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UNM / Engineering / PSY 332 / What is Body Mass Index?

What is Body Mass Index?

What is Body Mass Index?

Description

School: University of New Mexico
Department: Engineering
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Theresa moyers
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: unm, Abnormal psychology, and exam study guide
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Exam #3
Description: This study guide is based off of the review sheet she posted for the third exam coming up next week. Since this is what she has indicated we should review, it should be helpful.
Uploaded: 11/28/2015
4 Pages 5 Views 6 Unlocks
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Study Guide for Abnormal Psychology Exam 3 


What is Body Mass Index?



Eating Disorders

∙ Body Mass Index

o Weight (lbs.)/height x height (in.) x 703=BMI  

o Scale for calculating healthy vs. unhealthy weight

o There could be problems using the BMI scale to calculate obesity because some  people’s height to weight ratio could make them look obese on this scale even if  they actually are not.

∙ Obesity: more common than all other eating disorders combined

o Obesity rates have tripled in the past 17 years

o Bariatric surgery: stomach stapling or gastric bypass

▪ Advantages: more successful than diets, most people lose 30-50% of their  body weight

▪ Disadvantages: 15-20% of people have serious complications and this risk  remains for years, 15% of people lose no weight whatsoever

∙ Anorexia vs. bulimia vs. binging

At the heart of these disorders is an intense fear of becoming overweight and fat o Anorexia: fear of gaining weight, refusal to maintain a normal weight


What is Obesity?



▪ Restricting type: sets restrictions on food and won’t eat for long periods of  time

▪ Binge-eating/purging type

▪ Most likely develops in 15 to 19 year olds

▪ Can lead to:

Kidney damage

Renal failure

Death from heart arrhythmias

o Bulimia: frequent episodes of binge eating, recurrent inappropriate behavior to  prevent weight gain

▪ Bulimic patients are typically a normal weight

▪ Most likely to develop in 20 to 24 year olds

▪ Can lead to:

Electrolyte imbalances

Low potassium (hypokalemia)

Damage to hands, throat, and teeth from induced vomiting

o Binging: similar to bulimia without any form of compensatory behavior ▪ Normally people will binge for brief periods of time based on factors such  as stress or sadness, however, binging becomes abnormal when the person  literally cannot stop for a very long time and it begins to cause them major  problems


What is Bulimia?



Don't forget about the age old question of ise3004

∙ Causal factors We also discuss several other topics like What is Balafon?

o Eating disorders are multidetermined

o The tendency to develop one runs in families. Whether or not this is due to  genetics is still unknown

▪ Families of anorexics are described as showing:

Limited tolerance of psychological tension

An emphasis on what is proper and rule-mindedness

Poor conflict resolution skills

Over-direction of children  

Preoccupations with thinness, dieting, and good looks Don't forget about the age old question of uncg password reset

o Sociocultural influences such as fashion magazines showing extremely thin  models could lead to an internalized value of thinness

▪ One study showed that women rate their current body shape as heavier  than their ideal and heavier than what they think is attractive  

Men rated their current body shape as close to both their ideal and what  

they think is attractive

▪ This study shows how the genders’ personal points of view about their  bodies are shaped based off of societal influences

Schizophrenia

∙ Schizophrenia is a form of psychosis, meaning the person is unable to accurately perceive  reality

o Typically appears in men between ages 18-21 and in women between 25-28 o Course of schizophrenia

▪ Person is usually considered “normal” although in some cases they are considered “odd all along”

▪ Prodromal phase: Symptoms are not obvious but the person begins to have strange ideas or lack emotions and family members and friends begin to  

notice a change.  

▪ Active phase: Person is acutely psychotic and their functioning  

deteriorates and often ends up resulting in hospitalization. This stage may  last a few days but can last as long as years. Psychosis is shortened but not  completely eliminated with medication.  We also discuss several other topics like weiyan chen math

▪ Residual phase: There is improvement in functioning but the person  

almost never returns to previous level of functionality.  

∙ Positive and Negative symptoms

o Positive

▪ Delusions: patently false beliefs  

⮚ Special powers or identity

⮚ Attaching personal meaning to irrelevant events

⮚ Believing that feelings, thoughts, and actions are controlled by  

outside forces

▪ Hallucinations: perceiving (seeing, hearing) things that aren’t there

⮚ Auditory hallucinations are most common in schizophrenia

⮚ For example a common type of hallucination would be that the dog  

is singing and asking the person to sing along

▪ Disorganization in thought and speech

▪ Bizarre emotions

o Negative

▪ Alogia: impoverished speech (speaking very little or conveying little  

meaning with speech)

▪ Flat affect (conveying little to no emotion, very still faces, robot-like  speech)

▪ Avolition: loss of volition (inability to accomplish most tasks or make  even small decisions) If you want to learn more check out psych 002 ucr

▪ Social withdrawal

▪ Movement disorders

⮚ Catatonia: rigid body and weird posturing (bizarre positions)

⮚ Dystonia: bizarre movements of the face, neck, tongue, and back)

⮚ Akathisia: restlessness, agitation, discomfort in limbs

∙ Type 1 and Type 2 Schizophrenia Don't forget about the age old question of uvu training guide

o Type 1

▪ Positive symptoms predominate

▪ Most obvious type due to the person’s excessive, wild behavior

▪ Excess of thoughts, feelings, and behavior

o Type 2

▪ Negative symptoms predominate

▪ Person is robot-like and speaks very little with no emotion

▪ Deficit of thoughts, feelings, and behavior

∙ Brain Abnormalities and Dopamine

o Positive symptoms are most likely associated with excess dopamine levels while  negative symptoms are associated with structural abnormalities in the brain ∙ Treatment

o Phenothiazines (1st generation antipsychotic meds)

▪ Discovered during the development of antihistamines for allergies

▪ Referred to as “conventional” antipsychotic drugs

▪ Often produce undesired movements similar to the symptoms of  

neurological diseases

⮚ Movement disorders seem to be the result of med-induced  

reduction of dopamine, but these symptoms can be reversed with  

an anti-Parkinsonian drug taken along with the meds

⮚ L-Dopa (drug that facilitates dopamine production) can reverse the  effects of low dopamine, however, too much of this drug causes  

schizophrenic symptoms. A balance must be found.

⮚ Tardive dyskinesia: an effect of taking conventional antipsychotics  in which there are writhing, involuntary movements usually of the  

mouth, lips, tongue, or body. Sometimes can be impossible to cure.

▪ Reduce positive symptoms more completely and quickly  

o Atypical antipsychotics (2nd generation)

▪ Developed more recently

▪ Atypical because their biological operation differs from conventional  antipsychotics

▪ Carry the risk of a fatal drop in white blood cells

o Men tend to have more negative symptoms and require higher doses of and  respond less readily to antipsychotic drugs. Women tend to display more positive  symptoms and generally have easier/faster rates of recovery since they respond  better to antipsychotics.

o Milieu therapy: the idea of creating a social climate that promotes productive  activity, responsibility, and self-respect to help patients in institutions

▪ More effective than “warehousing” patients and just giving them a place  to be rather than offering them help  

▪ While milieu therapy doesn’t cure schizophrenia, it helps patients gain  some functionality back and improve their personal care and self-image  

o Although antipsychotic drugs can help and are now widely accepted, patients  often dislike their powerful effects and sometimes refuse to take them.

∙ Recall NAMI in-class presentation in which presenters discussed their personal  experiences with having been diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder  respectively.  

Substance Abuse

∙ Public Health Model

o Agent  

▪ The risk is caused by some feature of the substance itself

▪ Alcohol is a “risky” agent

⮚ Crosses blood-brain barrier for immediate effect

⮚ Produces physical dependence (tolerance and withdrawal)

⮚ Works in many reward systems in the brain

⮚ Strategies to change the agent are limited

o Host  

o Environment

▪ Prevention programs

⮚ One’s that work: Programs that incorporate community, family,  

and school,  

⮚ One’s that don’t work: DARE, Education, Building Self-Esteem

▪ Identifying protective factors: Things such as doing well in school,  

positive peers, good social skills, etc.  

∙ Treatments

o Disulfiram

▪ Creates an unpleasant reaction to alcohol and reduces the desire to drink ▪ Prevents the metabolism of acetaldehyde by blocking aldehyde  

dehydrogenase enzyme  

o Benzodiazepines

▪ They are cross tolerance to alcohol and can serve as a replacement for  detoxification

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