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exam 3 guide

by: Krista Lindenberg

exam 3 guide Psy 4043 ( Social Psychology, Dr. Ilan Shrira)

Krista Lindenberg
Arkansas Tech University
GPA 3.8

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these notes cover the material on our next exam.
Social Psychology
Dr. Ilan Shrira
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krista Lindenberg on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 4043 ( Social Psychology, Dr. Ilan Shrira) at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Ilan Shrira in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Behavioral Sciences at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 03/31/16
 Sherif’s Autokinetic studies o Autokinetic effect: illusion, caused by very slight movements of the eye, that a stationary point of light in a dark room is moving o Muzafer Sherif used the autokinetic effect to study the formation of group norms. Group norms are the beliefs or behaviors that a group of people accent as normal. Sherif asked individual participants in a Drk room to estimate how far the light moved. Their individual estimates ranged from about 1 to 8 inches. They later repeated this process with in the presence of two other participants. As participants heard the estimates provided by others, their individual answers converged and became more similar.  Asch’s line judgment studies o The study conducted by Asch illustrates the power of normative influence. Asch asked participants to judge which of three lines matched a comparison line. In some studies, the participant was asked last in a group of confederates, all of whom had been instructed to give the same wrong answer. Asch found that many participants went along with the confederates and gave the wrong answer, even though they could plainly see it was wrong, rather than deviate from the group.  Information and normative conformity/influence o Normative influence involves going along with the crowd in order to be liked and accepted. People learn to conform to their group’s rules (Asch’s studies) o Informational influence involves going along with the crowd because you think the group knows more than you do and you want to be correct. (Sherif’s studies) o Factors that increase conformity: when its unanimous, public commitment, and group size  Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) o Theory that posits two routes to persuasion, via either conscious or automatic processing.  Central vs. peripheral processing o The route to persuasion that involves deliberate processing is called the central route. Persuasion that occurs along the central route involves careful and thoughtful consideration of the content of the message. Usually based in logic. o The route that involves automatic processing is called the peripheral route. Persuasion that occurs along the peripheral route involves the influence of some simple cue, such as how attractive the source is. Attitudes change through little mental effort; doesn’t require logical argument. o Ads trying to use the central route: uses words like simple, safe, quality, smart. Usually boring, not very flashy o Ads trying to use the Peripheral route: uses words like incredible, sexy, get it started. Not necessarily logical  Peripheral cues, audience response, source credibility, repetition o If people are not motivated or able to process a message, they may be persuaded by cues peripheral the message. When we are unable or unmotivated to think about a message, we use peripheral cues (heuristics). Peripheral cues we use are audience response, source credibility, and repetition. o Audience response: how is everyone else responding? o The source is the individual who delivers the message and is pitching the product. Source credibility is the quality or power of inspiring belief. Two characteristics make a source credible: expertise, which is how much the source knows, and more importantly, trustworthiness, which is whether the source will honestly tell you what they know o Repetition: accumulated research confirms that repeated exposure to ads does influence memory for ads. The initial attitude toward the product makes a difference. If the person has a neutral or positive response to the message initially, then repeated exposure can make the message more persuasive. If the person hates the message right off the bat, hearing it again and again will only make things worse.  Compliance, Mindlessness, Contrast principle o Normative social influence may elicit mere public compliance: outwardly going along with the group but maintaining a private, inner belief that the group is wrong, or at least entertaining serious doubts about the group’s decisions. It is the ability to get people to change their behavior through response to a request. Two mechanisms for gaining compliance are mindlessness and the contrast principle. o Mindlessness: “please” and “thank you” are magic words. Anything after “because” doesn’t get as mindfully listened to.  Copy machine study (5 copies)  “excuse me, may I use the copy machine?” (50% control)  “excuse me, may I use the copy machine because I am in a rush?” (94%)  “Excuse me, may I use the copy machine because I need to make copies?” (93%)  Copy machine study (24 copies)  Control (50%)  Rush (90%)  Need to make copies (50%)  Results aren’t as impressive because you’re asking for a bigger favor; it is getting more mindfully paid attention to o Contrast principle: things are judged relative to our most recent experiences  Judging warmth/coldness  Selling men’s suits; sell suit first bc it makes accessories appear cheaper  Items at checkout lane  Brunswick pool table; show expensive ones first then cheaper ones  Realtor; take them to overpriced ran down home first, then the one you actually want to sell  Reciprocity Norm, Door-in-the-face technique, foot-in-the-door technique, scarcity o Reciprocity norm: the obligation to return in kind what another has done for us. We should respond in a similar way to what others have given us. It’s easy to manipulate and take advantage of o Door-in-the-face technique: influence technique based on reciprocity, in which one starts with an inflated request and then retreats to a smaller request that appears to be a concession. After the first offer is refused, the negotiator makes a more reasonable offer, and people feel obliged to reciprocate this seemingly kind and generous behavior by becoming more agreeable themselves. o Foot-in-the-door technique: influence technique based on commitment, in which one starts with a small request in order to gain eventual compliance with a large request. Start low and move up. o Scarcity: according to the scarcity principle, rare opportunities are more valuable than plentiful opportunities.  Labeling technique, Limited-number technique o Labeling technique: influence technique based on consistency, in which one assigns a label to an individual and then requests a favor that is consistent with the label. This is related to the self-fulfilling prophecy. “you look like an above-average citizen” or “you look to me like the kind of kid who understands how important it is to write correctly” or “your country is widely known for being cooperative and fair.” o Limited-number technique: influence technique based on scarcity, in which one tells people than an item is in short supply.  Personal Relevance o Degree to which people expect an issue to have significant consequences for their own lives. The more personally relevant the issue, the more motivated people are to think about the persuasive message at a deep level.  Results of Milgram obedience study, Fundamental attribution error o Milgram set up a study to see whether Americans would in fact follow orders that might injure or possibly kill someone after seeing the effects of obedience in Nazi, Germany. The majority of the participants went all the way up to the maximum shock. To be sure, this wasn’t easy for them: many showed acute signs of distress, such as sweating, making sounds, and having nervous fits of laughter that seemed out of control, but they still did what they were told. o The fact that people obeyed Milgram’s instructions may reveal an important fact about human nature. People are naturally inclined to belong to groups, to seek social acceptance, and to put other people first. When a seemingly legitimate authority figure gives them commands, they tend to obey. The majorities of people, when put to the test, go against their personal values and continue to inflict harm on the other confederate participant. o Few people obeyed blindly, nobody enjoyed it. This was an unfamiliar situation; we look to others for information, especially when there is a time pressure. o Fundamental Attribution Error: seeing others behavior as due to their personality  The guy who didn’t stop was the norm; most people hesitate but keep shocking the other participant  The guys who defied authority were the exception; this was abnormal.  Hoax newspaper article o On blackboard  Minority influence o Ask in class  Prosocial behavior, norms, equity o Prosocial behavior: doing something that is good for other people or for society as a whole o Norms: standards established by society to tell its members what types of behaviors are typical or expected o Equity: the idea that each person receives benefits in proportion to what he or she contributes o Equality: the idea that everyone gets the same amount, regardless of what he or she contributes  Belief in a just world o The assumption that life is essentially fair, that people generally get what they deserve and deserve what they get  Ex. People assume that rape victims must have behaved or dressed provocatively, that poor people are lazy, and that sick people are responsible for their illness.  Pluralistic ignorance, bystander effect, diffusion of responsibility o Pluralistic ignorance: looking to others for cues about how to behave during an event, including emergencies, while they are simultaneously looking to you for cues; collective misinterpretation.  Ex. When nobody knows wtf the teacher is talking about but everyone keeps their mouths shut. o Bystander effect: the finding that people are less likely to offer help when they are in a group than when they are alone. o Diffusion of responsibility: the reduction in feeling responsible that occurs when others are present  Inattention blindness, change blindness o Inattention blindness: failing to detect things (big things) in environment  Invisible gorilla experiment video o Change blindness: failing to detect large changes in environment  Experimental psychology: change blindness video; 75% of subject don’t notice when an entire person is replaced by another right in front of them.  5 preconditions for helping o Step 1: Notice that something is happening  Inattention blindness  The clown study (50% didn’t notice the clown) o Step 2: Interpret meaning of event  Pluralistic ignorance  Looking to others for how to behave, while they are looking at you  Misinterpretation of what everyone else is thinking, when they’re probably just as worried or confused as you are o Step 3: Take responsibility for providing help  Bystander effect  When people hesitate to help because more people are around o Step 4: Know how to help  Direct vs. indirect help o Step 5: Provide help  Perceived negative consequences  Good Samaritan laws  7 moral disengagement strategies o Moral Justification  People won’t decide to harm others until they’ve justified the morality to themselves  Most who commit destructive behavior are decent people  PTSD in some soldiers o Euphemisms  Giving things a nicer-sounding name o Contrast Principle  Behavior is viewed as more harmless when compared to something more extreme  Historical comparison example from class: “sure, the holocaust was bad, but what about Stalin and what he did ten years earlier?! That was way worse” o Displacement of Responsibility  Harming others is easy when an authority accepts responsibility  But authorities don’t usually do this  Unspoken agreements  Staying uninformed o I’ll stay in my lane if you’ll stay in yours. o Diffusion of Responsibility  More people involved  the less any one person feels responsible  Division of labor (i.e., capital punishment)  Group decision-making (i.e., jury)  Collective action (i.e., rioting) o Disregarding the Consequences  Ignoring, trivializing, or denying consequences  Easier to hurt others when suffering isn’t visible  ANIMAL CRUELTY especially in the meat-producing industry. o Dehumanization  Portraying victims as subhuman  Decreased inhibitions and guilt of aggressor  Direct vs. indirect aggression, frustration-aggression hypothesis, hostile attribution bias o Direct aggression: any behavior that intentionally harms another person who is physically present o Indirect aggression: any behavior that intentionally harms another person who is physically absent o Frustration-aggression hypothesis: proposal that “the occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration,” and “the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression” o Hostile attribution bias: the interpretation of ambiguous actions of others as hostile actions towards yourself.  Fight or flight syndrome, tend and befriend syndrome, relational aggression, weapons effect o Fight or flight syndrome: a response to stress that involves aggressing against others or running away o Tend and befriend syndrome: a response to stress that involves nurturing others and making friends o Relational (social) aggression: behavior that involves intentionally harming another person’s social relationships, feelings of acceptance, or inclusion within a group.  Saying bad things about people behind their backs, withdrawing affection to get what you want, excluding others from your circle of friends, and giving someone the silent treatment. o Weapons effect  The increase in aggression that occurs as a result of the mere presence of a weapon. Men in one study who interacted with a gun for 15 minutes had higher testosterone levels compared to men who interacted with a toy for 15 minutes, and the higher the testosterone level, the more aggressive they were afterwards. Aggressive cues activate aggressive tendencies via a nonconscious, automatic response, making people react more aggressively than they would have otherwise.  Testosterone, serotonin o Two naturally occurring chemicals in the brain, testosterone and serotonin, have been closely linked with aggression. o Testosterone: the male sex hormone, high levels of which have been linked to aggression and violence in both animals and humans. It is a simple chemical arrangement of carbon rings, a derivative of the cholesterol molecule. o Serotonin: the “feel good” neurotransmitter, low levels of which have been linked to aggression and violence in both animals and humans. In human brains, information is communicated between neurons (nerve cells) by the movement of chemicals across a small gap called the synapse. The chemical messengers are called neurotransmitters. Serotonin is one of these neurotransmitters.  Culture of honor, honor killing o Culture of honor: a society that places high value on individual respect, strength, and virtue, and accepts and justifies violent action in response to threats to one’s honor. o Honor killing: killing another individual who has brought “dishonor” to the family (e.g., a woman who has committed adultery). This practice supposedly restores the family’s honor from the disgrace caused by the woman,  And material covered in class on fri, apr 1


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