Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide BIO1500
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nausheen Zaman on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO1500 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. William Bradford in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Diversity in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
● Class Anthozoa (coral, sea anemones) ○ Solitary colonial polyps ○ Feeding tentacles actively catching prey ○ Most sessile polyps are filter feeders ○ Grow in nutrient poor water ■ Sunlight doesn’t penetrate deep enough to make food ○ Mutualistic relationship with dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellates make food and coral provide shelter) zooxanthellae ○ Secrete exoskeleton of CaCO3 (Upward growth, dead skeleton is left behind below ■ Whitening buildup of CaCO3 and the dinoflagellates die off in the coral reefs, O2 become too high and coral cannot withstand it → kicks out dinoflagellates → less efficient food capture ■ Reefs are important because they are a home for many different aquatic species (nurserytype environments), barrier for turbulent water on shores ● Class Cubozoa (Box Jellyfish) ○ Boxshaped medusae ○ Most are only few centimeters, can be fatal to humans ● Class Hydrozoa (Hydroids) ○ Both polyp and medusa stages ○ Colonial polyps ○ Only class with freshwater species ○ Hydra ■ Solitary polyp, no medusa ■ Can regenerate themselves ● Scyphozoa (Jellyfish) ○ Transparent/translucent body ○ Dominant medusa stage ○ Muscular ring around bell margin ● Bilaterian Acoelomates ○ Characterized by bilateral symmetry ■ Allows cell specialization ○ Traditionally classified by coelom type ■ Acoelomates ■ Pseudocoelomates ■ Coelomates ● Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) ○ Softbodied, small and crosseyed eyespot ○ Platy (flat), 1mmmany meters long ○ Many parasitic, others freeliving ○ Marine, freshwater and scavenger ○ Move with ciliated epithelial cell, have developed musculoskeletal system ● Body Type ○ Have a protruding pharynx (ingests food and excretes waste through this opening ■ Pharynx in the center of the body ○ Went from a dorsal → ventral nervous system ○ Have circular (worm becomes longer when contracted) and longitudinal (worms become shorter when contracted) muscles ○ Have bilateral ventral nerve cords ● Phylum Platyhelminthes: Digestion ○ Movement of food = movement of the worm (fluids inside worm move as the worm moves and moves food through digestive system) ○ Blind gut with ventral opening ■ Some extracellular digestion ■ Cells that line guts phagocytose food bits ○ Tapeworms ○ Well known for their regenerative abilities ○ Turbellaria free living platyhelminthes ■ Planaria ○ Neodermata parasitic platyhelminthes ■ endo/ectoparasites ■ Trematoda (flukes), Cercomeromorpha (tapeworms) ○ Trematoda 1mm8cm ■ Attaches to host with hooks anchors or suckers ■ Most life cycles have multiple hosts ■ Oriental liver flukes (goes through three animals to go through life cycle! Releases lots and lots of offspring as a result of this risky lifestyle) ● Individual flukes can live 1530 yrs in the liver ● Typically asymptomatic ● Heavy infestation cirrhosis and death ■ Blood flukes ● Affects 1 in 20 people worldwide ● Live in blood vessels associated with intestine/bladder ● Worms coat themselves with host’s own antigens ■ Tapeworms ● Attaches themselves to intestinal wall by hooks ● Pseudocoelomates ○ Possesses a pseudocoel (cavity between mesoderm and endoderm) ○ Phylum Nematoda (Nematodes) ■ Has complete digestive system ■ Have separate sexes (not all are like this) Chapter 34: Coelomate Invertebrates ● General Characteristics ○ Body design: ■ Repositions body fluids (better circulatory system) ■ Allows development of complex tissues and organs to develop (the circulatory system can distribute resources wherever they are needed in the body) ■ Larger body size (result of above two reasons) ○ Coeloms evolved once during animal evolution ● Phylum Mollusca ○ Second in diversity and number after arthropods ○ Wide variety of sizes and body forms ○ Mostly marine ○ Include snails, slugs, clams, octopuses and others ○ Body Plan ■ Digestive system ● Radula protrusion that grasps things off substrates that stick out of mouth ● Mantle cavitiy where excretion occurs gonads leave the body ● Nephridium removes nitrigenous wastes from the animals (excretion and osmoregulation) ● Dorsal mantle (bivalves don’t have this) epidermal structure that makes the shells (pearls are made here) ● Ventral nerve cords are bilateral and run through the foot and the body ● Visceral mass contains many of the organs ● Open circulatory system ● Complete digestive system ● True coelomates (contains many of the organ systems), used as a hydrostatic skeleton ○ Believed to be reduced in some mollusks ■ Bilateral symmetry ■ Do not have heads ■ Pump hemolymph throughout the body ○ Reproduction ■ Most have internal fertilization and marine mollusks have external fertilization ■ Typically have spiral cleavage ■ Freeswimming larval stage (trochophores) movement is good for the species ● Class Gastropoda (Snails and slugs) ○ Nudibranchs (Sea Slugs) ● Class Bivalvia ● Class Cephalopoda ● Archaeplastida ○ Rhodophyta (red algae), Chlorophyta (green algae), and land plants ○ Means ‘organisms with chloroplasts’ ○ Red Algae (Rhodo ‘red’ + phyta ‘plant’) ■ Large variety ■ Most multicellular, some unicellular ■ No flagella + centrioles ■ Attached to substrates, nonmotile ■ Photoautotrophs (undergo photosynthesis) ● Have both chlorophyll a and b ■ Haplodiplontic life cycle ○ Green Algae (Chlorophyta) + Charophyta (sister group of land plants) ■ One single ancestor (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii see slide 9 of Mar 21 lecture slides for life cycle) ■ Unicellular ■ Flagellated or nonmotile ■ Photoautotrophs ■ Asexual/sexual reproduction (haplodiplontic life cycle haploid and diploid are both mulitcellular) ■ Freshwater and marine habitats ■ Colonial and cell specialization occurs multicellularity arose from this attribute (volvox) ○ Thought to have come about via endosymbiosis ● Rhizaria ○ Pseudopods used for locomotion (streams of cytoplasm around organism) ○ Was a common group for organisms that didn’t fit in any other category ○ Radiolaria and Cercozoa have shelllike structure made out of silica ○ Phylum Foraminifera ■ CaCO3 (calcium carbonate) structures ■ Unicellular ■ Alternate between asexual and sexual reproduction (diploid → haploid generations) ■ Heterotrophic ■ Marine habitat ■ Tests (fossilized foraminifera) limestone and solid calcium carbonate ● Amoebas (Phylum Rhizopoda) ○ Unicellular ○ Move with pseudopodia ○ Heterotrophs ○ Asexual reproduction ○ Freshwater, marine and soil environments ○ Plasmodial Slime Molds ■ Hemitrichia serpula (pretzel slime molds) moves to different food sources ● As is becomes larger it takes up more space and consume more food ■ Unicellular but multinucleate (largest unicellular organism ■ Move as streaming plasmodium ■ Heterotrophs ■ Sexual reproduction (moving cytoplasm during feeding phase, form sporangia when food/moisture is in short supply) ■ Dark moist terrestrial environments ○ Cellular Slime Molds ■ Unicellular, multicellular during life cycle ■ Move as amoebas (unicellular) and slugs (multicellular) ■ Heterotrophs ■ Asexual/sexual reproduction ● Asexual Amoeba → Slug (mobile motile group of amoebas that form when resources are scarce) → Sporocarp (fruiting body) formed by slug → spores released → form new amoebas ● Sexual 2 haploid amoebas fuse → meiosis → mitosis → new amoebas ■ Dark moist terrestrial environments ● Opisthokonta ○ Class Choanoflagellates (‘collared flagella’) ■ Unicellular, colonial ■ Single flagella surrounded by funnelshaped contractile collar (feed on bacteria with this collar) ■ Heterotrophs ■ Asexual reproduction ■ Freshwater, marine environments ■ Believed to be common ancestor of all animals Chapter 33: Overview of Animal Diversity ● General Animal Features (evolutionary Innovations) ○ Heterotrophs (herbivores, carnivores, omnivdetritivore gets nutrients from dead organic material i.e. dead animals or plants, scavengers) ○ Multicellular ■ Protists are grouped into unicellular ○ Cells lack cell walxtracellular matr(collection of molecules that help with surrounding cells’ structural and biochemical support) ■ Protists also have these characteristics ○ Active movement ■ Parazoa (sponges), barnacles, sea anemones are animals that don’t move (sessile) ○ Diverse in forms and habitats ■ More invertebrates than vertebrates ■ 3540 phyla ranging from land marine animals (marine, freshwater, then land for biggest → smallest phyla) ○ Sexual reproduction ■ Genetic diversity + no alternation of generations (no haplodiplontic lifecycle) ○ Characteristic embryonic development ■ Blastula (hollow ball of cells) → Gastrula (hollow ball with forming indentation that begins digestive system development in organism) ■ Cleavage cell divisions during the embryonic cell stage ■ Tissue layer setup is different for different species (most animals have three cell layers) ○ Cells organized into tissues (except sponges) ■ Muscle/neuronal tissues = animals only ● 1 Animals exhibit radial/bilateral symmetry ○ Symmetry ■ Radial symmetry sections split around a central axis, able to be bisected into two equal halves on any 2D plane ● Jellyfish ● Most Cnidaria, Echinodermata have radial symmetry ■ Bilateral symmetry can be split in half along a Sagittal plane ● All Bilateria have bilateral symmetry ○ Dorsal top ○ Ventral belly ○ Anterior frontal ○ Posterior rearend ○ Sagittal Plane where the organism can be cut in two equal halves ● Two advantages ○ Greater mobility ○ Anterior cephalizatio evolution where animal has a definite brain area which controls their forward movement and other bodily functions ● 2 Evolution of tissues allowed for specialized structures and functions ○ During animal’s embryonic development, cells differentiate to take on special functions ○ Differentiation allows organ formation and cell specialization ■ Usually irreversible ■ Sponges can dedifferentiate their tissues to make other tissues ● 3 A body cavity makes development of organ systems possible ○ Bilateria embryos = triploblastic ■ Ectoderm body coverings (skin), nervous system ■ Mesoderm skeleton and muscle, heart, kidney, blood ■ Endoderm digestive organs, intestines ○ Blastula hollow ball of cells ○ Cnidarians (jellyfish) diblastic (lack organs) ■ Don’t have a proper cavity for organ support ○ Sponges have no germ layers ● Body cavity a cavity used to support internal structures of an animal (organs, systems, fluids, gases, etc) ○ Filled with liquid/gas ■ Distributes food, waste, hormones throughout the animal ○ Hydrostatic skeleton filled with liquid, makes the cavity rigid because of the pressure ○ Acoelomates no body cavity (other than digestive cavity) ■ Planaria ■ Do not confuse digestive system for coelom! ○ Pseudocoelomates ○ Coelomates body cavity entirely within a mesoderm ■ Basically every other animal ○ Traditional systematics acoelomates → pseudocoelomates → coelomates ○ Modern systematics ■ Coeloms → evolved multiple times → pseudocoelomates → secondarily lost → acoelomates ● Deuterostomes sea cucumbers, starfish ● Protostomes every other animal (including us!) ● Clade a group of animals from a single common ancestor and its descendants ○ Can pseudocoelomic be a defining characteristic of a clade? ■ It would be difficult because they were derived secondarily from animals with a coelom and grouping everything that is pseudocoelomic wouldn’t be effective/correct ● 4 Bilaterians have two main development types deuterostome + protostome ○ Basically when the mouth forms ○ Protostome mouth forms first (Chordates) ■ Most bilateria ■ Anus forms later ■ Cleavage spiral (spiralia) ■ Determinate (cell specialization is determined early on in development) ■ Coelom forms from direct splitting of mesoderm ○ Deuterostome mouth forms later (every other animal) ■ Blastopore develops anus first (Frogs) ■ Cleavage radial ■ Indeterminate (neighboring cells are communicating and they end up forming based on what the organism needs) ■ Coelom forms indirectly from the archenteron ● 5 Segmentation ○ Occurs early in development ○ Linear array of compartments that look alike in the embryo ○ Underlies body organization in morphologically complex animals ○ Segments somites ○ Two advantages ■ Allows redundant organ systems in animals (i.e. annelids) ● This is an advantage because if you have redundant parts, loosing one part won’t affect you at all ■ More efficient and flexible movement because each segment can move semiindependently ● Metazoans multicellular animals ○ Divided into 3540 phyla ○ Originally classified by anatomy and embryonically ○ Now being classified genomically Chapter 26: Taxonomy ● Class → Order → Family → Genus → Species ● Mnemonics ○ Kevin’s Poor Cow Only Feels Good Sometimes ○ King Philip Came Over For Good Soup ● Water bears! ● All animals are monophyletic (comes from one ancestor) → all animals are a clade ● Systemic classification uses morphological/molecular characteristics that are assumed to have evolved only once ○ Animals that share a certain characteristic = related more closely to an animal not showing that feature ■ Can not be related because they may have come from different ancestors ○ Clade = animals with a shared derived characteristic = taxonomic group with all the descendants tracing back to a common ancestor ○ Phylogenetic tree = hierarchy of nested clades ○ Paraphyletic = a single ancestor is included BUT not all descendants (see dinosaur tree in textbook) ■ Grouped based on their physical characteristics ○ Polyphyletic = most recent common ancestor of all members is NOT included in the group ● Tissues + symmetry are the two main characteristics that differentiate Parazoa and Eumetazoa ○ Parazoa = no symmetry/tissues ■ Porifera (sponges) ○ Eumetazoa = have tissues/sponges ■ Diploblastic (two germ layers) radial symmetry (Cnidarian) ■ Triploblastic (three germ layers) bilateral symmetry (Except some Echinoderms) ● Coelom type (different coelom types) ● Development type deuterostome vs. protostome ● Major reclassification of protostomes ○ New molecular phylogenies revealed a new change in protostome classification ○ Annelids/Arthropods = traditionally thought to be closely related based on similar segmentation characteristic (bilateral) ■ Molecular data shows that they belong in different clades ■ Segmentation = evolved more than once during evolution ● Protostomes now grouped into Ecdysozoa and Spiralia ○ Ecdysozoa ■ Molting animals they grow out of each life cycle stage (shed outer skin) ■ Evolved once ■ Nematodes + arthropods ○ Spiralia ■ Grow by gradual addition of body mass ■ Mainly aquatic ■ Ciliated/muscle induced movement ■ 2 major phyla = Lophotrochozoa + Platyzoa ■ Platyzoa ● Acoelomic No body cavity ● Tiny and flat ● Ciliated movement ● Platyhelminthe flatworm ■ Lophotrochozoa ● 2 major phyla = Mollusks, annelids + several smaller groups ● Muscle contractile movement ● Most have trochophore larvae + lophophore feeding apparatus ● Bryozoa ● Brachipods ○ Zoa ‘animal’ Chapter 33: Noncoelomate Invertebrates ● Parazoa, phylum Porifera (sponges) ‘Bearing pores’ ○ Marine and freshwater habitats ○ Range from few mm 2m in diameter ○ Mostly sessile in adult life, larval sponges are free swimming ○ Chemicals used to repel predators ○ Complex multicellularity various cells for different functions (ie. reproductive functions, skeletal structures, etc.) ○ Adult sponge has three layers (epidermis, choanocytes, endoskeletal cells with spicules and spongin) ■ Beating of ciliated choanocytes = constant pumping of water through osculum (body cavity) by pores (ostia) ■ Filter feeders ■ Pores have epithelial cells that keep irritants out (irritated pores can close off, individual control) ○ No nervous system but can respond to environment ○ Have the ability to dedifferentiate into a new sponge when broken ○ Mesohyl gelatinous, proteinrich matrix that strengthens the sponge body through spicules and spongin fibers ■ Spicule and spongins secreted by amoeboid cells in mesohyl ○ Reproduction ■ Asexual fragmentation ■ Sexual egg and sperm ● Hermaphroditic ● Eggs in mesohyl ● Sperm (sometimes eggs) transformed choanocytes ● Develop in the mesohyl and released after larvae develop ■ Larvae ● Ciliated swimming → settle down on substrate → transform into sessile adults ● Eumetazoa ○ Animals with distinct tissues and true symmetry ○ Embryos with distinct layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) ■ Radiata (Cnidaria) ■ Bilateria all other animals ● Cnidaria ○ Mainly marine ○ No organs, distinct tissues ○ Neural network (no concentration of neural tissue) ■ Beginning of nervous system ○ Carnivorous ■ Tentacles ○ No other complete organ system ○ Can capture larger prey ■ Gastrodermis = stomach skin → digests prey after stinging it with tentacles → gastrovascular cavity is where digestion happens → holds water to make it rigid with hydrostatic skeleton → excretes through epidermis ○ Have a sessile polyp and motile medusa life cycle stages ○ Fertilization → Freeswimming larvae (planula) → settles + starts new colony → polyp → asexual reproduction through reproductive polyp → release small medusa → grow and become mature → sexual reproduction → release zygote ■ Gonochoric separate sexes (usually applies to medusae) ○ Nematocysts microscopic stinging capsules ■ Used for food acquisition/defense ■ Contains small but powerful point ■ Can contain venom (sometimes toxic, most of the time only mildly irritating to humans ■ Nematoblasts can only be used once (but each tentacle has thousands of these cells) Chapter 29: Protists The Very First ● Eukaryotes ○ Have nuclei + other organelles ○ Compartmentalization/specialization most important evolutionary concept ■ Bacteria → organelles → tissues → organs ■ Anytime a certain group of cells is specialized to perform a certain function, those cells begin to devote all their energy to performing that function alone ■ No need to keep general cells ■ Cell training ○ Cytoskeleton ■ Actin filaments, microtubules, etc. ■ Allows cell to dynamically change it’s shape ○ Eukaryotic fossils traced up to 1.5 MYA ○ Prokaryotic cell → cell becomes larger → cytoskeleton develops → cell membrane becomes flexible → folded inwards to protect DNA → nucleus develops + separates from main body (Golgi and ERs also may have been made this way) ● Eukaryotic Origins: Endosymbiosis ○ Endo = in ○ Two things living together + helping one another ○ Believed that mito and chloroplasts were derived from organisms engulfing other organisms (aerobic/photosynthetic bacterium) and eventually turning into organelles ○ Called primary endosymbiosis (secondary symbiosis also may have occurred) ● Endosymbiotic Theory Proofs ○ Endosymbiosis still occurs (red algae → brown algae) ○ Mito and Chloroplasts have their own DNA (circular and encode things necessary to their functions alone) ○ Over time, genes initially in the nucleus in the bacteria was taken in was lost and eventually the nuclear DNA took over ○ They encode their own genes (occurs with antibiotics inhibiting cell translation) ○ Binary fission occurs in mitochondria and chloroplasts ● Protista eukaryotes that aren’t fungi, plants or animals ○ Unicellular, colonial, multicellular groups (200,000 different forms) ○ Grouped into 6 supergroups ■ Understanding this is the key to understanding the key to the evolution of plants, fungi and animals ● General Biology of Protists ○ Cell Surface ■ Cytoskeleton, plasma membrane with extracellular matrix (ECM) ■ Number of organisms formysts dormant cell with resistant outer covering ■ Proteins on plasma membrane ● Fibronectin ● Integrin ● Collagen ● Proteoglycan ● Elastin ○ Locomotion ■ 3 primary ways ○ Nutrition ■ Phototrophs = light photosynthesis ■ Heterotrophs ● Phagotrophs ● Osmotrophs ■ Mixotrophs both hetero/autotrophic ○ Reproduction ■ Usually asexual, sometimes sexual (only under stress) ● Obligate phase when it is necessary/essential for survival ● Sexual reproduction union of two haploid cells formed by meiosis ○ Key evolutionary innovations that occurred in ancestral protists ○ Allows genetic recombonation → generates diversity for evolution → explosion of eukaryotic diversity ● Protists: Bridge for multicellularity ○ Colonial protists ■ Multicellularity = specialization ● Excavata ○ Have ‘excavate’ structure ○ Same cytoskeletal features and DNA sequences ○ Diplomonadida (Giardia intestinalis) ■ Contains two nuclei + flagella ■ Parasite (causes diarrhea) ○ Diplomonads ■ Unicellular, asexual reproduction ■ Two haploid nuclei ■ No mitochondria ○ Parabasalids (Trichomonas vaginalis causes STD) ■ Undulating membrane ■ No mitochondria ■ Parasitic (live in other organisms) ● Euglenozoa (Euglenoidea) ○ Euglenids ■ Unicellular ■ Phototrophs (⅓) and Heterotrophs (⅔) ■ Asexual reproduction ■ Have a pellicle flexible proteinaceous helical structure in plasma membrane (allows shape change) ○ Kinetoplastids ■ Unicellular ■ Heterotrophs ■ Flagellated ■ Asexual reproduction ■ Live in freswater, marine and soil environments ■ ParasiticTrypanosoma genus) African sleeping sickness (tsetse fly), Leishmaniasis (female sand fly), Chagas disease (assassin/kissing bug) ● Antigen variability change the expression of external membrane to make a typical immunization to them ■ Contains mitochondrial genome and DNA granule in single mitochondrion (kinetoplastids) ● Chromalveolates ○ Main characteristic Derived from secondary endosymbiosis ○ Two branches alveolates + stramenopila ○ Have alveoli (flattened vesicles that function like Golgi bodies) stacked below the plasma membrane ● Dinoflagellates ○ Unicellular ○ Two flagella ○ Phototrophs ○ Asexual reproduction, sexual only under stress (closed mitosis ○ Most have a beltlike groove around the middle used for spinning (one of the flagella is also located here) ○ Mostly marine ○ Silica within their shells, others produce toxins (red tides produce vertebrate toxins that kills off fish), some are bioluminescent ● Apicomplexans ○ Plasmodium (responsible for some types of malaria) ○ All Parasitic (heterotrophs) ○ Glide (amoeboidlike) ○ Both asexual/sexual reproductive stages ○ Apical complex necessary for normal cycle, invasion and makes a fatty acid covering around itself (good target for drugs used against it) ○ Mosquito host (sexual reproduction) → gametocytes ingested → sexually produced sporocytes → mosquito feeds + releases sprocytes → sporocytes enter liver (asexual reproduction) → asexually reproduced merozoites lyse infected liver cell → enter blood stream → infect red blood cells and multiply within them → lyse red blood cells → merozoites turn into gametocytes (not all of them do this) ■ Apical complex believed to be derived from chloroplasts, thought that herbicides could be used to eradicate malaria ■ Blocking apical complex is one function that scientists have used to battle them ○ Use antigen variability ○ Toxoplasmosis ■ Affects people with cats and women who are capable of being pregnant ■ Toxoplasma gondii affects the unborn baby and causes problems in the adults too ● Ciliates ○ Contain cilia for movement ○ Contractile vacuoles control water movement throughout the cell ○ Gullet food is consumed (heterotrophs) and phagocytosed into vesicles ○ Pellicle done for flexibility ○ Have sexual/asexual reproduction ○ Contain two nuclei (micro/macronucleus) ● Conjugation ○ Micronucleus undergoes meiosis → 4 haploid cells → 3 degenerate (proof of evolutionary theory) → 1 micronucleus → mitotic division → 2 micronuclei → exchange of micronucleus occurs (conjugation) → new micro fuses with old micro → diploid micro → Macronucleus disintegrates → Micronucleus divides mitotically → produces two identical micronuclei → one stays as a micronucleus and the other gives rise to new macronucleus ○ Micronucleus = sexual, Macronucleus = asexual ○ Paramecium can divide up to 700 times before they die ○ Stramenopila brown algae, diatoms and oomycetes (fine hairs on flagella) ● Diatoms ○ Raphe little hairs on cilia that help them move and perform basic living functions ○ Double sided shells ○ Unicellular ○ Nonmotile, some move with raphe ○ Photo/Heterotrophs ○ Asexual and sexual reproduction (both occur in their life cycle) ○ Freshwater, marine and soil environments
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