinicians around the globe ● Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasics ➢ Broca’s Aphasia ○ Left hemisphere— Language Production ○ Speech is ungrammatical, difficult to speak; not fluent; Anomia (difficulty naming) ○ Understand the others ○ They can sing well ○ Aware of their issues ➢ Wernicke’s Aphasia ○ Left hemisphere— Language comprehension ○ Speech is fluent; unintelligible “word salad”; incorrect use of word; Anomia; can’t write ○ Does not understand others ○ Assume everyone is crazy
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