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GVSU / Biomedical Science / BMS 208 / What is the composition of plasma?

What is the composition of plasma?

What is the composition of plasma?

Description

School: Grand Valley State University
Department: Biomedical Science
Course: Human Anatomy
Professor: Jolanta lanier
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Human Anatomy
Cost: 50
Name: BMS 208: Study Guide 4
Description: This is a study guide for unit 4.
Uploaded: 04/01/2016
5 Pages 24 Views 4 Unlocks
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BMS 208; Study Guide 4


What is the composition of plasma?



Plasma: 55% of whole blood (matrix)

Buffy Coat: leukocytes and platelets

Erythrocytes: 44% of whole blood

Plasma:

∙ 92% water

∙ 8% protein

o Albumins: maintain osmotic pressure

o Globulins: produce antibodies for immunity

o Fibrinogen: converted to fibrin when blood clots

Serum: plasma without clotting factors

Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells):

∙ Anucleated (no nucleus)

∙ Bi­concave

∙ 120 day life span

∙ Carry oxygen

Hemoglobin: protein in RBC, bond weakly with oxygen Hemopoiesis: production of blood cells


What is the lifespan of erythrocytes?



If you want to learn more check out What do you perceive as the strengths and weaknesses of using magic formula to beat the market?

Hemocytoblast: stem cell precursor for formation of all blood cells

Erythropoiesis:  

∙ Hemocytoblast

∙ Proerythroblast (day 1)

∙ Early erythroblast (day 2)

∙ Late erythroblast (day 3)

∙ Normoblast (day 4, ejects nucleus)

∙ Reticulocyte (day 5­7, enters circulation)

Anemia: deficiency of RBC/hemoglobin

Leukocytes: white blood cells

∙ Granulocytes (granules in cytoblast)

o Neutrophils – pale

o Eosiniphils – bright red

o Basophils – dark blue We also discuss several other topics like Who is the king of rock 'n roll?

∙ Agranulocytes (large nuclei and no granules)


What is hemoglobin?



o Monocytes – attack and digest bacteria

o T lymphocytes – detect cells with wrong antigens

o B lymphocytes – produce antibodies

Neutrophils  lymphocytes  monocytes  eosinophils  basophils (most to least)

Leukocytosis: increase in # of circulating WBC

Leukemia: increase in total number of WBC and number of immature WBC. Leukopenia: less than normal number of WBC

Platelets (thrombocytes): If you want to learn more check out What is the motion of a rolling ball?

∙ Megakaryocyte: gives rise to platelets

∙ Form platelet plug for injured vessels

Type Erythrocytes Leukocytes Platelets 

120 Days

12 hrs to years

Carry oxygen and  carbon dioxide

Participate in 

immunity

Millions

10,000’s

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Life Span 8­10 Days Purpose Participate in  blood clotting

Amount  100,000’s

Heart:

∙ Borders at 2nd rib and 5th & 6th ribs

∙ Surrounded by pericardium

o Fibrous  parietal  visceral (Outer to inner)

∙ Pericarditis: adhesions on visceral and parietal layers

∙ Left side is oxygenated, right side is deoxygenated 

Heart wall: epicardium  myocardium  endocardium (outer to inner)

Arteries: leave the heart

Veins: go towards the heart

Interventricular septum: ensures there is no mixing of blood

Blood Flow: collects in right atrium  tri­cuspid valve  right ventricle  pulmonary semi­lunar valve  pulmonary trunk  lungs  pulmonary veins  left  atrium  bi­cuspid valve  left ventricle  aortic semi­lunar valve  aorta

Cistole: contraction of ventricle

Diastole: relaxation of ventricle 

Conduction System: Sinoatrial node  atrioventricular node  atrioventricular  bundles  interventricular septum  left & right bundle branches  purkinje fibers We also discuss several other topics like What is raw material production?

Aortic arch:

∙ Bracio­cephalic trunk

o Right common carotid

o Right sub­clavian

Arteries:

Descending aorta: celiac trunk  superior mesenteric  left & right renal arteries   inferior mesenteric  left & right common iliac  left & right internal iliac  left  & right external iliac

Arteries in arm: sub­clavian  axillary  anterior humero circumflex  brachial  radial  ulnar  common interosseous  superficial palmar arch  digital artery

Arteries in leg: common iliac  internal iliac  external iliac  femoral circumflex  femoral  deep femoral  popliteal  posterior tibial  anterior tibial  fibular  dorsalis pedis Don't forget about the age old question of Where does the manufacturing cycle occur?

Arteries in head: common carotid  external carotid  internal carotid  vertebral  basilar  posterior cerebral  middle cerebral  anterior cerebral

Veins:

Deep veins in arm: digital  palmar arch  radial  ulnar  brachial  axillary  sub­clavian

Superficial veins in arm: cephalic vein (lateral)  basilac (medial)  medican  cubital vein

Veins in head: external jugular  internal jugular  sub­clavian  brachio­cephalic vein 

Deep veins in leg: anterior tibial  posterior tibial  popliteal  femoral

Superficial veins in leg:  great saphenous vein (joins with femoral to form  external iliac)  internal iliac  common iliac  inferior vena cava  renal vein 

Arteries Veins 

Round, thick

No valves

Thick, elastic 

Elastic

General Appearance Irregular, thin Internal Layer Valves

Middle Layer Thin, collagen External Layer Smooth muscle fibers

Elastic artery  muscular artery  arterioles  continuous capillary

Large vein  medium vein  venules  fenestrated capillary

Lymphatic system:

∙ Lymph vessels: thin, transport lymph fluid

∙ Lymph fluid: clear, less protein than plasma

Lymph Nodes:

∙ Many afferent vessels (arriving) ∙ One efferent vessel (exiting) ∙ First responders to foreign  antigens

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