Exam #5 Study Guide (reuploaded)
Exam #5 Study Guide (reuploaded) PSY 250
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacobi Johnson on Sunday November 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 250 at Central Michigan University taught by Deskovitz, Mark in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Central Michigan University.
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Exam #5 Study Guide Chapter 13 Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders • Schizophrenia a severe disorder that is often associated with considerable impairments in functioning. It occurs in people from all cultures and from all walks of life. There are an array of diverse symptoms, including extreme oddities in perception, thinking, action, sense of self, and manner of relating to others. • Psychosis a significant loss of contact with reality, the main symptom of schizophrenia. • Emil Kraepelin A German psychiatrist best known for his careful description of what we know as modern day schizophrenia. • Eugen Blueler A Swiss psychiatrist who gave us the diagnostic term used today. • The risk of developing schizophrenia over the course of one's life is around .7%. • People whose fathers are older (aged 45 to 50 years or more at the time of their birth) have 2 to 3 times the normal risk of developing schizophrenia. • Most cases of schizophrenia begin in late adolescence and early adulthood, with 18 to 30 years of age being the peak time for the onset of the illness. • Schizophrenia is sometimes found in children but is considered rare. • Both men and women peak in schizophrenia rates between the ages of 20 and 24, but after age 35 the number of men developing the illness falls markedly, where is the number of women does not. • The male to female ratio is 1.4 to 1. Men tend to have a more severe form of schizophrenia. • It is believed this is because estrogen protects against psychotic symptoms. • Delusion an erroneous belief that is fixed or firmly held despite clear contradictory evidence. This is considered a problem with thought content. • Hallucination a sensory experience that seems so real to the person having it but occurs in the absence of any external perceptual stimulus. • Hallucinations can occur in any sensory modality – auditory, visual, olfactory, tactile, or gustatory. Auditory hallucinations are most common, occurring in 75% of all schizophrenics. • Disorganized speech the external manifestation of the disorder in thought form. • Basically, the affected person fails to make sense despite using or seemly understanding some communicative techniques correctly. • Disorganized behavior an impairment that occurs in areas of routine daily functioning, such as work, social relations, and selfcare, to the extent that others note that the person is not themselves anymore. • Goal directed activity is almost universally disrupted. • Catatonia virtual absence of all movement in speech called a catatonic stupor. • These symptoms are categorized into positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia. • Positive symptoms are those that reflect an excess or distortion in a normal repertoire of behavior, ex) delusions or hallucinations • Negative symptoms reflect an absence or deficit of behaviors that is normally present • Flat affect blunt emotional expressiveness • Alogia very little speech • Avolition the inability to initiate or persist in goal directed activity • There are three main subtypes of schizophrenia: paranoid schizophrenia (dominated by absurd in a logical believes that are often elaborated in organized into a coherent, though delusional, framework), disorganized schizophrenia (characterized by disorganized speech behavior and flat or inappropriate affect), and catatonic schizophrenia (which involves pronounced motor signs that reflect great excitement or stupor). Other Psychotic Disorders • Schizoaffective disorder mood disorder with schizophrenic symptoms • Schizophreniform disorder relatively brief schizophrenic symptoms that last anywhere from 16 months. • Brief psychotic disorder really brief schizophrenic symptoms that last anywhere from 1 week to 1 month. • Delusional disorder the presence of delusions only. People diagnosed with this disorder may function quite properly otherwise. • Women who stalk are often diagnosed with a subtype of delusional disorder called erotomania, which is characterized by excessive love for someone of a higher status. Risk and Causal Factors • It is clear that schizophrenia runs in families. • Using twin studies, we have learned that concordance rates are stronger amongst identical twins (28%) than fraternal twins (6%) or ordinary siblings. Adoption studies have also been done to learn more about this disorder. • As far as genetics goes, linkage analysis has helped us locate some key points on chromosomes (candidate genes) that may be linked to schizophrenia. • The disorder may not be apparent until it is triggered by certain events. • Other factors that have been implicated in the development of schizophrenia is prenatal exposure to the influenza virus (which causes changes in brain cytoarchitecture), early nutritional deficiencies, rhesus incompatibility between mother and child, maternal stress, and prenatal birth complications such as breech delivery or prolonged labor. • Urban living, immigration, and cannabis use may also be a factor. • Overall, both genes & environmental factors play a role in the development of schizophrenia. • Schizophrenia patients often experience problems with neurocognitive functioning such as slowed reaction time. • Some schizophrenics have enlarged brain ventricles (common in disease and disorder). This indicates a reduction in the amount of brain tissue or grey matter. Examples of areas that maybe be affected: the frontal and temporal lobes, which are involved with memory, decision making, and the processing of auditory stimuli. The amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus may also be affected causing problems in emotion, memory, and sensory input. • White matter, or what keeps the nerves insulated, may also be impacted. There may be a volume loss as well as abnormalities in structure, causing changes in social functioning and increased cognitive impairment. • A decrease in excitatory neurons, an increase in inhibitory neurons, and an increase in white matter may be seen during adolescence, arguably helping to enhance brain function and make us become more “adult”. But if this fails to happen in the normal way, schizophreniclike symptoms may occur. • Symptoms may get worse over time, implicating schizophrenia as a neuroprogressive and neurodevelopmental disorder. • Both dopamine and glutamate have been linked to schizophrenia. It is suggested that the dopamine receptors (specifically D2) of schizophrenics are super sensitive. • Expressed emotion (EE) in a familial setting may be shown to predict relapse in patients with schizophrenia. This is possibly because schizophrenic patients are sensitive to stress. Treatments and Outcomes • About 38% of patients have a favorable outcome (i.e., show a reasonable recovery with the assistance of medication and therapy), while 12% must be institutionalized. • This disorder does reduce life expectancy. • Antipsychotics (also called neuroleptics) such as Thorazine and Haldol have been used to block the action of dopamine to reduce symptoms. • First generation antipsychotics work best for positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but have intense side effects such as dry mouth, drowsiness, and weight gain, in addition to Parkinson’s like symptoms such as muscle spasms. • Tardive dyskinesia involuntary movements of the lips and tongue (and sometimes the hands and neck) • Neuroleptic malignant syndrome a sometimes fatal reaction to neuroleptics that causes a high fever and muscle rigidity. • Second generation antipsychotics such as Clorazil, Abilify, and Seroquel became available in the 1980’s. They do not have as strong of side effects, though some may still occur. • Psychosocial approaches such as family therapy, case management, cognitive remediation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and individual treatment may also benefit the patient significantly. Chapter 14 Neurocognitive Disorders • Neurocognitive disorder a problem that arises due to a internal or external trauma which causes a change in brain structure, function, or chemistry. • includes delirium, major neurocognitive disorder (dementia) and mild neurocognitive disorder. • Cell bodies and neural pathways of the brain do not seem to regenerate leaving any damage permanent. • The degree of mental impairment is usually related to the location and degree of damage to the brain, as well as the person’s premorbid competence and personality. • There are two types of damage: diffuse (widespread) damage and focal (direct) damage. • Many people who have a cognitive disorder show psychological symptoms such as mild deficits in cognitive processing and selfregulation. • These symptoms are often unpredictable. • Intelligent, welleducated, mentally active people tend to fare better after brain trauma. • Delirium a state of acute brain failure that lies between wakefulness and stupor. it is characterized by confusion, disturbed concentration, and cognitive dysfunction. • It can occur in any person of any age, however, children and the elderly are at a particularly high risk. • It may result from several conditions, the most common being drug intoxication or withdrawal. Head injury, infection, or toxic medications may also cause it. • Most cases are reversible treatment involves medications (neuroleptics or benzo diazepines), environmental manipulations, and family support. • Major Neurocognitive Disorder (dementia) involves marked deficits in cognitive abilities such as attention, learning, perception, and social cognition. • These deficits may be progressive or static, but is more often the former. • The “major neurocognitive disorder” umbrella covers over 50 disorders total. • Alzheimer’s disease a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease that is the number one cause of dementia. • Since the official diagnosis can be only done after autopsy, the diagnosis of living patient is only done once all other potential causes are ruled out. • It usually begins after age 45 only 1% suffer from symptoms by age 65, while 40% do by age 85. • In the earlier stages, minor cognitive impairments such as difficulty recalling recent events, errors at work, or longer time needed to complete routine tasks will become apparent. • In the later stages as dementia becomes evident, deficits become more severe and cover multiple domains. • The temporal lobe of the brain of the first regions to be damaged. Because the hippocampus is located here, memory impairment is an early symptom of the disease. Loss of brain tissue may also explain delusions. • The gradual declining course eventually leads to delirium and death. Median time to death is 5.7 years from the time of first clinical contact. • With medication and the maintenance of a loving, reassuring, and unprovocative social environment, many people with Alzheimer's disease show some alleviation of symptoms. • In the United States, more than 5 million people are living with this disease. Worldwide, the figure is over 35 million. • Women seem to have slightly higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease than men. Other factors include being a current smoker, having few years of formal education, lower income, and having a lower occupational status. A highfat, high cholesterol diet may also be implicated in the onset of Alzheimer's. • Early onset Alzheimer's disease appears to be caused by rare genetic mutations in the APP (chromosome 21), PS1 (chromosome 14), and PS2 (chromosome 1) genes and late onset Alzheimer's can be inherited through the APOEE4 allele. • The characteristic neuropathology includes cell loss, plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. • Treatments often include medications that help increase amounts of memory supporting acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain. Antipsychotics may also be prescribed to irritable patients. • Early detection and supportive caregivers also help lessen the effects of the disease. • Parkinson’s disease the second most common neurodegenerative disorder (behind Alzheimers) that is characterized by motor symptoms such as resting tremors or rigid movements. Psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety, cognitive problems, or even hallucinations may also occur. • It affects .51% of people ages 6569 and 13% of people over 80. • This is caused by a loss of dopamine neurons in a brain area called the substantia nigra. • Dopamine is involved in the control of movement. • Symptoms can be temporarily reduced with medications that increase the availability of dopamine in the brain. • Huntington’s disease a rare degenerative disorder characterized by a chronic, progressive chorea involuntary and irregular movements that flow from one area of the body to another. • Subtle cognitive problems may predate the motor symptoms by years. • It affects about every 1 in 10,000 people. • It begins in midlife and occurs in men and women equally. • It is caused by a single dominant gene on chromosome 4. • There are currently no treatment for this disease. • Death often occurs within 1020 years of first developing the illness. • HIVassociated neurocognitive impairment involves various changes in the brain such as generalized atrophy, swelling, inflammation, and patches of demyelination. • The neuropsychological features tend to appear as a late phase of infection, though they appear before the full development of AIDS. These include memory difficulties, psychomotor slowing, and poor concentration. Later phases include behavioral regression, confusion, psychotic thinking, apathy, and marked withdrawal. • 10.5% of people with HIV experience HIVrelated dementia. • Neurocognitive disorder associated with vascular disease tends to occur after the age of 50 and affects more men than women. • Abnormalities of gait may be an early predictor of this condition. • Vascular cognitive impairment is less common than Alzheimer's disease, accounting for only 19% of dementia cases. This may be because patients have a much shorter course of illness due to vulnerabilities to stroke and cardiovascular disease. • Treatment of vascular dementia offer slightly more hope than that of Alzheimer's disease. Decreased elasticity of brain arteries can be medically managed to some extent. Amnestic Disorders • Amnestic disorders involve strikingly disturbed memory as their main symptom. • Overall cognitive functioning is maintained and immediate recall and memory for remote past events are relatively preserved, but short term memory is impaired. • The root cause is often some sort of brain damage. • Korsakoff’s syndrome in an amnestic disorder that is caused by a deficiency in thiamine (B1) it can be reversed if found early enough. • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs frequently, affecting about 2 million people in the United States often caused by falls, motor vehicle accidents, assaults, sports injuries, etc. • Children ages 04, adolescents 1519, and seniors age 65 and older are most susceptible. • Rates are higher in males than in females. • These injuries can be classified into two categories: closed or penetrating injuries. • Anterograde amnesia inability to recall events that occurred before the injury • Retrograde amnesia inability to recall events that occur after the injury • The individuals premorbid personality, life circumstances, severity of the injury, and site of the injury are all important in determining how they will react to the brain damage. Chapter 15 Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence • Until the 20th century, little account was taken towards the special characteristics of psychopathology in children. Maladaptive patterns considered relatively specific to childhood, such as autism, received virtually no attention at all. • Things are different with kids. If a 40 year old man came in believing he was a princess, it would be viewed very differently than if a 4 year old girl did so. • It is important to take into account the developmental changes that take place in childhood or adolescence, and how they affect one’s psychological wellbeing. • 17.1% of adolescents in large metropolitan areas of the United States meet the criteria for one or more DSM diagnoses. Across many countries, the average rate is about 12.3% • Maladjustment is found more commonly among boys that among girls, but for some diagnostic problems such as eating disorders, rates are higher for girls than boys. • The most prevalent disorders are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and separation anxiety disorders. • Developmental psychopathology – devoted to studying the origins and course of individual maladaptation in the context of normal growth processes. • Some emotional disturbances of childhood may be relatively shortlived, however some childhood disorders severely affect future development. • Suicidal thoughts are not uncommon in children. • In evaluating the presence or extent of mental health problems in children and adolescents, one needs to consider the following: • their worldview is not as complex and realistic as adults, they have less self understanding, and have not yet developed a stable sense of identity. Children often have more difficulty than adults coping with stressful events. They are naturally dependent, and this makes them highly vulnerable to experiences of rejection, disappointment, and failure if adults ignore the child. Children's lack of experience in dealing with adversity can make even manageable problems seem insurmountable. • Two childhood disorders were included in the DSM1, and further revisions added several additional categories. Common Disorders In Children • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – characterized by difficulties that interfere with effective task oriented behavior in children, particularly impulsivity, excessive or exaggerated motor activity, and difficulties with sustaining attention. • Children with this disorder tend to talk incessantly, are socially intrusive and immature, do poorly in school, have problems following rules, and generally have a lower IQ 7 to 15 points below average. • Prevalence: 37%. This disorder occurs most frequently among preadolescent boys. It is most frequent before age 8, and rates decline after that. • The cause of ADHD has been understood as both genetic and environment based. Both the child’s temperament and learning appear to be factors. • ADHD is often treated with amphetamine drugs, such as Ritalin. This is because amph etamines have the opposite effect on children (calming) than they do adults (stimulating). • Adderall, Pemoline, and Strattera are examples of other medications that may be used to treat ADHD. • Many clinicians also use psychological behavioral intervention techniques to help supplement the effectiveness of medication. • Some residual effects may persist into adolescence or adulthood. There is a prevalence rate for ADHD of 4.4% in adult patients. • Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) characterized by aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules often including juvenile delinquency. • ODD often leads to a serious conduct disorder in the future. • These symptoms must last at least 6 months. • Prevalence: 11.2% for boys and 9.2% for girls • Conduct disorder a persistent, repetitive violation of rules and a blatant disregard for the rights of others • These children are hostile, disrespectful, aggressive, vengeful, and destructive, • Children with this disorder may engage in dangerous behaviors such as lying, setting fires, killing animals, robbery, vandalism, getting arrested, running away from home, and even sometimes homicidal acts. • It is often comorbid with substance abuse disorders and depressive symptoms. • Early onset conduct disorder is correlated with later development of antisocial personality disorder (this is less common for late onset conduct disorder). About 2540% will experience this shift after experiencing early onset conduct disorder, and over 80% of boys will continue to have multiple problems of social dysfunction in the future. • Evidence has accumulated that a genetic predisposition leading to low verbal intelligence, mild neuropsychological problems, and difficult temperament can set the stage for early onset conduct disorder. • The socially rejected subgroup of aggressive children is at highest risk for adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial personality. Our society tends to take a punitive, rather then a rehabilitative attitude toward antisocial, aggressive youth. • Therapy often includes someway to modify the child's environment and fix the family model. • The family setting of a child with conduct disorder is typically characterized by ineffective parenting, an unstable marital relationship, rejection, harsh and inconsistent discipline, and parental neglect. • Prozac and other antidepressants have been found to reduce oppositionality. Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents • The experience of traumatic events can predispose children to develop childhood anxiety. • Most children are vulnerable to fears and uncertainties as a normal part of growing up, but children with anxiety disorders are more extreme in their behavior. • Oversensitivity, unrealistic fears, shyness and timidity, pervasive feelings of inadequacy, sleep disturbances, and fear of school are all common symptoms of children with anxiety disorders. • Anxiety disorders are often comorbid with depressive disorders and maybe influential in later depression. • The prevalence for any anxiety disorder accompanied by impairment seems to be ~5–10%. • Separation anxiety disorder unrealistic fears of separation from major attachment figures, oversensitivity, selfconsciousness, nightmares, and chronic anxiety. • It occurs in 2 to 41% of children. • It is more common in girls. The disorder is not very stable over time, meaning recovery is common. • Sociocultural factors are likely to be influential in anxiety disorders in children. • Overanxious, indifferent, or detached parental behavior and family stress have been particularly noted as potential influential factors. • Prozac has been used in the treatment of a variety of anxietybased disorders. • Cognitive behavioral therapy procedures also often help anxious children. This includes assertiveness training and desensitization to reduce anxious behavior • Childhood depression includes behavior such as withdrawal, crying, avoidance of eye contact, physical complaints, poor appetite, and even aggressive behavior. Depression in children and adolescents occurs with high frequency. • Prevalence rates are 2.8% for age 13 and under, and around 5.6% in ages 13 to 18. • There appears to be an association between parental depression and behavioral and mood problems in children. • Learning maladaptive behaviors appears to be important in childhood depressive disorders. Children who are exposed to negative parental behavior or negative emotional states may develop depressed affect themselves ex) childhood depression has become more prominent amongst divorced families. • Depressive symptoms are positively correlated with the tendency to attribute positive events to external, specific, and unstable causes and negative events to internal, local, and stable causes with fatalistic thinking and feelings of helplessness. • Research for the effectiveness of antidepressant medication with children is limited and contradictory at best, and some studies have found antidepressants to be only moderately helpful. • An important facet of psychological therapy with children is providing a supportive emotionally environment in which they can learn more adaptive coping strategies and more effective emotional expression. • Older children and adolescents often benefit from a positive therapeutic relationship in which they can discuss their feelings openly, while younger children may benefit from play therapy. • The predominant approach continues to be the combined use of medication and psychotherapy. Elimination Disorders, Sleepwalking, and Tics • Enuresis refers to the habitual involuntary discharge of urine, usually at night, after the age of expected continence (age 5). • Can be primary (never been continent) or secondary (has been previously continent, but regressed. • Can vary in frequency, from nightly omissions to infrequent occurences. • It is been estimated that some 45 million children and adolescents in the United States suffer from it. • Prevalence estimates are 5 to 10% among fiveyearolds, 3 to 5% of 10yearolds, and 1.1% among children age 15 or older. • Enuresis may result from a variety of organic conditions, such as disturbed cerebral control of the bladder, neurological dysfunction, or other medical factors such as medication side effects or having a small functional bladder and a weak urethral sphincter. • It can also be caused by faulty learning, personal immaturity, disturbed family interactions, or stressful events. • Medical treatment typically centers on using medications such as the antidepressant drug imipramine, which may simply lessen the deepest stages of sleep, enabling the child to recognize bodily needs more efficiently. • The intranasal desmopressin may decrease the need to urinate, but it is expensive and only works on a fraction of kids. Conditioning procedures have proved to be highly effective • Encopresis a disorder found in children where they do not properly use the toilet for bowel movements after age 4. • Prevalence rates are at about 1% of fiveyearolds. • One third of encopretic children were also enuretic. • About six times more boys than girls suffer from this, and a common cause is constipation. • Sleepwalking disorder repeated episodes in which a person leaves his or her bed and walks around without being conscious of the experience or remembering it later. And that is usually between ages of six and 1030% of children experience at least one episode, but repeated episodes is usually low only 1 to 5%. • girls are more likely to experience it than boys. • The episodes only last a few minutes, and take place during the nonrapid eye movement phase of sleep. • The causes of sleepwalking are not fully understood. • Tic a persistent, intermittent muscle twitch or spasm, usually limited to a localized muscle group. Includes blinking the eye, twitching the mouth, licking the lips, etc. • It is classified as a motor disorder in the DSM5. • Tics occur most frequently between the ages of 214, and onset is around 78 years of age. • It occurs more often in males. • Lifetime prevalence of tic disorders is 2.6% for transient tic disorder, 3.7% for chronic tic disorder, and .6% for Tourette’s Disorder. • Tourette’s Disorder an extreme tic disorder involving multiple motor and vocal patterns such as uncontrollable head movements with accompanying sounds such as grunts, clicks, yelps, sniffs, or words. These tics are often related to compulsions or a need to relieve an urge that goes away after the tic is performed. • Average age of onset is 7 years of age, and most cases show up by age 14. The disorder often persists into adulthood. • Tourette’s is 3 times more frequent among males than females. • Coprolalia a vocal tic that involves the uttering of obscenities. • Neuroleptics are among the most predictably effective ticsuppressing drugs, but many patients with tic disorders do not receive treatment. • Behavior intervention techniques and cognitive restructuring have been proven helpful as well. • Neurodevelopmental disorders a group of severely disabling condition that are among the most difficult to treat. They seemed to be caused by some structural differences in the brain. • Autism spectrum disorder a developmental disorder that includes a wide range of problematic behaviors including deficits in language and perceptual and motor development, defective reality testing, and an inability to function in social situations • The number of children with autism is reportedly increasing. • Children with autism don’t seem to need affection or contact from people, and have a lack of emotion. They may also indulge in self stimulating behavior such as head banging, spinning, or rocking. They have a limited intellectual inability and a obsession with maintaining sameness. • Investigators agree that a fundamental disturbance of the central nervous system is involved in autism. • The use of medications has not proven effective in treating children with autism, but behavioral therapy has been used successfully to eliminate selfinjurious behavior, increase social skills, etc. • Even with intensive, long term care in a clinical facility, autistic kids are far from normal. • Learning disorders refers to delayed development manifested in language, speech, mathematical, or motor skills, and is not necessarily due to a physical or neurological defect. General cognitive ability may be considered normal. • They are often noticed due to an academic disparity. • Dyslexia problems with word recognition and reading comprehension with deficiencies in spelling and memory. • Prevalence estimates show that 1 in 59 people in the US are learning disabled. • Significantly more boys than girls are diagnosed with a learning disorder. • Causes seem to central around subtle, localized central nervous system impairments • Intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) characterized by deficits in general mental abilities, such as reasoning, problemsolving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, academic learning, and learning from experience. • These problems must begin before the age of 18. • The point prevalence rate of diagnosed intellectual disability in the United States is estimated to be about 1%, or population estimate of 2.6 million people. • Initial diagnoses of intellectual disability her very frequently at ages 5 to 6 or around the time that schooling begins, peek at age 15, and drop off sharply after that. • Mild intellectual disabilities are among the most common. • Within the educational context, people in his group are considered educable, and their intellectual levels are as adults are comparable to those of average 8 to 11yearold children. • The social adjustment of people with mild intellectual disabilities often approximates out of adolescence, although they tend to lack normal adolescent imagination, inventiveness, and judgment. • With early diagnosis, parental assistance, and special educational programs, of the great majority of individuals with mild intellectual disabilities adjust socially, master simple academic and occupational skills, and become selfsupporting citizens. • People with moderate intellectual disabilities are considered trainable, which mean they are presumed to be able to master certain routine skills such as cooking. Their intellectual levels are as adults are comparable to those of average 4 to 7yearold children. • Some can be taught to read, write, and speak a little, but their rate of learning is slow. • They usually appear clumsy, and suffer from bodily deformities and poor motor coordination • They can usually achieve partial independence in daily selfcare, acceptable behavior, and economic sustenance in a family or other sheltered environment. • People with severe intellectual disabilities have intense defects in motor and speech development. They will always be dependent on others for care. • People with profound intellectual disabilities are severely deficient in adaptive behavior and unable to master even simple tasks. If there is useful speech, it is rudimentary. • Convulsive seizures, mutism, deafness, and other physical deformities are common. • They tend to have poor health and low resistance to disease, causing a short life expectancy. • Causal factors • Genetic Mild intellectual disabilities and severe intellectual disabilities such as Down’s syndrome or fragile X tend to run in families. • Environmental Poverty and sociocultural deprivation can prevent proper intellectual functioning. Early trauma, malnutrition, infections, radiation, and toxic agents such as carbon monoxide can also cause a wide range of intellectual problems. • Organic retardation syndromes count for only 25% of all cases of intellectual disability. • Down’s syndrome a condition that creates irreversible limitations on survivability, intellectual achievement, and competence in managing life tasks and is associated with health problems later in life. • It is caused by an extra gene on chromosome 21. • Prevalence is reported be around 5.9 out of 10,000. • A number of physical features are often found among children with Down’s syndrome the face and nose is flat and broad, the eyes are almond shaped, the neck is short and wide, fingers are stubby, and the tongue is large. • Phenylketonuria (PKU) a lack of a liver enzyme that breaks down phenylalanine, an amino acid found in many foods. It results in an intellectual disability only if significant quantities of phenylalanine is ingested. • The condition is reversible, but if the condition is not detected and treated it can cause brain damage. • This disorder occurs 1 in every 12,000 births. • Macrocephaly largeheadedness • Microcephaly smallheadedness • Hydrocephaly accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium that causes damage to the brain tissues and enlargement of the skull. Draining of the fluid is required for proper functioning. • Treatment more severe intellectual disabilities are treated by institutionalization, but less severe ones may be treated in school through special education classes or mainstreaming/inclusion programming. • Planning and taking care of children dealing with disorders revolves around a couple factor: care for families, not just the children, remember the kids often can’t ask for help themselves, and the possibility of using the parents as change agents. • Family therapy program may be beneficial. • There are many child advocacy groups that work toward proper care and treatment of children. Actual Answers to the Test’s Questions!! 7. D, delusions 20. B, schizophrenoform disorder 35. B, Alzheimer’s disease
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