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UT / Advertising / ADV 319 / What are the various types of households and families?

What are the various types of households and families?

What are the various types of households and families?


School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: Advertising
Course: Psychology of Advertising
Professor: Close-schienbaum
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Covers Ch. 13-17
Uploaded: 11/29/2015
8 Pages 135 Views 15 Unlocks

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Covers Chapters 13­17

What are the various types of households and families?

Read the lecture notes because this is a textbook heavy study guide, also once again go over  the vocab from the site Dr. Close gave us.

Good luck!! 

Ch. 13­ Household and social class influences 

1. Describe various types of households and families, explain how the family life  cycle and other forces affect household structure. 

a. Types: nuclear v extended family

i. “household” can be a single person living alone or a

couple or parents and kids, etc. 

ii. dual career families, divorce, smaller families, 

same­sex families

b. Family life cycle: different stages of family life, depends on age of 

parents and how many children are living at home 

How does social class influences cb?

2. Roles that household members play in acquisition and consumption decisions  and marketing implications

i. roles individuals play­ “Household decision roles” 

1. gatekeeper: collect and control 

information important to the decision

2. influencer: household members who 

try to express their opinions and influence the decision 

3. decider: the person or persons who 

actually determine which product or service will be chosen 

4. buyer: physically acquires product or


5. user: member who consumes the 


ii. instrumental v. expressive roles

iii. role of children (usually as influencers) 

What are the three things that change social class?

If you want to learn more check out In logic, a premise is what?

iv. who dominates the decision? (usually reflects a 

male or female head of household) 

1. husband­dominated

2. wife­dominated 

3. autonomic (equal power over 


4. syncratic (joint)

b. marketing implications: targeting who is involved at each stage, 

role of internet is expanding

3. Social Class hierarchy and what determines social class Don't forget about the age old question of How do you determine the limits of price formation in the auction model?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the urinary system?

a. Hierarchy:

Upper Class

● upper­upper

● lower­upper

● upper­middle


● middle class

● working class


● not the lowest

● real lower­lower

b. Influences: trends can trickle down (upper to lower) or experience 

status float (start low move up) 

c. Determinants: 

i. the biggest determinants are Education and 


ii. inherited v earned status

iii. when a consumer is consistent across all 

measurements of status: status crystallization If you want to learn more check out Who proposed the greatest happiness principle?

iv. mobility and fragmentation

4. explain how social class influences CB: 

a. Effects on consumption:

i. conspicuous consumption, conspicuous waste, and

voluntary simplicity

ii. status symbols

iii. parody display­ start lower move up

iv. fraudulent display­ so widely adapted it loses status

(smart phones?)

v. compensatory consumption  

vi. Money­ good and evil, happiness, 

b. marketing implications:

i. appealing to different classes We also discuss several other topics like Name and explain the three states of matter.

ii. through channel selection, or style 

iii. note of caution: doesn’t always work as a 

segmentation technique bc it is so complicated

5. three things that change social class:

1. upward mobility

2. downward mobility

3. fragmentation 

Ch. 14­ Psychographics: values, personalities and lifestyles

“Demographics are for dinosaurs”­­Dr. Close

1. define values and the value system and show how they can be described a. values: abstract, enduring beliefs about what is right/ wrong, 

important, or good/bad

i. global values­ peron’s MOST enduring, strongly 

held, and abstract values that hold in many situations

ii. terminal values­ desired end states (ideal state to  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 4 nutrients required by law on a food label?

be in)

iii. instrumental values­ the values for you to achieve 

the desired end state\

iv. domain specific values­ valies that may only apply 

to a particular area of activities

b. value system: total set of values and their relative importance

2. Western culture values

a. materialism, home, work and play, individualism, family and 

children, health, hedonism, youth, authenticity, the environment, technology b. Measuring values (value segmentation) 

i. inferring values from cultural milieu

ii. means­end chain analysis

iii. value questionnaires­ rokeach value survey, and 

list of values (LOV)

3. Personality and Marketing

a. Personality = internal characteristic that determines how 

individuals behave in various situations

b. researching personality→ trait theories, locus of control  

(how people perceive WHY things happen), behavioral approaches  (myers-briggs)

c. how personality affects CB

i. finding people’s optimal stimulation level

ii. dogmatism (resistance)

iii. need for uniqueness, need for cognition

iv. creativity

v. susceptibility to influence

vi. frugality

vii. self­monitoring behavior

viii. national character (country’s personality)

ix. competitiveness (want to outdo others)

4. How lifestyles are related to opinions, interests, and activities

a. lifestyle­ people’s patterns of behavior

b. AIOs= activities, interests, and opinions (3 components of a life 


i. segmentation by AIOS ex: zipcar for Universities

ii. communication that appeals to a certain lifestyle

iii. new product ideas

5. Marketing implications of combining Psychographics, lifestyle, and personality a. VALs™ and other research

Chapter 15­ Innovations: adoption, resistance, and diffusion 

1. describe how innovations can be classified in terms of type, benefits, and breadth a. innovation = an offering that is perceived as new by consumers 

within a market segment and that has an effect on existing consumption patterns 

b. characterizing by novelty (how much behavioral change is 


i. continuous innovation: one that has a limited effect 

on existing consumption patterns 

ii. dynamically continuous: pronounced effect on 

consumption practices and often involves new tech.

iii. discontinuous: so new we have never seen 

anything like it before 

c. characterizing by benefits:

i. functional innovation: a new product or service, 

attribute, idea that has better or alternative utilitarian benefits 

ii. hedonic or aesthetic innovation: prettier

iii. symbolic innovation: new social meaning

d. characterizing by breadth: ex baking soda has all sorts of uses e. co creation: actively involving consumers in creating value through participation in new product development (nivea’s new black and white  deodorant) 

2. How consumers adopt, why they resist, marketing implications a. mixed reactions from the 8 central paradoxes

i. control/ chaos; freedom/ enslavement; 

new/obsolete; competence/incompetence; efficiency/ inefficiency; fulfills/  creates needs; assimilation/ isolation; engaging/ disengaging

ii. high­effort hierarchy of effects: a purchase based 

on considerable decision­making effort

1. awareness → info collection and  

search → attitude formation → trial → adoption

iii. versus the low effort hierarchy

1. awareness → trial → attitude  

formation → adoption

b. Adopter groups­ the curve (p. 422 of book, figure 15.6) 

i. 5 groups: innovators, early adopters, early majority,

late majority, laggards

3. Diffusion

a. use­diffusion patterns 

b. Adopter groups­ the curve (p. 422 of book, figure 15.6) 

i. 5 groups: innovators, early adopters, early majority,

late majority, laggards

c. s shaped diffusion curve

d. exponential diffusion curve

e. product life cycle curve

f. factors affecting the diffusion curve:

i. fad

ii. fashion

iii. classic

g. factors affecting adoption, resistance, and diffusion

i. the innovation:

1. perceived value

2. perceived benefits

3. perceived costs

ii. marketing­ must communicate, promote, and 

incentivize to avoid uncertainty from consumers

iii. consumer learning requirements: compatibility; 

trialability; complexity 

iv. to communicate: educate, use change agents 

(opinion leaders), fit with a system of products, make it the industry 

standard (ipods or seatbelts), promotions enhance trialability, 

demonstrate compatibility and simplicity, simulate trial

v. social relevance­ extent to which an innovation can 

be observed or the extent to which having others observe it has a social  cache 

vi. legitimacy: extent to which the innovation follows 

established guideline for what seems appropriate in the category

vii. adaptability: potential to fit with existing products/ 


viii. modernity: extent to which consumers in the social 

system have positive attitudes toward change ­­ characteristic of the 

social system (also see physical distance, homophily, opinion leadership) 

Ch. 16­ Symbolic Consumer Behavior

1. discuss how products, special possessions, and consumption activities gain  symbolic meaning and how this meaning is conveyed from one consumer to another: a. cultural categories­ natural grouping of objects that reflect our 


b. cultural principles­ ideas or values that specify how aspects of our 

culture are organized and or how they should be perceived or evaluated

c. Figure 16.2 on page 445 is very important to this less

i. essentially it illustrates where the value of the 

product comes from (culture or individual) and where the product use is 

defined (individual or culture) 

d. emblematic function: use of products to symbolize membership in 

social groups 

i. geographic; ethnic; social class; and gender 


2. marketing implications of symbolic influence

a. symbol development­ linking a product to a cultural category (eg­ 

toyota to ranchers) 

b. symbol communication­ setting of the ad gives meaning to the 


c. symbol reinforcement­ maintaining an image

d. symbol removal­ erasing symbols that are unwanted (ex tattoo  removal)

e. role acquisition function:

i. use of products as symbols to help us feel more 

comfortable in a new role

ii. phases­ separation, transition, incorporation 

iii. reflexive transitions­ feedback from others that tells 

us whether we are fulfilling the role correctly 

iv. other transitions include­ marital, cultural (quinces) 

social status (a new house)

v. Connectedness function:  use of products as 

symbols of our personal connections to significant people, events,  experiences (souvenirs) 

f. Expressiveness function: products as symbols to demonstrate our  uniqueness­ how we stand out from others 

g. symbols and self­concept

i. actual identity schema­ multiple salient identities 

that reflects self concept

ii. ideal identity schema­ ideas about the identity in its 

ideal form

h. marketing from this:

i. to self­concepts; fitting with or reaching to ideal; 

products that fit with multiple self­concepts; frame switching (someone  with multiple cultural backgrounds will respond differently to 

advertisements in different languages) 

i. special brands and possessions

i. pets especially in the US; memory­laden objects; 

achievement symbols; collections

ii. few or no substitutes; sentimental value; reluctance

to discard

iii. symbolic value, mood­altering properties (trophies)

iv. instrumental importance (actually extremely useful) 

v. rituals with special possessions

1. possession ritual (making it ours)

2. grooming ritual (to bring out and 

maintain the product)

3. divestment ritual (disposition, wipe 

away all traces of personal meaning) 

3. sacred and profane entities

a. sacred : people things and places that are set apart, revered,  worshiped, and treated with great respect

b. profane : things that are ordinary and have no special power 4. symbolic meaning transfer through gift giving:

a. three stages

i. gestation

1. motives and emotions, 

2. nature of the gift, 

3. value of gift,

4. search time

ii. presentation

1. ceremony

2. timing and surprise

3. attention to the recipient

4. recipient’s reaction

iii. reformulation

1. relationship and bonding

2. reciprocation

b. marketing implications:

i. promoting products/ services as gifts

ii. technology and gift shopping (major changes)

iii. alternatives (ex: heifer international) 

Ch. 17­ marketing, ethics, and social responsibility in today’s consumer society

1. distinguish between social and temporal dilemmas, and explain the search for  balance in decisions that involve such dilemmas 

a. social dilemma: deciding whether to put self­interest or the 

interests of others first

b. temporal dilemma: deciding whether to put immediate interests or 

long­term interests first

i. me versus we can be in a family setting or a 

corporate setting

c. dark side v bright side outcomes

i. marketing that could be harmful to consumers

ii. marketing to children

2. marketing ethics and consumer ethics

i. ex: body shop­ markets their good buying practices

b. acquisition controversies

i. materialistic behavior

1. neutral value but there can be 


2. family influences­­ determine how 

materialistic someone is

3. perception of others changes how 

you see your life

ii. addiction and compulsive behavior

1. addiction = excessive behavior 

brought on by a chemical dependency

a. loss of perceived 


b. denial 

2. compulsive behavior = an irresistible

urge to perform an irrational act 

a. emotional component

b. financial and 

emotional consequences

c. Consumer theft

i. temptation to steal

1. product factors, environmental 

factors, and consumer factors

ii. ability to rationalize

1. same three factors

iii. black markets­ especially intellectual property

iv. targeting vulnerable segments ­ travellers 

v. 41.6$ billion a year lost

vi. actions to stop it can lower customer satisfaction 

d. Consumption Controversies

i. underage drinking and smoking, idealized self

images, compulsive gambling, overeating and obesity, privacy 

ii. does marketing encourage? does it CAUSE?

e. disposition controversies

i. products that still work

ii. ones that do not function

iii. waste and pollution, littering campaigns

3. consumers and marketers being good

a. conservation behavior

b. publicizing health concerns

c. greenwashing = misleading use of environmental claims to appeal to consumers

d. charitable behavior and community involvement­ canada scouts  (pepsi community donations)

4. customer resistance

a. boycotting

b. new method of buycotting

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