Study Guide for Exam #3
Study Guide for Exam #3 Psych 332
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mari D. on Saturday November 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 332 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Theresa Moyers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 269 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 11/28/15
Study Guide for Abnormal Psychology Exam 3 Eating Disorders Body Mass Index o Weight (lbs.)/height x height (in.) x 703=BMI o Scale for calculating healthy vs. unhealthy weight o There could be problems using the BMI scale to calculate obesity because some people’s height to weight ratio could make them look obese on this scale even if they actually are not. Obesity: more common than all other eating disorders combined o Obesity rates have tripled in the past 17 years o Bariatric surgery: stomach stapling or gastric bypass Advantages: more successful than diets, most people lose 30-50% of their body weight Disadvantages: 15-20% of people have serious complications and this risk remains for years, 15% of people lose no weight whatsoever Anorexia vs. bulimia vs. binging At the heart of these disorders is an intense fear of becoming overweight and fat o Anorexia: fear of gaining weight, refusal to maintain a normal weight Restricting type: sets restrictions on food and won’t eat for long periods of time Binge-eating/purging type Most likely develops in 15 to 19 year olds Can lead to: Kidney damage Renal failure Death from heart arrhythmias o Bulimia: frequent episodes of binge eating, recurrent inappropriate behavior to prevent weight gain Bulimic patients are typically a normal weight Most likely to develop in 20 to 24 year olds Can lead to: Electrolyte imbalances Low potassium (hypokalemia) Damage to hands, throat, and teeth from induced vomiting o Binging: similar to bulimia without any form of compensatory behavior Normally people will binge for brief periods of time based on factors such as stress or sadness, however, binging becomes abnormal when the person literally cannot stop for a very long time and it begins to cause them major problems Causal factors o Eating disorders are multidetermined o The tendency to develop one runs in families. Whether or not this is due to genetics is still unknown Families of anorexics are described as showing: Limited tolerance of psychological tension An emphasis on what is proper and rule-mindedness Poor conflict resolution skills Over-direction of children Preoccupations with thinness, dieting, and good looks o Sociocultural influences such as fashion magazines showing extremely thin models could lead to an internalized value of thinness One study showed that women rate their current body shape as heavier than their ideal and heavier than what they think is attractive Men rated their current body shape as close to both their ideal and what they think is attractive This study shows how the genders’ personal points of view about their bodies are shaped based off of societal influences Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a form of psychosis, meaning the person is unable to accurately perceive reality o Typically appears in men between ages 18-21 and in women between 25-28 o Course of schizophrenia Person is usually considered “normal” although in some cases they are considered “odd all along” Prodromal phase: Symptoms are not obvious but the person begins to have strange ideas or lack emotions and family members and friends begin to notice a change. Active phase: Person is acutely psychotic and their functioning deteriorates and often ends up resulting in hospitalization. This stage may last a few days but can last as long as years. Psychosis is shortened but not completely eliminated with medication. Residual phase: There is improvement in functioning but the person almost never returns to previous level of functionality. Positive and Negative symptoms o Positive Delusions: patently false beliefs Special powers or identity Attaching personal meaning to irrelevant events Believing that feelings, thoughts, and actions are controlled by outside forces Hallucinations: perceiving (seeing, hearing) things that aren’t there Auditory hallucinations are most common in schizophrenia For example a common type of hallucination would be that the dog is singing and asking the person to sing along Disorganization in thought and speech Bizarre emotions o Negative Alogia: impoverished speech (speaking very little or conveying little meaning with speech) Flat affect (conveying little to no emotion, very still faces, robot-like speech) Avolition: loss of volition (inability to accomplish most tasks or make even small decisions) Social withdrawal Movement disorders Catatonia: rigid body and weird posturing (bizarre positions) Dystonia: bizarre movements of the face, neck, tongue, and back) Akathisia: restlessness, agitation, discomfort in limbs Type 1 and Type 2 Schizophrenia o Type 1 Positive symptoms predominate Most obvious type due to the person’s excessive, wild behavior Excess of thoughts, feelings, and behavior o Type 2 Negative symptoms predominate Person is robot-like and speaks very little with no emotion Deficit of thoughts, feelings, and behavior Brain Abnormalities and Dopamine o Positive symptoms are most likely associated with excess dopamine levels while negative symptoms are associated with structural abnormalities in the brain Treatment o Phenothiazines (1 generation antipsychotic meds) Discovered during the development of antihistamines for allergies Referred to as “conventional” antipsychotic drugs Often produce undesired movements similar to the symptoms of neurological diseases Movement disorders seem to be the result of med-induced reduction of dopamine, but these symptoms can be reversed with an anti-Parkinsonian drug taken along with the meds L-Dopa (drug that facilitates dopamine production) can reverse the effects of low dopamine, however, too much of this drug causes schizophrenic symptoms. A balance must be found. Tardive dyskinesia: an effect of taking conventional antipsychotics in which there are writhing, involuntary movements usually of the mouth, lips, tongue, or body. Sometimes can be impossible to cure. Reduce positive syndtoms more completely and quickly o Atypical antipsychotics (2 generation) Developed more recently Atypical because their biological operation differs from conventional antipsychotics Carry the risk of a fatal drop in white blood cells o Men tend to have more negative symptoms and require higher doses of and respond less readily to antipsychotic drugs. Women tend to display more positive symptoms and generally have easier/faster rates of recovery since they respond better to antipsychotics. o Milieu therapy: the idea of creating a social climate that promotes productive activity, responsibility, and self-respect to help patients in institutions More effective than “warehousing” patients and just giving them a place to be rather than offering them help While milieu therapy doesn’t cure schizophrenia, it helps patients gain some functionality back and improve their personal care and self-image o Although antipsychotic drugs can help and are now widely accepted, patients often dislike their powerful effects and sometimes refuse to take them. Recall NAMI in-class presentation in which presenters discussed their personal experiences with having been diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder respectively. Substance Abuse Public Health Model o Agent The risk is caused by some feature of the substance itself Alcohol is a “risky” agent Crosses blood-brain barrier for immediate effect Produces physical dependence (tolerance and withdrawal) Works in many reward systems in the brain Strategies to change the agent are limited o Host o Environment Prevention programs One’s that work: Programs that incorporate community, family, and school, One’s that don’t work: DARE, Education, Building Self-Esteem Identifying protective factors: Things such as doing well in school, positive peers, good social skills, etc. Treatments o Disulfiram Creates an unpleasant reaction to alcohol and reduces the desire to drink Prevents the metabolism of acetaldehyde by blocking aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme o Benzodiazepines They are cross tolerance to alcohol and can serve as a replacement for detoxification
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