Study Guide Exam 3 Cellular Reproduction and Genetics
Study Guide Exam 3 Cellular Reproduction and Genetics BIOL 2040
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chris Hicks on Friday November 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Daniel Pavuk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology I in Biological Sciences at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 11/27/15
IStudv Guide Exam 3 Cellular Reproduction and Genetics Ch 10 Cellular Reproduction Mitosis Prophase The rst phase Nuclear envelope dissociates organelles fragment nucleolus disappears centrosomes move toward poles microtubules extend between centrosomes and sister chromatids start to condense Prometaphase the rst change phase Same activities from prophase continue and kinetochores form with microtubules connecting to them Metaphase the change phase chromosomes align on metaphase plate chromosomes maximally condensed Anaphas upward phase cohesin proteins degrade chromatids separate into chromosomes as they re pulled by microtubules cell visibly elongates Telophase Distance phase chromosomes reach pulls and decondense mitotic spindle depolymerizes and nuclear envelope forms Cytokinesis cell motion separation of cytoplasm into 2 cells animals cleavage furrow plants cell plate Ch 11 Sexual Reproduction Meiosis I Prophase I synapsis crossing over occurs at chiasmata tetrads remain together Prometaphase I microtubules attach to kinetochores Metaphase I tetrads line up at equator of cell with each homologous pair s kinetochores facing an opposite pole random independent assortment Anaphase chiasmata break as each pair of homologous chromosomes is pulled apart sister chromatids remain together Telophase I separated chromosomes get to poles cytokinesis occurs Meiosis II Prophase I new spindles nuclear envelopes break down etc Prometaphase II spindle fully forms nuclear envelope all gone kinetochore and microtubules attach Metaphase II sister chromatids fully condensed and aligned at cellular equator Anaphase II sister chromatids pulled apart and cell elongated Telophase I chromosomes arrive at poles and decondense nuclear envelopes reform cytokinesis occurs Week 1011 26 Oct6 Nov 2015 Cellular Reproduction Kev Roles of Cell Division 1 ability of organisms to make more of own kind 2 renewal and repair 3 growth and development Cell Division represents reproduction of cells and continuity of life Unicellular organism division for them is reproduction prokaryotes go through binary fission eukaryotes are more complex processes Multicellular use cell division to repair damage renew cells in organs once fully grown Prokarvotes and Eukarvotes most cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells exception meiosis 4 unidentical daughter cells only eukaryotes do mitosis AND meiosis dividing cells duplicate their DNA GenomeWhole genetic code prokaryotes mostly circular DNA is a couple meters long Somatic cells body cells Exam Review Aposematic coloration advertising that it s dangerous warning coloration Batesian Mimicry model toxic mimicnontoxic Mullerianall toxic look similar K selection density dependent more parental care less offspring longer lives live at carrying capacity rselection density independent many offspring less parental care shorter lives not adapted to competing Onion Root Tips rapid cell reproduction Distribution of Chromosomes during Eukarvotic Cell Division not dividingDNA replication diffuse stretched outelongated After replication compact chromatin made of DNAproteins make chromosomes condense and coilfold coiling and folding prevents tangling Sister Chromatids pair joined copies of same chromosome cohesins join sister chromatids sister chromatid cohesion Each one has a centromere made of centromeric DNA sequences and proteins chromatid arm each chromatid has a pair of arms uncondensedunduplicated chromosomes During cell division separation of sister chromatids upon separation they re termed chromosomes therefore pair of daughter cells with same chromosomes are parent Eukaryotic cell division Mitosis division of nuclear material and nucleus prophase prometaphase metaphase anaphase telophasecytokinesis two identical cells cytokinesis cytoplasm division meiosisgamete formation four haploid and unique cells mg uni or multicellular vegetative body made of hyphae massmycelium hyphae cells made of chitin store carbohydrates as glycogen heterotrophs get nutrients through absorption most are saprophytic feed on dead organic matter can be parasitic spores sexually through mitosis or asexually through meiosis Lichens mutualism between fungi moist environment and algae photosynthetic bacteria nutrients can live in harsh environments Phylum ngomvcota hyphae cells are haploidfusegtdiploid nucleimeiosisgthaploid sporesmitosisgthyphae Rhizopus Stolonifer bread mold on much food sexual and asexual Pilobolus Crystallinus fungus gun coprophilous grows on dung Sac Fungi Phylum Ascomvcota Class Cell Cycl life from birth to cell division Interphase and Mitotic Cvcle Interphase G1 1St Gap S DNA Synthesisreplication only occurs here G2 2nd gap ready to enter mitotic phase Go resting phase grows during all phases chromosomes are copied here some cells like neurons never leave interphase MitosisProphase mitotic spindle forms sister chromatids form nucleolus gone Prometaphase no nuclear envelope anymore growth of spindle Metaphase chromosomes aligned along metaphase plate Anaphase sister chromatids separated Telophase nucleoli reform with envelope alsogt Cytokinesis while mitosis is still occurring different between plants and animals Plants form cell plate Animals have cleavage forming cleavage furrow Mitotic Spindle MS many events depend on it made of fibers of microtubules and proteins cytoskeleton provides materials for it spindle microtubules elongate polymerize by adding subunits of tubulin and shorten depolymerize centrosome MTOC microtubule organizing centers one at each pole of cell have pair of centrioles kinetochore pair on each of replicated chromosomes thru centromere made of DNA segments and associated proteins sires of attachments of kinetochore microtubules during prometaphase tug on chromosomes and align them on metaphase plate other microtubules nonkinetochore microtubules overlap each other not on kinetochore aster microtubules by metaphase attach to plasma membrane spindle complete Separaseenzyme catalyzes cleavage of sister chromatidsgt separate anaphase cohesins broken individual chromosomes at this point pulled because of shortening depolymerization of microtubules nonkinetochore microtubules overlapstretches cell to help with telophasecytokinesis which end together Ch 11 Sexual Life Cycles and Generation of Genetic Variation Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind Genetics scientific study of heredity transmission of traits from one generation to next inherit traits from parents and variation need this differences among individuals in same species including offspring and parents in organisms units of heredity DNA segments passed to next generation via reproductive cells called gametes sperm and eggs each one has specific location called locus loci most organisms DNA packed into chromosomes Asexual reproduction single individual giving genetic information to offspring no gametes clone offspring is genetically identical to parent Sexual Reproduction gametes involved 2 parents give rise to offspring With unique combination of genes Variation helps With survival in changing environments Week 1213 920 Nov 2015 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics The Alteration of Fertilization in Sexual Life Cvcles Life Cvcle generation to generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism from conception to production of offspring Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells human somatic cells everything except sperm and eggs 23 pairs of chromosomes Karyotypeexamination of cell at metaphase ordered display of chromosome pairs in cell Homologous Chromosomes homologs some length and shape With same genes in homologous pair Sex Chromosomesgenetic sex determination humans malesXY and femalesXX Autosomesall other pairs of chromosomes each pair of homologous chromosomes one comes from each parent 46 chromosomes in human somatic cells diploid 2n full complement 23 pairs 2n46 of chromosomes cell DNA synthesis occurs each replicated chromosome has sister chromosome has sister chromatids Each gamete has 23 chromosomesgt haploid n 23 for humans each set of 23 has 22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome unfertilized egg ovum X sperm X or Y males determine sex Fertilization union of sperm and egg becomes diploid zygote sexual maturity produce gametes through meiosis 4 genetically unique haploid cells Fertilization and meiosis alternate Three main types of sexual life cycles differ in terms of timing of meiosis and fertilization 1 Animals gametes are only haploid cells meiosis with no further cell diVision gametes fuse to make diploid zygotegt mitosis and cytokinesis 2 Plants and some algae alteration of generations cycle includes diploid and haploid multicellular stage diploid sporophyte makes m become multicellularhaploid gametophytes make gLetes fuse to make diploid zygote mitosis to diploid sporoph e by mitosis through mitosis by meiosis 3 Fungi and some protists no multicellular diploid only diploid stage is zygote gt makes haploid cells through meiosisgt through mitosis to multicellular haploidgt makes gametes through mitosis depending on life cycle type haploid or diploid cells perform mitosis only diploid can undergo meiosis in all 3 halved doubled causes genetic variation Ch 12 Mendel Genes and Inheritance How are traits passed from parents to offspring Blending hypothesis genetic material of parents blended in offspring eventually everything should look the same Particulate hypothesis parents pass on Discrete heritable units gtGregor Mendeldocumented With garden pea experiments made ground shaking genetic principles Why pea plants distinct heritable features or characters ower colorpurple or White character variants or character traits mating can be rigorously controlled Flower male and female parts stamensgtpollengtsperm carpelgtegg can selffertilize can accomplish cross pollination emasculate and dust another s pollen on all female plant F1 1St filial generation selected pea characters that varied between discrete alternations True Breeding selfpollination produces offspring with parent s characteristics Experiments examining 1 character 2 truebreeding opposites ex purple White owers Hybridization crossing true breeding parental plants Pgenerationparental plants F1 generation P s hybrid offspring F2 generation offspring of selfpollinated F1 Dominant Traits all expressed in F1 hybrids Recessive Traits masked by dominant in F1 but but reappears in F2 purple dominant and White recessive in pea plants Mendel s results with other discrete pea traits found F1 offspring had dominant trait recessive reappeared in F2 generation Mendel s Model 1 alternative versions of genes account for variation in inherited characteristics called m 2 for each charactergt organism gets 2 alleles one from each parent somatic cells23 pairs of chromosomes genetic locus at same position even if they re different alleles 3 if 2 alleles at locus are different the dominant allele determines the organisms phenotype appearance the other recessive allele is hidden 4 The Law of Segregation 2 alleles for heritable character separate during gamete formation and are in different gametes Meiosis and the Law of Segregation homologous chromosomes separate F1 Hybrid 2 different alleles true breeding peas gametes are the same Punnett Square when you know what genetic makeup dominant capital letter recessive lowercase letter Homozygou TT tt same alleles Heterozygou Tt one of each type of allele Genotype genetic makeup Phenotype expressed allele
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