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Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Josephine maclean

Exam 3 Study Guide Adv 319

Josephine maclean
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Covers Ch. 13-17
Psychology of advertising
Dr. Close-Schienbaum
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Josephine maclean on Sunday November 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Adv 319 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Close-Schienbaum in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Psychology of advertising in Advertising at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 11/29/15
Covers Chapters 13­17 Read the lecture notes because this is a textbook heavy study guide, also once again go over  the vocab from the site Dr. Close gave us. Good luck!!  Ch. 13­ Household and social class influences  1. Describe various types of households and families, explain how the family life  cycle and other forces affect household structure.  a. Types: nuclear v extended family i. “household” can be a single person living alone or a couple or parents and kids, etc.  ii. dual career families, divorce, smaller families,  same­sex families b. Family life cycle: different stages of family life, depends on age of  parents and how many children are living at home  2. Roles that household members play in acquisition and consumption decisions  and marketing implications i. roles individuals play­ “Household decision roles”  1. gatekeeper: collect and control  information important to the decision 2. influencer: household members who  try to express their opinions and influence the decision  3. decider: the person or persons who  actually determine which product or service will be chosen  4. buyer: physically acquires product or service 5. user: member who consumes the  product  ii. instrumental v. expressive roles iii. role of children (usually as influencers)  iv. who dominates the decision? (usually reflects a  male or female head of household)  1. husband­dominated 2. wife­dominated  3. autonomic (equal power over  decision) 4. syncratic (joint) b. marketing implications: targeting who is involved at each stage,  role of internet is expanding 3. Social Class hierarchy and what determines social class a. Hierarchy: Upper Class ● upper­upper ● lower­upper ● upper­middle Middle ● middle class ● working class Lower ● not the lowest ● real lower­lower b. Influences: trends can trickle down (upper to lower) or experience  status float (start low move up)  c. Determinants:  i. the biggest determinants are Education and  occupation ii. inherited v earned status iii. when a consumer is consistent across all  measurements of status: status crystallization iv. mobility and fragmentation 4. explain how social class influences CB:  a. Effects on consumption: i. conspicuous consumption, conspicuous waste, and voluntary simplicity ii. status symbols iii. parody display­ start lower move up iv. fraudulent display­ so widely adapted it loses status (smart phones?) v. compensatory consumption   vi. Money­ good and evil, happiness,  b. marketing implications: i. appealing to different classes ii. through channel selection, or style  iii. note of caution: doesn’t always work as a  segmentation technique bc it is so complicated 5. three things that change social class: 1. upward mobility 2. downward mobility 3. fragmentation  Ch. 14­ Psychographics: values, personalities and lifestyles “Demographics are for dinosaurs”­­Dr. Close 1. define values and the value system and show how they can be described a. values: abstract, enduring beliefs about what is right/ wrong,  important, or good/bad i. global values­ peron’s MOST enduring, strongly  held, and abstract values that hold in many situations ii. terminal values­ desired end states (ideal state to  be in) iii. instrumental values­ the values for you to achieve  the desired end state\ iv. domain specific values­ valies that may only apply  to a particular area of activities b. value system: total set of values and their relative importance 2. Western culture values a. materialism, home, work and play, individualism, family and  children, health, hedonism, youth, authenticity, the environment, technology b. Measuring values (value segmentation)  i. inferring values from cultural milieu ii. means­end chain analysis iii. value questionnaires­ rokeach value survey, and  list of values (LOV) 3. Personality and Marketing a. Personality = internal characteristic that determines how  individuals behave in various situations b. researching personality→ trait theories, locus of control (how people perceive WHY things happen), behavioral approaches (myers-briggs) c. how personality affects CB i. finding people’s optimal stimulation level ii. dogmatism (resistance) iii. need for uniqueness, need for cognition iv. creativity v. susceptibility to influence vi. frugality vii. self­monitoring behavior viii. national character (country’s personality) ix. competitiveness (want to outdo others) 4. How lifestyles are related to opinions, interests, and activities a. lifestyle­ people’s patterns of behavior b. AIOs= activities, interests, and opinions (3 components of a life  style) i. segmentation by AIOS ex: zipcar for Universities ii. communication that appeals to a certain lifestyle iii. new product ideas 5. Marketing implications of combining Psychographics, lifestyle, and personality a. VALs™ and other research Chapter 15­ Innovations: adoption, resistance, and diffusion  1. describe how innovations can be classified in terms of type, benefits, and breadth a. innovation = an offering that is perceived as new by consumers  within a market segment and that has an effect on existing consumption patterns  b. characterizing by novelty (how much behavioral change is  required): i. continuous innovation: one that has a limited effect  on existing consumption patterns  ii. dynamically continuous: pronounced effect on  consumption practices and often involves new tech. iii. discontinuous: so new we have never seen  anything like it before  c. characterizing by benefits: i. functional innovation: a new product or service,  attribute, idea that has better or alternative utilitarian benefits  ii. hedonic or aesthetic innovation: prettier iii. symbolic innovation: new social meaning d. characterizing by breadth: ex baking soda has all sorts of uses e. co creation: actively involving consumers in creating value through participation in new product development (nivea’s new black and white  deodorant)  2. How consumers adopt, why they resist, marketing implications a. mixed reactions from the 8 central paradoxes i. control/ chaos; freedom/ enslavement;  new/obsolete; competence/incompetence; efficiency/ inefficiency; fulfills/  creates needs; assimilation/ isolation; engaging/ disengaging ii. high­effort hierarchy of effects: a purchase based  on considerable decision­making effort 1. awareness → info collection and search → attitude formation → trial → adoption iii. versus the low effort hierarchy 1. awareness → trial → attitude formation → adoption b. Adopter groups­ the curve (p. 422 of book, figure 15.6)  i. 5 groups: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, laggards 3. Diffusion a. use­diffusion patterns  b. Adopter groups­ the curve (p. 422 of book, figure 15.6)  i. 5 groups: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, laggards c. s shaped diffusion curve d. exponential diffusion curve e. product life cycle curve f. factors affecting the diffusion curve: i. fad ii. fashion iii. classic g. factors affecting adoption, resistance, and diffusion i. the innovation: 1. perceived value 2. perceived benefits 3. perceived costs ii. marketing­ must communicate, promote, and  incentivize to avoid uncertainty from consumers iii. consumer learning requirements: compatibility;  trialability; complexity  iv. to communicate: educate, use change agents  (opinion leaders), fit with a system of products, make it the industry  standard (ipods or seatbelts), promotions enhance trialability,  demonstrate compatibility and simplicity, simulate trial v. social relevance­ extent to which an innovation can  be observed or the extent to which having others observe it has a social  cache  vi. legitimacy: extent to which the innovation follows  established guideline for what seems appropriate in the category vii. adaptability: potential to fit with existing products/  styles viii. modernity: extent to which consumers in the social  system have positive attitudes toward change ­­ characteristic of the  social system (also see physical distance, homophily, opinion leadership)  Ch. 16­ Symbolic Consumer Behavior 1. discuss how products, special possessions, and consumption activities gain  symbolic meaning and how this meaning is conveyed from one consumer to another: a. cultural categories­ natural grouping of objects that reflect our  culture b. cultural principles­ ideas or values that specify how aspects of our  culture are organized and or how they should be perceived or evaluated c. Figure 16.2 on page 445 is very important to this less i. essentially it illustrates where the value of the  product comes from (culture or individual) and where the product use is  defined (individual or culture)  d. emblematic function: use of products to symbolize membership in  social groups  i. geographic; ethnic; social class; and gender  emblems  2. marketing implications of symbolic influence a. symbol development­ linking a product to a cultural category (eg­  toyota to ranchers)  b. symbol communication­ setting of the ad gives meaning to the  product c. symbol reinforcement­ maintaining an image d. symbol removal­ erasing symbols that are unwanted (ex tattoo  removal) e. role acquisition function: i. use of products as symbols to help us feel more  comfortable in a new role ii. phases­ separation, transition, incorporation  iii. reflexive transitions­ feedback from others that tells  us whether we are fulfilling the role correctly  iv. other transitions include­ marital, cultural (quinces)  social status (a new house) v. Connectedness function:  use of products as  symbols of our personal connections to significant people, events,  experiences (souvenirs)  f. Expressiveness function: products as symbols to demonstrate our  uniqueness­ how we stand out from others  g. symbols and self­concept i. actual identity schema­ multiple salient identities  that reflects self concept ii. ideal identity schema­ ideas about the identity in its  ideal form h. marketing from this: i. to self­concepts; fitting with or reaching to ideal;  products that fit with multiple self­concepts; frame switching (someone  with multiple cultural backgrounds will respond differently to  advertisements in different languages)  i. special brands and possessions i. pets especially in the US; memory­laden objects;  achievement symbols; collections ii. few or no substitutes; sentimental value; reluctance to discard iii. symbolic value, mood­altering properties (trophies) iv. instrumental importance (actually extremely useful)  v. rituals with special possessions 1. possession ritual (making it ours) 2. grooming ritual (to bring out and  maintain the product) 3. divestment ritual (disposition, wipe  away all traces of personal meaning)  3. sacred and profane entities a. sacred : people things and places that are set apart, revered,  worshiped, and treated with great respect b. profane : things that are ordinary and have no special power 4. symbolic meaning transfer through gift giving: a. three stages i. gestation 1. motives and emotions,  2. nature of the gift,  3. value of gift, 4. search time ii. presentation 1. ceremony 2. timing and surprise 3. attention to the recipient 4. recipient’s reaction iii. reformulation 1. relationship and bonding 2. reciprocation b. marketing implications: i. promoting products/ services as gifts ii. technology and gift shopping (major changes) iii. alternatives (ex: heifer international)  Ch. 17­ marketing, ethics, and social responsibility in today’s consumer society 1. distinguish between social and temporal dilemmas, and explain the search for  balance in decisions that involve such dilemmas  a. social dilemma: deciding whether to put self­interest or the  interests of others first b. temporal dilemma: deciding whether to put immediate interests or  long­term interests first i. me versus we can be in a family setting or a  corporate setting c. dark side v bright side outcomes i. marketing that could be harmful to consumers ii. marketing to children 2. marketing ethics and consumer ethics i. ex: body shop­ markets their good buying practices b. acquisition controversies i. materialistic behavior 1. neutral value but there can be  consequences 2. family influences­­ determine how  materialistic someone is 3. perception of others changes how  you see your life ii. addiction and compulsive behavior 1. addiction = excessive behavior  brought on by a chemical dependency a. loss of perceived  control b. denial  2. compulsive behavior = an irresistible urge to perform an irrational act  a. emotional component b. financial and  emotional consequences c. Consumer theft i. temptation to steal 1. product factors, environmental  factors, and consumer factors ii. ability to rationalize 1. same three factors iii. black markets­ especially intellectual property iv. targeting vulnerable segments ­ travellers  v. 41.6$ billion a year lost vi. actions to stop it can lower customer satisfaction  d. Consumption Controversies i. underage drinking and smoking, idealized self­ images, compulsive gambling, overeating and obesity, privacy  ii. does marketing encourage? does it CAUSE? e. disposition controversies i. products that still work ii. ones that do not function iii. waste and pollution, littering campaigns 3. consumers and marketers being good a. conservation behavior b. publicizing health concerns c. greenwashing = misleading use of environmental claims to appeal to consumers d. charitable behavior and community involvement­ canada scouts  (pepsi community donations) 4. customer resistance a. boycotting b. new method of buycotting


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