Slide Quiz 2
Slide Quiz 2 ARCH 3411
U of M
Popular in Architecture History to 1750
Popular in Architecture
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Norden on Friday November 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARCH 3411 at University of Minnesota taught by Robert Ferguson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 189 views. For similar materials see Architecture History to 1750 in Architecture at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 11/27/15
Dome of the Rock Jerusalem 691 One of the earliest Islamic shrines Located on Mount Moriah a site sacred to Jews because Abraham had offered his son to the Lord as sacri ce as well as being the location of Solomon s Temple Sits on the rock from which Mohammad ascended to paradise on his night journey This was the building that pilgrims and crusaders saw it was the earliest Islamic monument Dome of the Rock rock on which temple was founded Hard to find figurative representation of exterior tile Highly developed geometry in tiles plant motifs and inscriptions in Arabic show the makeup of Islamic art Dome has a timber frame which removes the problem of a thrust Closely related to martyrium of Christendom Contains ambulatory around central space that contains shrine around rock from which Mohammed ascended Became the image and temple of Jerusalem summing up the significance of entire city Rotunda similar to that at Constantine s Chruch of the Holy Sepulcher but dome is made of wood Sophisticated geometry is a shared characteristic with 4th and 5th century Syrian churches Page 154156 House of the Prophet Medina 624 Mosque was primary place of worship Contains a courtyard called the sahn Enclosure of the house differentiates the hall and the sahn The hall is where people worship 5 times a day Prototype for the mosque Columned prayer hall preceded by an open courtyard called a sahn Mohammed s followers assembled in courtyard to hear sermons and pray Great Mosque at Damscus 706 Oldest extant mosque and shows process from which the form developed Stands on site where a Roman temple dedicated to Jupiter and a 4th century Christian church dedicated to St John the Baptist used to be Mosque is based partly on tripartite aisles and nave of a basilican church Outline of mosque determined by shape of Roman shrine Four towers or minarets located at corners of site are where callers would call faithful to prayer Minarets became characteristic of Friday mosques being used to identify the mosques in the landscape similar to the way bell towers or domes on churches did Direction of prayer wall Qibla originally faced toward Jerusalem which later Mohammed changed to be toward Mecca Niche in wall reminds one that it is the Qibla wall In prayer one faces toward Qibla or Mecca and the closest one can get to the wall the better Minbar is a structural piece separate from prayer hall even if it s made of stone and richly decorated Trees on columns reinterprets tree on higher level than just a tree Most of the interior space is a sahn with domed fountain pavilion for ritual washings and an octagonal pavilion used for public treasury Prayer hall or haram is divided into thirds by two rows of columns Near center arcades are interrupted by broad transverse element similar to a nave with wooden dome over central baylater developed into a maqsura a special processional area reserved for retinue of the caliph justifying its dome as a special architectural element Page 157 Great Mosque at Cordoba 8th to 10th centuries First construction was an 11 aisle sanctuary Superimposed arches connect columns in haram the lower ones are horse shoe shaped and the upper ones not quite semicircular Tiered arcades at Damscus mosque and stacked arches of Roman aqueducts are possible inspirations for the superimposed arches but treatment here is original Arches are polychrome made of white stone voussoirs against red brick voussoirs Third renovation added new mihrab that was a richly decorate niche with a forest of cusped and lobed arches covered by a dome formed from interlacing arches anked by domes also made up of interlacing arches These domes probably in uenced domes built in the Italian Baroque by Guarino Guarini 4th extension of mosque made it the largest mosque in Spain In the 16th century cathedral of Cordoba was inserted inside Overlapping arches on exterior as if there are two arcades one behind the other Appear to be horseshoe arch Same iconography of city gate seen in Roman architecture can be seen here Series of arcuated walls and columns like a grove of trees in hall and stages of arches replicating Roman aqueduct Stone wall that is transparent in many ways and its structural integrity is contradicted in the arches Dome has a ribbed vault that is very in uential in Roman baroque Later converted to a Christian church No carvingsimages of animals or humans because that was imitating God Page 158 Stupa I Sanchi III BCEIII CE Artificial mountainmound made of stone that represents center of the world mound is the main characteristic of a stupa symbolizes joining of heaven of earth Buddhism is not a belief but rather a practice one thing you do to participate is circumambulate a significant site usually a stupa Venerate a teacher who has left this world practice teachings by circumambulating site learning how you can transcend the endless circle Massive stone verdica enclosing fence to indicate sacredness encloses stupa with 4 entrance gates called taranas corresponding to cardinal directions Approach of entrance gates is staggered so as to reduce distractions to the pilgrims Harmica or square railing at the top of stupa marks association of stupa with Buddha Chatra or stylized bodhi tree set inside the harmica symbolizes tree under which Buddha received enlightenment its supporting stalk symbolizes axis of world passing through the center of the entire form Base is encircled by twotiered ambulatory pilgrims circumambulate on lower level while residential community and priests circle site on the higher level Octagonal posts and rounded horizontal rails show how early masons were in uenced by wooden construction Archaic deities portrayed on archway of entrance with trees as well as figures representing Buddhist legends possibly inspired by those on Asoka columns Lack of modeling on figures makes gates appear to be more the work of woodcarvers than masonry sculptors Hemispherical form incorporating cosmological associations of a circle the world mountain and dome of heavens and vertical world axis Page 6668 Chaitya Hall Karli 5070 CE One of many Buddhist monastic sites located in the middle of nowhere Most sites are constructed in existing caves but here an artificial cave is carved out of the natural mountain subtractive architecture Chaitya Hall replicates the form and details of wooden architecture that provided its in uence like the semicircular arched ceiling patterned after exible bamboo structures Larger than wooden buildings of the period Barrel shaped ceiling with arched ribs Rubble extracted from cliff became constructional material for platform extending to entrance a recessed arched porch with free standing columns supporting lion structures Porch contained relief carvings and had painted scenes from Buddha s life High grilles in windows provided dim light allowing pilgrims to take in the large volume with colonnade and large image of Buddha on far side Elusive synthesis of space light and detail Page 6971 Kandariya Mahadeva Temple Khajuraho ca 1000 CE Mountainlike structure inspired by Himalayas Hindu gods are thought to have a particular affinity for mountains and caves Garbhagriha or womb chamber that radiates energy to cardinal and ordinal directions passage for clockwise circumambulation and sacred mountain defining central vertical axis that towers over garbhagriha Most important part shikhara mountain peak roof rises up like a mountain toward heavens Architecture that represents architecture Upper levels of roof carved with geometric ornament making massive form seem lighter while accentuating its contours Figures carved in swaying Sshape postures Freize depicts sexual union Angkor Wat Cambodia XII CE One of the most impressive monuments displaying Hindu art and one of the largest religious structures ever builtabout 13 miles to visit all the galleries At start of construction was a temple to Vishnu at time of completion it was a royal shrine of Khmer Dynasty that ruled Cambodia at the time later it was converted to Buddhist worship In India Hinduism didn t involve a godking into worship but Cambodian tradition did thus Angkor Wat served as a mortuary shrine for Suryavarman II the king who commissioned the work Represents fusion of Indian religion and native Khmer tradition Multiple towers cruciform galleries corner pavilions and decorative entrance gates lead to the central tower Towers represent sacred mountain and the garbhagriha inside represents the holy cave at the center of the cosmos The central tower is over the main shrine built on a pyramid base whose corners are marked by 4 stepped towers that symbolize Mount Mehru the home of the gods The 25 mile long moat that surrounds the complex symbolizes the oceans from which the mountains rise Made entirely of stone with only corbeled construction so there are no large interior spaces Ornament and shallow relief carvings cover walls and roof depicting both Hindu tradition and Khmer cosmology Horizontal expanse and vertical expression are mixed Architecture is symmetrical and balanced Page 7779 Abbey Church of SaintDenis lledeFrance 114044 reconstruction by Abbot Suger Generally recognized as the first Gothic building Louie VI called it Capital of the Realm and Religious Center of France French royal monastery burial place of Denis first bishop of Paris Kings of France buried at Abbey Suger wanted to incorporate greater amounts of light in reconstruction and exceed Hagia Sophia s splendidness Radiating chapels of choir each have 2 large stained glass windows made possible by skeletal framework demonstrates Suger s emphasis with colored light Fagade is close to contemporary work of Normandy Transparency of architecture in terms of the ability of light to permeate building starts to emerge Last Judgment is illuminated in center of stained glass windows Light we see is the shadow of the divine light stained glass gives us a visionary experience and its relation to immaterial world Three doorways have carved tympana and jamb statues Quality of space and light in uenced construction of Gothic churches in IledeFrance Page 214 NotreDame Paris 1163 by Bishop Maurice Sully Exception among Early Gothic architecture in its immense size First Gothic building to exceed height of Cluny III Possibly the best known monument in Western Europe Was one of the main symbols against which the French Revolution was directed Foundation was over 30 feet deep showing the intention of building the tallest cathedral Started with choir ying buttresses and transepts added later Double aisles with no chapels radiating out Permeation of light through chapels and aisles from enlarged clerestory windows Expands horizontally as elements are added vertically in plan Thick walls and concealed buttresses were relied on for stability but Notre Dame was first cathedral to have visible buttresses still contains thick walls Flying buttresses began to characterize Gothic architecture also in uenced Medieval architecture Symbolizes aspirations of king and bishop to build a larger and more imposing cathedral for Christ and Virgin Mary West front has a solid militarylike quality Gallery of Kings representing 28 kings of Old Testament is depicted on west facade Rose window with pair of lancet windows on either side forms halo backdrop of the Virgin and Child Sculptures on 3 portals extend Christian teachings to illiterate similar to Romanesque Appears to be very symmetrical but small irregularities in detail make it not so Page 217 Chartres Cathedral 11341 145 First monument of high gothic architecture Long standing pilgrimage site to venerate Virgin Mary Was built very fast West facade intact survived fire Original configurations of 3 chapels modified with 4 chapels in between Quadripartite vault encompassing 1 bay instead of 2 simplifies nave Development of piers and colonettes where colonettes come all the way down bringing line of vault ribs all the way down simplifying nave repeated later on in other churches Is an example of 19th century preservation West front contain the 12th century lancets relating genealogy and life of Christ Westfront doorways known as Royal Portals due to crowned figures in jambs in uenced by facade of St Denis depicts images of theology of salvation Page 220 Canterbury Cathedral Canterbury 117479 When original church burned down in 1174 there was an opportunity to build a proper French cathedral designed by French architect Not a Cistercian church but almost a replica of the original Quadripartite vault comes all the way down Colonettes come all the way down from ribs of vault to oor unifying entire structure amp giving intelligible rhythm to nave only come down at the crossing of vault Colonnettes are darker as well as horizontal divisions Choir design based on French Cathedral of Sens Choir was built to contain England s most popular shrine St Thomas a Becket Some English elements such as the darker Purbeck marble trim which is standard in English medieval construction and emphasizes horizontality Sainte Chapelle Paris 12411248 added by Louis Added to royal palace as Palace Chapel for relic obtained in Constantinople including Crown of Thorns and part of the True Cross Flying buttresses are unnecessary here Upper level accessible from palace and lower level that is accessible to everyone Chapel on lower level is for servants Upper level consists of slender piers with great expanses of mostly original stained glass between them Windows illustrate stories of Old and New Testament Is a statement of dematerialization of masonry walls and the properties of colored light Campo and Palazzo Pubblico Siena Italy early 14th century Originally 3 separate towns So rugged and vertical that there are only a few limited ways to get around which is why 3 parts form public space or outdoor room to monumentalize unity of town and accommodate population of town Campo is an irregular bowlshaped Two public outdoor rooms that are in dialogue with each other Palazzo Publico public palace or city hall and Cathedral Palazzo Pubblico the town hall is located at lowest part of site but facades of all other buildings had to complement town hall Crenellations and machicolations on top of building and slender bell tower are more modern Bell tower is one of the tallest in Italy and serves as marker for town Page 246 Plan of ChangAn now Xian VI CE under Tang Dynasty Capital of Tang Dynasty One of the greatest and richest cities in the world at the time Re ects principles of Kao Gong Ji One of the earliest manuscripts that serves as a guide for city planning based on Confucian teachings with its square layout grid streets three entrances on every side and a central artery that leads from south wall to the palace in the north Approach from the south gate up what would be Roman Cardo Street to imperial residence Way of thinking and creating the city is similar to the way Romans did Mountains in the north No public outdoor rooms or an equivalent to them instead there are markets on East and West side Courtyards within palace and as well as in individual housings In uenced plan of Beijing Page 87 Beijing rebuilt several times present city XVXVI centuries In uenced by plan of ChangAn Contains much of early configuration Residential districts have walls constituted by fronts of houses Houses were like a city like Roman houses Intemal courtyards Four separate walls needed to be passed through to reach palace Outer City wall Inner City wall Imperial City and then finally the Forbidden City or Palace Use of moats increased sense of separation Imperial Palace or Forbidden City Beijing XV CE Termed forbidden because palace was off limits to commoners Largest complex of historic buildings in country Ceremonial axial approach to palace that re ects power and hierarchy Page 89 Courtyard House Beijing XVXVI House is a community of halls built around open courtyards Courtyards take the place of outdoor rooms Contain 2 courtyards closer one is for visitors while the deeper courtyard is for family including servants Courtyards represent ritual life Number and size of courtyards showed social status Each hall is a structural unit Timber frame system support roof so walls don t have to Emphasis on privacy high walls lined front of house Exterior walls are usually made of wood or whatever could be afforded Have to turn at right angle from street to enter house so ghosts can t come in ghosts can only move in straight lines Houses faced south Page 89 Temple of Heaven Beijing 14201530 CE under Ming Dynasty Originally called Altar of Heaven and Earth Ming and Qing Dynasties held ceremonies to worship Heaven Emperor considered Son of Heaven would pray for good harvest World s largest existing building complex for making sacrifices to heaven Symbolizes connection between heaven and earth with round forms representing heaven and square representing earth All temple halls are round with square bases Main buildings are along northsouth axis Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests has 4 inner 12 middle and 12 outer pillars representing 4 seasons 12 months and 12 traditional Chinese hours All buildings have dark blue roof tiles representing heaven Buildings also have red colors to represent imperial court Foguang Temple Shanxi Province 857 Symbolic of the tree made from wood only one oor is accessible Buddhist temple Rafters support tile roof In order to align appearance with cosmic reality there are curves similar to Greek method Built on terraces due to hillside site main hall is highest part of site Brackets that cantilever out to support roof Have to be of a certain class to have brackets in house elaboration and number of brackets also depends on status Buddhist prayer hall have images arranged on long wall and opposite wall can be opened to outdoors so pilgrims can pray from courtyard Prayer is oriented towards images Ise Shinto Shrine UjiYamada rebuilt every 20 years since 690 CE Two plots of land every 20 years the shrine is rebuilt on other plot while the one on the other is demolished Two shrines built 4 miles apart Outer Shrine Geku dedicated Toyouke goddess of earth and agriculture and Inner Shrine Naiku dedicated Amaterasu goddess of sun Both necessary for agricultural prosperity two shrines keep harmony and balance between two opposing forces Simple small building built with much care four concentric circles surround shrine Modem carpentry One venerates shrine from outsides rarely does one enter Design probably evolved from vernacular granaries utilitarian structures on posts to protect contents from dampness and bugs Page 97 Horyuji Temple Nara 685 EXhibits postandlintel system based on bracketed construction Earliest surviving Buddhist temple Palace church as it is connected to the palace Highly developed timber construction Seems to reinforce its sanctity by restating layered quality and imitating parts of pagoda No way to access upper levels Roof structure and eaves were based on Chinese design Single wooden support extends form base to top Eaves are slightly upturned giving appearance of it hovering Balanced asymmetry Page 94 Todaiji Temple Nara Daibutsen Great Buddha Hall 730 and gate 1180 ca 1200 Part of a stateencouraged program to build Buddhist monasteries in every province Great Buddha hall replicates original largest wooden building in the world Issue of what qualifies a replica comes up Images on wall and opposite wall can be opened to be viewed from large congregation on outside Conserves simplicity of previous tradition Page 95 Phoenix Hall Byodoin at Uji Kyoto 1053 by Fujiwara family Suburban villa owned by wealthy family Transformed existing Villa into a temple Plan and massing were inspired by phoenix bird Symmetrical plan with central hall and L shaped wings on either side Central hall contains statue of Amida on a lotus throne symbolizing the hope of saVing humanity in a time of spiritual decline Due to double roof layers central hall seems to be two stories but it is only one story Roof is upturned giVing the sensation of ight Page 96 Himeji Castle Himeji 160110 Foundation serves as platform for superimposed halls that are residential parts on upper oors Similar architectural elements as pagoda Castle is a series of layers walls within walls HeaVily fortified Masonry walls with timber construction Katsura Detached Villa Kyoto 1615 Built in Shoin style based on elements from older mansions of nobility as well as concepts from Zen tradition Built as a retreat for contemplation rather than permanent residence Irregular pinwheel plan with grid of tatami mats Can see the grain of wood and the way shoji screen allows interior and exterior to merge Series of spaces that can be changed as sliding partitions are opened or closed distinction of house and garden begins to dissipate Landscape consists of extensive gardens and a lake Consists of porches and terraces that frame Views of landscape linking inside to outside Page 101 Pueblo Bonito Chaco Canyon New Mexico ca 860 1150 CE Stone masonry stones are not smoothed down Openings are spanned by timber Kivas located underneath courtyardplaza Kivas can support a much larger community than just a family or indiVidual referred to as Great House or Great Kiva first time we see Great Kivas Stepped configuration which causes many rooms to have no access to light Material comes into Chaco Canyon but no eVidence of any exports in trade Solstice marker that projects sun dagger on entrance to canyon
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