2015 Fall UCSC BIOL 127 - Ichthyology Final Study Guide
2015 Fall UCSC BIOL 127 - Ichthyology Final Study Guide BIOE 127 - 01
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jim Freed on Saturday November 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOE 127 - 01 at a university taught by Bernardi,G. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views.
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Date Created: 11/28/15
Final – BIOE 127 Icthyology Marine Ecology →"Diversity & how it is maintained" Population Dynamics Density Independent = # of individuals is independent of # of offspring Limiting Factors: -Seasonal cycles (upwelling in CA, light cycles in the arctic) cannot be controlled by the fish -Human modifications (dams, fences, roads, eutrophication, pollution, fishing) influence fish out of their control Density Dependent = # of offspring is dependent on # of individuals present Limiting Factors: Allee effect (Warder Clyde Allee)= correlation between population size or density and mean individual fitness (often measured as per capita population growth rate) of a population or species -@ low density, population grows slower Sheephead -@ high density, population grows much faster -depensation=when removing fish from a population, eventually the population will crash because it will reach a threshold where finding a mate becomes difficult -Competition & Predation: example of field experiment where artificial reef was established and predators were removed to look at competition between two species and the effects of different predators. Looking to see if number of predators is proportional to number of indivs. Sheephead -very important for keystone species, such as Sheephead for CA kelp forests! -Parasitism & Disease: Small density→slow spread; high density→fast spread Recruitment Classical vs. Genetic Recruitment Bipartite Life cycle: life cycle of benthic marine fishes that have pelagic larvae on same reef PLD: Pelagic larval duration is rare! ex surf- - High PLD = low genetic effort to be perfect for its specific rate. i.e. perch (live birth) high genotypic plasticity -reason why so few species brood; they want larvae to find new reef w/ new set of resources Close Populations = little or no exchange among populations Open Populations = significant exchange among populations Study PLD: use MOCNESS (Multiple Opening/Closing Net and Environmental Sensing -large contraption with various nets that open and close at different depths Gene Flow & Currents→ looked at adult genetics and noticed that the currents around French Polynesia relate to how related the populations are among islands. Thus currents relate to gene flow Paradigm Shift = self recruitment on home reef is more common then we thought Recruitment studies using genetics of parents compared to genetics of recruits to discover that many (~30%) recruits are genetically the same as their parents -Very helpful for developing marine reserves and systems of reserve that promote increased spread of babies -reserves have shown to increase fish size, fish clutch size, and thus all around beneficial. Biological Invasions Natural = opening of Panama canal, allowed transfer of fish back into Caribbean/Pacific Unnatural = how people began releasing Lionfish in the gulf and lack of predators allowed significant lionfish expansion Zoogeography ="the distribution of certain assemblages of species in a certain area" ex) why you see 70 species of rock fish in Monterey and none in the Philippines One way to think about it: Filters: constraints that narrow down the possibility of what you may be looking at Filters are used to remove potential species that would not fit in the environment →speciation>biogeography>abiotic factors>productivity>biotic interactions Background Zoogeography = geographic distribution of animals past and present →Challenge is to discern patterns among current distributions of taxa and how these patterns relate to their evolutionary history and to understand how and why different fishes get to where they are today Alfred Russel Wallace (father of biogeography) → theory of evolution co-discoverer, made living from collecting organisms, writing about them, and sending back →as a result closely looked at many organisms and understood his collections very well which lead to him noticing something significant in the Balian Archipelago: -saw that the organisms on opposite sides of the straight were significantly different for some reason -Wallace was first to realize that geologic history is related to the places that species inhabit today -Established "Wallace's Line" = line that separates two nearby islands with significantdifferent organisms and proposed two hypothesis for this result: Dispersal: Vicariance: 1. Start with one 1.Start with one continuous continuous population. population. Then a chance Then a colonist floats event occurs that changes to an island via raft. the landscape (i.e. river changes course 2. Finish with two 2. Finish with two populations populations isolated from isolated from one another one another Continental Drift = current arrangement of continents creates barriers for marine species -Very important to freshwater species for the reason that they are essentially rafting on continents (dispersal) -Also vicariant in that when a body of water/ land mass forms that separates an assemblage of species and creates two separate species ex) -Development of Tethys Sea, which eventually becomes Mediterranean, becomes completely enclosed and resulted in drying up (Messinian Salinity Crisis) -Closing of the Isthmus of Panama, which prevented the transfer of fish from Pacific to Atlantic (but also resulted in the creation of the Gulf Stream, which unthawed Europe from a deep freeze Glaciation = the cooling of the planet that put the globe in a deep freeze and resulted directly in a 200 ft drop in sea level, which created more physical barriers for fish species and less water for fish -glaciations result in lower sea levels, which changes the dynamics of currents and ultimately gene flow -temperate fishes were massively displaced as the retreating glaciers left behind post-glacial lakes -indirectly connected some rivers that lead to the ocean and thus connected some species together -Refugia = important locations that did not freeze over and provided a safe haven for species and allowed them to rebound after the glaciers receded and expand their lineages -Created some specialized fishes: those that lived inside atolls, when the water dropped, they were stuck within atoll and then specialized into reef fish that were then able to expand once reintroduced to ocean -Speciation events coincide directly with sea water level: divergence between sister species coincides with low water levels (aka more land barriers) Marine Zoogeographic Regions 1) Indo-West Pacific -Global maxima of marine biodiversity; center located at coral triangle -~500 reef building coral spp (10x the amount of western Atlantic), ~3K fish spp. -number of taxa declines significantly as you move away from the center Hypothesis for high diversity: A) Center of overlap between Pacific/Indian oceans. Essentially Venn diagram for species B) Center of accumulation; acts as a larval sink, since currents dump larvae here C) Center of speciation; due to high geologic activity creates huge variety of habitats to be exploited by the many species of fish Center of biodiversity ~3000 spp N 2) Western Atlantic -~1200 species of fish S -Amazon River produces huge freshwater outflow that divides coral reef fish fauna into northern and southern parts -Bottom trawls underneath outflow reveal coral [sponge] reef species assemblage -Gene flow of three species of genus Acanthurus are all uniquely effected by Amazon outflow 3) Eastern Pacific -Tip of branches indicate species found in specific area and lineages can be traced back to certain regions that coincides with the continental shifts -Phylogeography= looks at history of geography, such as during glaciations, the continental shelf was the new shore line and created new barriers and results in the formation of new species (has shown to hold true across distant taxa of the same region) -Disjunct species = disconnected populations of 19 species (ex. populations of fish species found in CA, N. Mexico, absent at tip of Baja and S. Sea of Cortez, but then reappear in the N. Sea of Cortez) -Geminate species= species that are found in two neighboring bodies of water, separated by physical barrier, which results in divergence of species -Using genetics, one could look at when a species diverged then comparing to geologic history, can confirm hyp. 4) Eastern Atlantic (skipped) Genetics C Values =amount of DNA in a cell is not proportionate to the level of complexity of the organism ex. Amoebas have much more DNA than humans but are much less diverse -Huge range of sizes, including the largest and smallest vertebrate genomes from Fugu (0.4 pg) and Protopterus (72 pg) respectively. →Why? -Genome has been duplicated multiple times over history = drove teleost diversity. Ohnologs = genes that have been duplicated and leave behind signature of duplication Genome Organization -Genome of fish is different from other vertebrates; isochore regions -Fish have mostly homogenous DNA but have small segments that have lots of A & T repeats -G & C are stronger and resist mutations in the warmer environment of warm-blooded vertebrates, while fish, which are cold-blooded, do not need these regions and thus have homogenous genome -Because the isochores are less prominent, karyotypes of fish appear all dark and no distinction between genes Genome →small genomes of fish were first sequenced hoping that if we knew the locations of genes on their genome, we may be able to relate it to the human genome and learn about the genes we have. More of a way to get money and not really applicable to humans. -Comparing genomes of closely related fish, allows you to identify regions that are conserved, such as the sex chromosomes, while everything else in the genome is incompatible to other species as a result of the duplication Approaches to Molecular Ecology -Allozymes = type of gel electrophoresis where one grinds the tissue of the organism, place the ground into the gel and then monitor how different enzymes migrate through the gel. Then you transfer the gel, stain it, and read it, -mtDNA RFLP = 16 kB in fish; use enzymes to digest the mitochondrial genome that will cut the DNA into a single strand which then allows you to further digest into fragments and allows one to look at amount of mutations in the genome. -Sanger sequencing = sequence DNA and monitor the variability of the DNA mutations -Microsatellites = short repeats of base pairs (2, 3, or 4 bases) that act as DNA fingerprints and thus makes distinct differences in these small regions (distinct as in a change in a base pair from what would normally be identified). -Next generation sequencing = large number of approaches that sequences the genome very quickly and cheap. Allows one to look at entire genome and repidly compare to other genomes, took the place of microsatellites. Speciation ="the creation of new species; when one species becomes two" -Isolation of populations is key, which is why there are more marine species, as there is more space, thus more habitats Spatial Component -One species becomes two as a result of reduced gene flow by chance and the two populations become monophyletic -"Sorting" = it is possible to identify a single individual in the origieal pop. of N individuals that will be transmitted to the final gen. given N number of generations -Ne= effective population size (number of individuals that are mating) -David Starr Jordan (murderer), first president of Stanford, proposed the law of geminate species (twin species found on either side of the Isthmus of Panama -Also occurs in freshwater where populations can become isolated due to natural events (i.e. drought that makes smaller ponds) Sympatric Speciation Requirements: 1) Sympatric distribution = found together in the same area, regularly encountering each other 2) History of allopathy unlikely = unlikely that the individual species hybridize 3) Monophyletic sister taxa 4) Reproductive Isolation (no hybridization) 5) Pre-zygotic isolation Did not cover Habitats California Fishes -Spans two different provinces; Oregonian & San Diegan, splits at Point Conception -mixing of currents at Point Conception creates this warm habitat so there are two distinct faunas mixing and mingling -Point Conception = transition zone -Fish assemblages also dispersed on coast in various habitats ranging from the surf zone (SZ) to kelp bed rocky reef (KBRF), to deep slope (DS) -Many different spp. specialized to habitats: Cryptic = blends in with environment Conspicuous = hidden in environment Associated = found near environment Our coast: Rockfish are incredibly abundant; some fish recruit in midwater while some recruit in benthic locations -Based on larval duration: long midwater PLD Olive, Yellowtail, and Black rockfish (3-4 months) = do better in La Niña/La Nada while short benthic PLD Kelp, Black-&-yellow?, and Gopher rockfish (1-2 months) do better in El Niño Phylogeography -Changes in temperatures, currents, population abundances/ranges, etc all influence where fishes are distributed and so this can be studied using genetics by looking at when individuals diverged and relate that to those changes in the water to help illustrate the history of fishes and how they got to where they are today Monterey Bay Topology -very deep Monterey Canyon drops down to 3,000 - 10,000 feet all relatively quickly; also two small canyons from old rivers in past glaciations so this all provides very special and extremely different habitats in a relatively small area Kelp Forests -have everything including shelter, food, habitat, nursery, oxygen, protection, etc Fish: (not expected to know for exam) -Chimaeras (Hydrolagus colliei) – sometimes found deep at the edge of Monterey Canyon -Bat rays (Myliobatis californica) – found near Moss Landing, Elkhorn Slough -Prickly Shark (Echinorhinus cookei) & Sixgill shark (Hexancheau griseus) – Moss Landing -Scorpaeniformes: exceptional abundance along Califronia coast line -Cottidae (sculpin) – Caralline sculpin (Artedius corallinus) Snubnose sculpin (Orthonopias triacis) Cabazon, largest sculpin – (Scopanicthyes mormoratus) -Hexagrammidae (greenling) – Kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus) Painted greenling (Oxylebius pictus) Lingcod – (Ophiodon elongatus) -Clinidae (kelpfish) – Giant kelpfish (rare) – (Heterostichus rostratus) Crevice kepfish (very common) – (Gibbonsia spp.) -Scorpaenidae (rockfish) – Kelp rockfish – (Sebastes atrovirens) Black and Yellow rockfish – (Sebastes chrysomelas) Gopher rockfish – (Sebastes caranatus) Copper rockfish – (Sebastes caurinus) Many variations: Black, Blue (priest), Deacon, Olive, Yellowtail, China, Vermillion, Flag, Tiger, Yelloweye (these 3 common in very deep water) -Perciformes: -Serranidae (bass/groupers) – Kelp bass – (Paralabrax clathratus) -Embiotocidae (surfperces) – Kelp surfperch – (Brachyistius frenatus) Black surfperch (Giacomo's very favorite of all) – (Embiotoca jacksoni) Striped surfperch – (Embiotoca lateralis) Pile surfperch – (Damalichthys vacca) Rubberlip surfperch – (Rhacochilus toxotes) -Antherinformes: Silversides -Grunion – (Leuresthes tenuis) in summer during highest tide on a full moon, spawn on beach in large orgies -Pelagic Fishes: Opah, Oarfish, -Others: Gobies, Flatfishes, Molas, Wrasses, Damslefish Sea of Cortez -"character of oceanography; includes everything, rocky shores, sandy shores, tidal flats, mangroves, reefs, islands, vents" -Three regions characterized by species assemblages -Upper, Central, and Lower -Very large temperature ranges and tides in upper region: (up to 40 ft) -Lower region more constant Origin of Sea of Cortez Fish species: Panamic – grunts, Cortez angelfish, Cortez rainbow wrasse, King Angel, Giant Damselfish Caribbean / Geminates - Panamic porkfish, Pacific Creolefish, Panama Graysby North Pacific / Disjuncts – CA Sheephead, Bluebanded Goby, Grouper, Giant Sea Bass Indo-Pacific – usually fish with long LPD, able to drift the very long distance; Jewel Moray, Manini, Moorish Idol Endemic – Totaba = largest drum, has been overfished for swim bladder so now all are usually small; also the Vaquita = very small porpoise Antarctic -Became isolated from the rest of the world when the land connecting S. America and Antarctica break and a strong circum-global current begins spinning around the continent and so fish cannot escape the current and fish cannot penetrate the freezing current -Antifreeze proteins evolved to allow fish that live on bottom able to slowly come more and more shallow (which is colder) -Almost all Labriform type of swimming because uses least amount of energy -Although much colder, there is more oxygen and tends to be lots of nutrients Blood Circulation: icefish evolved blood without oxygen binding molecule because would be too viscous and so oxygen diffuses directly into plasma and fish is clear and must pump its blood more rapid -Development startegies: A) Larvae hatch at the end of the light phase and endures the cold dark phase in the winter B) Larvae persist through winter and hatch in light phase with abundant nutrients/food Coral Reefs -Did not get this far- There is one more lecture to be added after it is given on 12/1/15,
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