Unit 1: Evolution & Genetics (Ch. 1-3, 18)
1. How is science different from other ways of understanding the world? Repeatedly using EVIDENCE to lead to understanding
2. What are predictions/hypotheses/scientific theories/opinions; how are they all different? Opinions: What we think about something based on subjective experience Predictions: Expected observations in a particular experiment
Hypothesis: Plausible explanation of how something works or why someone would make a particular prediction
Theory: Broad explanation based of lots of evidence with little or no statements refuting it; as strong as it gets
3. What are the various pieces of evidence supporting evolutionary theory?
Observable characteristics (morphology): The idea of being able to compare forms or structures of distantly related organisms
When we look at morphology, there are several more specific things we see that lend support for the scientific theory of evolution
Why do whales have hind limbs and a pelvis?
Its on land ancestor
Vestigial Structures (definition): genetically determined structures or attributes that have apparently lost most or all of their ancestral function in a given species, but have been retained through evolution
Homologous Structures (definition): The similarities in anatomical traits that result from common ancestry (same structure, different function for different organisms) When comparing the wings of a bat, bird, and a dragonfly, you may conclude that all three have wings that are derived from a shared common ancestor. A closer examination will reveal
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three things that change social class?
They have the same function, but different structure
Share a similar functional adaptation of flight
They don’t show an evolutionary relationship
Layers of gravel, sand, and mud accumulate, embedding and preserving fossils Dating fossils: Positional Dating
Vertebrates pass through similar developmental patterns, indicating that they share a common ancestor
Similarities across distantly related organisms
4. What is the role of random mutations in evolution?
While Mutation is the ORIGINAL source of all genetic variation, alleles get mixed up into new combinations through meiosis
Adaptive: Offers differential success; increased fitness We also discuss several other topics like Hat is the principle of uniformity of nature?
Fitness: The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment Small changes in genes that code for proteins may lead to large changes in the molecule's structure or function and affect fitness
5. What are the common misconceptions about evolution and natural selection? Natural selection does not grant organisms what they “need”
Evolution does not involve trying
6. What are the various ways that evolutionary theory is applied that affect us in our everyday lives?
Antibiotic resistance and evolutionary theory
7. How does speciation occur?
Speciation: Process that creates a new species
Speciation occurs when
Population is separated by something
They can no longer interbreed
Genetic similarity grows apart
Reproductive barriers prevent organisms from having viable offspring
Geographical barriers: large geographic separation (distance, mountain range) Temporal Barriers: Timing of breeding (reproductive periods)
Mechanical Barriers (Shit Don’t Fit): Genitalia doesn’t fit together
Behavioral Barriers: Behavior must be exactly right
Hybrid Inviability: zygote/embryo won’t develop We also discuss several other topics like What is the objectivism in value or intrinsic value?
Hybrid Sterility: Offspring is born, but is infertile Don't forget about the age old question of Microscopic kidney unit that regulates blood composition by what?
8. What are general observable trends in human evolution?
Walk upright, walk on two legs, spine curvature, placement of skull, rotation of hips, change in brain cavity size
9. How can we determine the likelihood that two parents, given their genotypes, will have offspring who have a particular condition (i.e., be able to use a Punnett square to solve a genetics problem)?
Genotype: PP, Pp, pp
Phenotype: Outward expression
Homozygous: individual with two similar alleles for a single trait We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between hypothetical imperatives and categorical imperatives according to kant?
We also discuss several other topics like Describe what matter is in science.
Heterozygous: individual with two different alleles for a single trait
Dominance: in reference to alleles, the allele that is preferentially expressed; only one copy of the allele is needed for expression of the phenotype
Recessive: in reference to alleles, the allele that is not preferentially expressed; two copies of the allele are needed for expression of the phenotype
Unit 2: Ecology, Conservation Biology, & Plants (Ch. 4, 16-17, 12-14)
1. Why is photosynthesis necessary for all life on Earth, even for non-plants? The metabolic process that transforms sunlight energy and carbon dioxide into larger biological molecules, such as sugar
Plants take in CO2 out of the air and put oxygen allowing other organisms to use it
2. What is the greenhouse effect and how has it supported the evolution of life on Earth? Greenhouse gases: Any atmospheric gas that absorbs heat from the sun or can trap it in our atmosphere
a. Light energy enters the atmosphere and some of that sunlight is absorbed by the surface and heats the Earth. Some is radiated back off the surface
b. Some of the energy is trapped by the greenhouse gases and warms the Earth like a blanket
c. Greenhouse gases absorb and trap heat energy
d. A portion of the energy radiated goes through the atmosphere and back into space
3. What specific actions are humans doing to cause climate change, and what actions can we take to slow climate change?
Anything that is increasing greenhouse gases will cause climate change
Anything that decreases the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will slow it
4. What are the consequences of climate change?
Ecosystem and species extinctions
a. Example: changes in sea level reduce and destroy habitats
Sea level rise
b. Example: settlements in Fuji relocation
c. US Example: Miami and New Orleans
More severe and unpredictable storms
Acidification of oceans
Shifting of seasons
Shifting of distributions of crops away from the poles
d. Example: it is predicted that by the year 2050 we won’t be able to grow wheat here because it will be too warm
5. How are humans causing the 6th mass extinction?
Habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation, wiping out species, and changing global climate
6. What are the various ways that conservation biologists attempt to preserve Earth’s biodiversity?
Providing wildlife corridors, captive breeding programs, enforcement of CITES agreements, protecting and conserving habitats
7. What are the basic structures of plants and their functions?
Root: Absorb water and minerals
Shoot (Stem): Storage, transport, support
Leaf: Photosynthesis, stomata for gas exchange
8. What are the primary differences between woody and herbaceous plants? One makes wood
Both grow up and down, but woody plants grow out too
9. Through what process do flowering plants (angiosperms) reproduce? Sexual Reproduction
• Sepal: Outer most portion of a flower; protective. Mirrors the number of petals in most plants
• Petal: modified leaf; can help attract pollinators
• Stamen (Anther and Filament): Male part
− Filament: Holds up the Anther
− Anther: Where pollen is produced
• Pollen Grains: Structure that carries male gamete to female part of the flower
• Carpel: Female part
− Stigma: pollen must stick to it for pollination to occur
− Style: Positioning of the stigma
− Ovary: Ovules
Pollination: Transfer of pollen grains from male anther to female stigma • Various means: Animals, wind
• When a pollen grain lands on a stigma, there is growth of a pollen tube(s) • Inside of pollen two sperm cells are created
− The eyes on a coconut “scars”: where pollen tubes grew into the ovary • Pollen provides sperm cell to ovule which contains the egg cell
Fertilization: 1 sperm cell unites with egg
• Zygote: Egg
• Ovule matures into seed
• Ovary matures into fruit
Double fertilization: two sperm nuclei from the pollen grain unite with two cells in the ovule
• The first sperm: Egg fertilization > zygote > embryotic plant
• The second sperm: fuses with central cell; endosperm
• Endosperm: nutrition embryo needs to grow and develop
10. Based on flower and fruit characteristics, how can you identify the most likely pollinator and mode of seed dispersal, respectively?
Inflorescence: The floral display of a plant
Often supply pollinator with nectar reward
Adaptive because they attract pollinators through shape, reward, and color: reflect the needs/preferences of the animal that is the pollinator
Wind-pollinated flowers: 10% of flowering plants
No or very small petals
Don’t have to attract pollinators
No nectar needed
No scent needed
Make A LOT of pollen
Unit 3: Digestive & Immune Systems, Preventing Chronic Diseases (Ch. 8, 20-21)
1. In what quantities do we need proteins, carbohydrates, and fats?
All macros, needed in big amounts
Carbohydrates: Energy source
Proteins: Amino acids
2. From which foods do we get proteins, carbohydrates, and fats?
Proteins: Meat, fish, beans, nuts, seeds, eggs
3. What is the function of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in our bodies? Proteins: Structural enzymes, doing work
Fats: Last resort energy resort
4. What is antibiotic resistance and how can it be slowed?
Bacteria reproduce rapidly and can transfer genes from one bacterium to another, so a harmless strain can quickly acquire the genes to resist antibiotics and cause disease. From an evolutionary perspective, antibiotics act as a strong force of natural selection. Antibiotic drugs kill bacteria lacking the resistance gene; the few resistant bacteria reproduce and pass their resistance genes rapidly to the next generation. Bacterial pathogens can evolve at much faster rates than humans can develop new antibiotic drugs. For this reason, some physicians are less likely to prescribe antibiotics for their patients who may not need them.
5. What are the structural differences between common pathogens (bacteria, viruses, eukaryotes)?
Bacteria: Pathogen, prokaryotic
Virus: DNA or RNA, capsid, enveloped
Eukaryotic: Environment needs to be changed
6. How does infection cause inflammation?
Tissue damage -> Release of histamines -> Phagocytes engulf bacteria, dead cells, and cellular debris -> Platelets move out of the capillary to seal the infected area
7. How does our immune system enable vaccinations to work?
Adaptive immune system both primary and secondary immune responses Primary: being exposed for the antigen for the first time
Secondary: exposed to antigen for second time and have memory cells to fight the antigen faster
8. How can we help to prevent diabetes, cancer, and heart disease through our dietary and lifestyle choices?
They can be prevented through changes in diet, behavior and physical activity. These are all modifiable risk factors
9. What is cancer and what causes it to develop?
Cancer is a disease that results in uncontrolled growth and reproduction of abnormal cells. It is caused by mutations in one or more of the genes that regulate the steps of cell division; loss of control of cell division
Carcinogens can cause these types of mutations
Carcinogens are agents that cause genetic mutation leading to uncontrolled cell division and cancer.