Midterm 2 (Chp. 51-56) Study Guide
Midterm 2 (Chp. 51-56) Study Guide BIOL 2343 - 001
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nadia S on Saturday November 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2343 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Jill Devito in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see EVOLUTION & ECOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 11/28/15
Evolution and Ecology Midterm 2 Chapters 5156 Study Guide Chapter 51 Behavioral Ecology 0 What is behavior Everything that an animal does how and Why the animal acts 0 Ethology is the study of behavior 0 Behavioral Ecology o The study of behavior in the context of ecology and evolution 0 The study of how animal behavior is controlled and how it develops evolves and contributes to survival and reproductive success 0 Questions asked When observing behavior 0 Proximate 0 Ultimate 0 Proximate focus on the environmental stimuli that causes behavior and any genetic physiological and anatomical mechanisms that cause a behavioral act 0 Ultimate focus on evolutionary aspects of a behavior 0 Behavior 0 Components of phenotype o In uenced by genes andor the environment 0 Innate Behavior strong genetic in uence unlearned behavior 0 Fixed action pattern A sequence of innate behaviors that is usually unchangeable and carried to completion once it is triggered by a Sign stimulus Ex Male stickleback fish 0 Sign stimulus External sensory trigger o Imprinting o A learned behavior that also has an important innate component that is acquired during a limited sensitive period developmental time When a certain behavior can be learned 0 Signal Behavior in an animal that leads to a behavior change in another animal 0 Communication 0 Transmission reception and response to signals 0 Pheromone o Secreted or excreted chemical substance 0 A signal for communication 0 Similar to a hormone in uencing movement or behavior 0 Examples Courtshipamp mating aggregation kin recognition alarm signals trail marking territoriality quorum sensing o Promiscuous no strong pair bonds or lasting relationships Example peacock o Monogamous 0 One male mating With one female determined by selective environmental pressures 0 Animals exhibit less sexual dimorphism o Polygamous Individual of one sex mates With several others 0 Polygyny vs Polyandry Evolution and Ecology Midterm 2 Chapters 5156 Study Guide 0 Polygyny one male and many females 0 Polyandry one female and many males Territory 0 an area that is usually at a set location that individuals Will defend against others of the same species 0 Ex hippos kill because they think you are in their territory 0 Part of the home range Total range the range that is covered by an individualgroup in its lifetime Home range 0 Range used by an individualgroup on a regular basis 0 Part of the total range Dear enemy phenomenon When an individual realizes Who its neighbors are and leaves them alone to attack unknowns Agnostic Behavior 0 A contest that includes threats or combat that Will settle disputes in a population over resources food and mates Dominance Hierarchy individual rankings based on social interactions Altruism 0 Behavior that reduces individual fitness but increases fitness of another individual in the population Kin Selection altruistic behavior towards close relatives increases inclusive fitness because kin shares genes Inclusive Fitness Total effect individual has on proliferating its genes Coef cient of relatedness probability that if two individuals share parent or ancestor then a certain gene will also be shared Eusocial societies extremely altruistic colonies bees ants termites recently humans too Learning behavior modification based on certain experiences Habituation loss of responsiveness to stimuli that conveys very little information Ex pigeons becoming accustomed to human presence Spatial learning behavior change based on experience With spatial structure of surrounding environment Cognitive map spatial relationships among objects internal relationship Associative Learning ability to associate one feature of the environment With another Classical Conditioning Evolution and Ecology Midterm 2 Chapters 5156 Study Guide 0 Arbitrary stimulus associated with reward of punishment 0 EX Pavlov s dogs 0 Operant conditioning animal learns to associate its behavior with reward or punishment 0 Social learning learning by observing others 0 Culture system of information transfer through social learning that in uences behavior within the population 0 Sociobiology study of evolutionary in uences on social organizations 0 Cognition Ability of an animal s nervous system to perceive store process and use inf gathered by sensory receptors 0 Selfrecognition ability to distinguish between self and others 0 Insight ability to solve a new problem with an original solution Chapter 52 Ecology The Biosphere o Ecology study of interactions of organisms with each other AND their physical environment 0 Biotic components organisms of the environment 0 Abiotic components nonliving chemical and physical factors 0 Biogeography geographical distribution of organisms 0 Where do they live Distribution 0 How many organisms are there Abundance o How many per square unit area Density 0 Ecological niche the sum total of a species use of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment 0 Biosphere global ecosystem o Biome 0 one of the world s major ecosystems 0 based on the main vegetation 0 characterized by adaptations of an organism 0 Wetlands are transitions between aquatic and terrestrial habitat o Estuary where freshwater river mouth meets ocean o Eutrophication o aquatic systems released from nutrient limitation can become too productive 0 Ex algae blooms can cause red tides fish kills and dead water zones 0 Climate A Prevailing weather conditions Evolution and Ecology Midterm 2 Chapters 5156 Study Guide B Temperature water sunlight Wind Macroclimate global regional local climate Microclimate patterns in climate that are closer and more specific Seasonality predictable changes in temperature and precipitation based on season How is high biological productivity achieved Heat sunlight and moisture Tropical Forests Stratified and competition for light is intense Rainfall is 200400 cmyr Emergent trees canopy trees sub canopy trees and shrubherb layers High animal diversity Broadleaf ever green trees are dominant Savannas Rainfall is 3050 cmyr Warm year round Thorny trees that have adapted to warm conditions Fires are common Deserts Rainfall is lt30 cmyr Low Widely scattered vegetation Succulent plants cacti deeply rooted shrubs Temperature uctuates Chaparral Mild rainy Winter hot dry summers Shrubs small trees grasses herbs Plant diversity is high Occasional fires Temperate grasslands Cold and long Winters Grasses and forbs are dominant plants Droughts and fires Temperate forests Broadleaf trees Evolution and Ecology Midterm 2 Chapters 5156 Study Guide 0 Variation in temperature based on season 0 Closed canopy understory trees shrub layer and herb layer Coniferous forests o Rainfall is 3070 cmyr 0 Also known as taiga 0 Long cold winters 0 Wet summers 0 Conebearing trees pine spruce fir Tundra 0 long dark cold winters o Herbaceous vegetation lichen mosses grasses forbs dwarf shrubs 0 Permafrost frozen soil layer Chapter 53 Population Dynamics 0 Population Ecology populations in relation to the environment 0 How can a population grow Immigration and Birth 0 How can a population decline Emigration and Death 0 Immigration addition of new individuals from other populations 0 Emigration movement of individuals out of a population 0 Dispersal movement of individuals away from centers of high population density 0 Clumped dispersal Unequal distribution of resources 0 Uniform dispersal Resources guarded so there is an equal amount for everyone 0 Random dispersal unpredictable usually wind dispersed o Demography vital statistics of populations changing over time 0 Survivorship curve plot of proportion in cohort still alive at each age 3 types 0 Exponential Model population growth in an idealized environment with unlimited resources 0 Change in population size time interval birthstime deathstime o Carrying capacity A maximum population size that environment can support B depends on the organism habitat resources 0 Logistic growth model A includes carrying capacity B per capita rate of increase declines as carrying capacity is approached o Tradeoffs when time energy nutrients are used for one thing then they can no longer be used for another thing Evolution and Ecology Midterm 2 Chapters 5156 Study Guide 0 Kselection A Density dependent selection B Some populations are centered around producing few offspring that have a good survival chance 0 rselection A density independent selection B some populations have a high reproductive rate to have good fitness 0 Consequences of crowding that could affect population growth by A causing higher death rate 0 Predation competition exploitive interference disease waste buildup C Causing lower birth rate 0 Adaptation density dependent 0 Sustainable resource management harvesting without damaging the resource 0 Maximum sustained yield harvesting at a level that produces a constant yield without forcing a population into decline 0 Integrated Pest Management using ecological knowledge and principles in order to control unwanted species pests EX agricultural pests threats to public health invasive and feral species 0 Metapopulation group of populations that are linked by a measurable amount of immigration and emigration o Ecological footprint aggregate land and water used for a nation state individual 0 Ecological capacity the resources fr each nation Chapter 54 Communities 0 Community assemblage of populations of various species that live close enough for potential interaction 0 Interspecific interactions A Mutualism is positive for both species B Predation is positive for one negative for another C Competition is negative for both species 0 Interspecific competition different species compete for a certain resource 0 Competitive exclusion principle two species can t share an ecological niche or one will drive the other to local extinction 0 Character displacement tendency for phenotypic characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations than allopatric o Predation positivenegative interaction where the predator kills and eats the prey o Herbivory o Parasitism Evolution and Ecology Midterm 2 Chapters 5156 Study Guide 0 Species diversity 0 Species richness 0 Food web the interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem 0 Dominant species most abundant species 0 Biomass the dry weight of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a particular habitat o Ecosystem engineer cause physical changes in environments 0 Disturbance an event that changes community by removing organism and changing resource available 0 Intermediate disturbance hypothesis 0 Ecological succession transition in the species composition of a biological community establishment of a biological community in a virtually barren area 0 Primary succession follows a disturbance that Wipes out mostly all life even the soil 0 Secondary succession When an existing community has been cleared by a disturbance that leaves the soil still intact o Speciesarea curve Chapter 55 Ecosystems Trophic structure different feeding relations in an ecosystem that Will result in energy ow and chemical cycling Food chain transfer of food energy from autotrophs to heterotrophs A Primary producers primary consumers secondary consumers tertiary consumers quaternary consumers Energetic hypothesis A Energy is neither created nor destroyed in conversions B When energy is converted to a new form some of that energy Will become unavailable to do work Greenhouse effect Heat trapped by greenhouse gases a certain amount is goodneeded Greenhouse gas gas that traps heat in the atmosphere Aquaponics agriculture and hydroponics Chapter 56 Conservation Biology and Global Change How is biological diversity measured Evolution and Ecology Midterm 2 Chapters 5156 Study Guide A Genetic Diversity B Species Diversity C Ecosystem Diversity Conservation Biology applied use of ecology behavior physiology molecular biology genetics evolutionary biology to conserve biological diversity Biological magni cation or Bioaccumulation What does HIPPO stand for o H Habitat destruction 0 I Invasive species 0 P Pollution o PPopulation Growth 0 O Overharvesting Umbrella species large resource requirements Flagship species inspire public support for conservation efforts Keystone species prevent ecosystem collapse Bioindicators show early signs of problems in the ecosystem Movement corridor connecting habitat islands for dispersing and migrating of organisms Zoned reserve a region of land that has different protection levels Restoration ecology using ecology in order to return degraded ecosystem to original functionality Sustainable development A plan to balance the human quality of life economic concerns With sustainable resources and biological conservation Biodiversity hotspot small area With a large number of endemic endangered and threatened species
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