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ISU / Biology / BIOL 101 / How is science different from other ways of understanding the world?

How is science different from other ways of understanding the world?

How is science different from other ways of understanding the world?

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School: Illinois State University
Department: Biology
Course: Concepts in Biology
Professor: Helms
Term: Summer 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: BSC 101 Helms FINAL Exam Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for the final exam in BSC 101 with Helms. I believe that this can help you perform better on the test. You can access my weekly notes for this class through my profile.
Uploaded: 11/28/2015
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Unit 1: Evolution & Genetics (Ch. 1-3, 18)  


How is science different from other ways of understanding the world?



1. How is science different from other ways of understanding the world?  Repeatedly using EVIDENCE to lead to understanding

2. What are predictions/hypotheses/scientific theories/opinions; how are they all different?  Opinions: What we think about something based on subjective experience Predictions: Expected observations in a particular experiment

Hypothesis: Plausible explanation of how something works or why someone would  make a particular prediction  

Theory: Broad explanation based of lots of evidence with little or no statements refuting  it; as strong as it gets  

3. What are the various pieces of evidence supporting evolutionary theory?  

Observable characteristics (morphology): The idea of being able to compare forms or  structures of distantly related organisms


What are the various pieces of evidence supporting evolutionary theory?



When we look at morphology, there are several more specific things we see that lend  support for the scientific theory of evolution

Why do whales have hind limbs and a pelvis?

Its on land ancestor

Vestigial Structures (definition): genetically determined structures or attributes that  have apparently lost most or all of their ancestral function in a given species, but have  been retained through evolution

Homologous Structures (definition): The similarities in anatomical traits that result from  common ancestry (same structure, different function for different organisms)  When comparing the wings of a bat, bird, and a dragonfly, you may conclude that all  three have wings that are derived from a shared common ancestor. A closer  examination will reveal


What is the role of random mutations in evolution?



Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three things that change social class?

They have the same function, but different structure

Share a similar functional adaptation of flight

They don’t show an evolutionary relationship

Fossil Evidence

Layers of gravel, sand, and mud accumulate, embedding and preserving fossils Dating fossils: Positional Dating

Comparative embryology 

Vertebrates pass through similar developmental patterns, indicating that they  share a common ancestor

Similarities across distantly related organisms

4. What is the role of random mutations in evolution?  

While Mutation is the ORIGINAL source of all genetic variation, alleles get mixed up into  new combinations through meiosis

Adaptive: Offers differential success; increased fitness We also discuss several other topics like Hat is the principle of uniformity of nature?

Fitness: The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment Small changes in genes that code for proteins may lead to large changes in the  molecule's structure or function and affect fitness

5. What are the common misconceptions about evolution and natural selection?  Natural selection does not grant organisms what they “need”

Evolution does not involve trying

6. What are the various ways that evolutionary theory is applied that affect us in our everyday  lives?  

Antibiotic resistance and evolutionary theory

7. How does speciation occur?

Speciation: Process that creates a new species

Speciation occurs when

Population is separated by something

They can no longer interbreed

Genetic similarity grows apart

Reproductive barriers prevent organisms from having viable offspring

Geographical barriers: large geographic separation (distance, mountain range) Temporal Barriers: Timing of breeding (reproductive periods)

Mechanical Barriers (Shit Don’t Fit): Genitalia doesn’t fit together

Behavioral Barriers: Behavior must be exactly right

Postmating Barriers

Hybrid Inviability: zygote/embryo won’t develop We also discuss several other topics like What is the objectivism in value or intrinsic value?

Hybrid Sterility: Offspring is born, but is infertile  Don't forget about the age old question of Microscopic kidney unit that regulates blood composition by what?

8. What are general observable trends in human evolution?

Walk upright, walk on two legs, spine curvature, placement of skull, rotation of hips,  change in brain cavity size

9. How can we determine the likelihood that two parents, given their genotypes, will have  offspring who have a particular condition (i.e., be able to use a Punnett square to solve a  genetics problem)?

Genotype: PP, Pp, pp

Phenotype: Outward expression

Homozygous: individual with two similar alleles for a single trait We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between hypothetical imperatives and categorical imperatives according to kant?
We also discuss several other topics like Describe what matter is in science.

Heterozygous: individual with two different alleles for a single trait

Dominance: in reference to alleles, the allele that is preferentially expressed; only one  copy of the allele is needed for expression of the phenotype

Recessive: in reference to alleles, the allele that is not preferentially expressed; two  copies of the allele are needed for expression of the phenotype

Unit 2: Ecology, Conservation Biology, & Plants (Ch. 4, 16-17, 12-14)  

1. Why is photosynthesis necessary for all life on Earth, even for non-plants?  The metabolic process that transforms sunlight energy and carbon dioxide into larger  biological molecules, such as sugar

Plants take in CO2 out of the air and put oxygen allowing other organisms to use it

2. What is the greenhouse effect and how has it supported the evolution of life on Earth? Greenhouse gases: Any atmospheric gas that absorbs heat from the sun or can trap it in  our atmosphere

Greenhouse effect:

a. Light energy enters the atmosphere and some of that sunlight is absorbed by the  surface and heats the Earth.  Some is radiated back off the surface

b. Some of the energy is trapped by the greenhouse gases and warms the Earth like a  blanket

c. Greenhouse gases absorb and trap heat energy

d. A portion of the energy radiated goes through the atmosphere and back into  space

3. What specific actions are humans doing to cause climate change, and what actions can  we take to slow climate change?

Anything that is increasing greenhouse gases will cause climate change

Anything that decreases the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will slow it

4. What are the consequences of climate change?

Ecosystem and species extinctions

a. Example: changes in sea level reduce and destroy habitats

Sea level rise

b. Example: settlements in Fuji relocation  

c. US Example: Miami and New Orleans

More severe and unpredictable storms

Acidification of oceans

Shifting of seasons

Coral bleaching

Shifting of distributions of crops away from the poles

d. Example: it is predicted that by the year 2050 we won’t be able to grow wheat  here because it will be too warm

5. How are humans causing the 6th mass extinction?

Habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation, wiping out species, and changing global  climate

6. What are the various ways that conservation biologists attempt to preserve Earth’s  biodiversity?

Providing wildlife corridors, captive breeding programs, enforcement of CITES  agreements, protecting and conserving habitats

7. What are the basic structures of plants and their functions?

Root: Absorb water and minerals

Shoot (Stem): Storage, transport, support

Leaf: Photosynthesis, stomata for gas exchange

8. What are the primary differences between woody and herbaceous plants? One makes wood

Both grow up and down, but woody plants grow out too

9. Through what process do flowering plants (angiosperms) reproduce? Sexual Reproduction

Floral Anatomy 

• Sepal: Outer most portion of a flower; protective. Mirrors the number of petals in  most plants

• Petal: modified leaf; can help attract pollinators

• Stamen (Anther and Filament): Male part

− Filament: Holds up the Anther

− Anther: Where pollen is produced

• Pollen Grains: Structure that carries male gamete to female part of the  flower

• Carpel: Female part

− Stigma: pollen must stick to it for pollination to occur

− Style: Positioning of the stigma

− Ovary: Ovules

Pollination: Transfer of pollen grains from male anther to female stigma • Various means: Animals, wind

• When a pollen grain lands on a stigma, there is growth of a pollen tube(s) • Inside of pollen two sperm cells are created

− The eyes on a coconut “scars”: where pollen tubes grew into the ovary • Pollen provides sperm cell to ovule which contains the egg cell

Fertilization: 1 sperm cell unites with egg

• Zygote: Egg

• Ovule matures into seed

• Ovary matures into fruit

Double fertilization: two sperm nuclei from the pollen grain unite with two cells in the  ovule

• The first sperm: Egg fertilization > zygote > embryotic plant

• The second sperm: fuses with central cell; endosperm

• Endosperm: nutrition embryo needs to grow and develop

10. Based on flower and fruit characteristics, how can you identify the most likely pollinator and mode of seed dispersal, respectively?

Animal-pollinated flowers

Inflorescence: The floral display of a plant

Often supply pollinator with nectar reward

Adaptive because they attract pollinators through shape, reward, and color: reflect  the needs/preferences of the animal that is the pollinator

Wind-pollinated flowers: 10% of flowering plants

No or very small petals

Don’t have to attract pollinators

No nectar needed

No scent needed

Make A LOT of pollen

Unit 3: Digestive & Immune Systems, Preventing Chronic Diseases (Ch. 8, 20-21)  

1. In what quantities do we need proteins, carbohydrates, and fats?

All macros, needed in big amounts

Carbohydrates: Energy source

Proteins: Amino acids

2. From which foods do we get proteins, carbohydrates, and fats?

Proteins: Meat, fish, beans, nuts, seeds, eggs

3. What is the function of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in our bodies? Proteins: Structural enzymes, doing work

Carbohydrates: Energy

Fats: Last resort energy resort

4. What is antibiotic resistance and how can it be slowed?

Bacteria reproduce rapidly and can transfer genes from one bacterium to another, so a  harmless strain can quickly acquire the genes to resist antibiotics and cause disease. From an  evolutionary perspective, antibiotics act as a strong force of natural selection. Antibiotic  drugs kill bacteria lacking the resistance gene; the few resistant bacteria reproduce and pass  their resistance genes rapidly to the next generation. Bacterial pathogens can evolve at much  faster rates than humans can develop new antibiotic drugs. For this reason, some physicians  are less likely to prescribe antibiotics for their patients who may not need them.

5. What are the structural differences between common pathogens (bacteria, viruses,  eukaryotes)?

Bacteria: Pathogen, prokaryotic

Virus: DNA or RNA, capsid, enveloped

Eukaryotic: Environment needs to be changed

6. How does infection cause inflammation?

Tissue damage -> Release of histamines -> Phagocytes engulf bacteria, dead cells, and cellular  debris -> Platelets move out of the capillary to seal the infected area

7. How does our immune system enable vaccinations to work?

Adaptive immune system both primary and secondary immune responses Primary: being exposed for the antigen for the first time

Secondary: exposed to antigen for second time and have memory cells to fight the antigen  faster

8. How can we help to prevent diabetes, cancer, and heart disease through our dietary and  lifestyle choices?  

They can be prevented through changes in diet, behavior and physical activity.  These are all  modifiable risk factors

9. What is cancer and what causes it to develop?

Cancer is a disease that results in uncontrolled growth and reproduction of abnormal cells. It  is caused by mutations in one or more of the genes that regulate the steps of cell division; loss  of control of cell division

Carcinogens can cause these types of mutations

Carcinogens are agents that cause genetic mutation leading to uncontrolled cell division and  cancer.

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