BMS 208: Study Guide 4
BMS 208: Study Guide 4 BMS 208
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aldina Softic on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 208 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jolanta Lanier in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
BMS 208; Study Guide 4 Plasma: 55% of whole blood (matrix) Buffy Coat: leukocytes and platelets Erythrocytes: 44% of whole blood Plasma: 92% water 8% protein o Albumins: maintain osmotic pressure o Globulins: produce antibodies for immunity o Fibrinogen: converted to fibrin when blood clots Serum: plasma without clotting factors Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells): Anucleated (no nucleus) Biconcave 120 day life span Carry oxygen Hemoglobin: protein in RBC, bond weakly with oxygen Hemopoiesis: production of blood cells Hemocytoblast: stem cell precursor for formation of all blood cells Erythropoiesis: Hemocytoblast Proerythroblast (day 1) Early erythroblast (day 2) Late erythroblast (day 3) Normoblast (day 4, ejects nucleus) Reticulocyte (day 57, enters circulation) Anemia: deficiency of RBC/hemoglobin Leukocytes: white blood cells Granulocytes (granules in cytoblast) o Neutrophils – pale o Eosiniphils – bright red o Basophils – dark blue Agranulocytes (large nuclei and no granules) o Monocytes – attack and digest bacteria o T lymphocytes – detect cells with wrong antigens o B lymphocytes – produce antibodies Neutrophils lymphocytes monocytes eosinophils basophils (most to least) Leukocytosis: increase in # of circulating WBC Leukemia: increase in total number of WBC and number of immature WBC. Leukopenia: less than normal number of WBC Platelets (thrombocytes): Megakaryocyte: gives rise to platelets Form platelet plug for injured vessels Type Erythrocytes Leukocytes Platelets Life Span 120 Days 12 hrs to years 810 Days Carry oxygen and Participate in Participate in Purpose carbon dioxide immunity blood clotting Amount Millions 10,000’s 100,000’s Heart: nd th th Borders at 2 rib and 5 & 6 ribs Surrounded by pericardium o Fibrous parietal visceral (Outer to inner) Pericarditis: adhesions on visceral and parietal layers Left side is oxygenated, right side is deoxygenated Heart wall: epicardium myocardium endocardium (outer to inner) Arteries: leave the heart Veins: go towards the heart Interventricular septum: ensures there is no mixing of blood Blood Flow: collects in right atrium tricuspid valve right ventricle pulmonary semilunar valve pulmonary trunk lungs pulmonary veins left atrium bicuspid valve left ventricle aortic semilunar valve aorta Cistole: contraction of ventricle Diastole: relaxation of ventricle Conduction System: Sinoatrial node atrioventricular node atrioventricular bundles interventricular septum left & right bundle branches purkinje fibers Aortic arch: Braciocephalic trunk o Right common carotid o Right subclavian Arteries: Descending aorta: celiac trunk superior mesenteric left & right renal arteries inferior mesenteric left & right common iliac left & right internal iliac left & right external iliac Arteries in arm: subclavian axillary anterior humero circumflex brachial radial ulnar common interosseous superficial palmar arch digital artery Arteries in leg: common iliac internal iliac external iliac femoral circumflex femoral deep femoral popliteal posterior tibial anterior tibial fibular dorsalis pedis Arteries in head: common carotid external carotid internal carotid vertebral basilar posterior cerebral middle cerebral anterior cerebral Veins: Deep veins in arm: digital palmar arch radial ulnar brachial axillary subclavian Superficial veins in arm: cephalic vein (lateral) basilac (medial) medican cubital vein Veins in head: external jugular internal jugular subclavian brachiocephalic vein Deep veins in leg: anterior tibial posterior tibial popliteal femoral Superficial veins in leg: great saphenous vein (joins with femoral to form external iliac) internal iliac common iliac inferior vena cava renal vein Arteries Veins General Appearance Round, thick Irregular, thin Internal Layer No valves Valves Middle Layer Thick, elastic Thin, collagen Elastic Smooth muscle fibers External Layer Elastic artery muscular artery arterioles continuous capillary Large vein medium vein venules fenestrated capillary Lymphatic system: Lymph vessels: thin, transport lymph fluid Lymph fluid: clear, less protein than plasma Lymph Nodes: Many afferent vessels (arriving) One efferent vessel (exiting) First responders to foreign antigens
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