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Final Study Guide

by: Morgan Hawes

Final Study Guide PSYCH 85

Morgan Hawes
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Hey Guys, Here are my answers to the Study Guide for Thursday's Final Exam!!! I included most of the page numbers from the text where I found these and went over most of the questions with the TA....
Introduction to Cognitive Science
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Hawes on Sunday November 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 85 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Kellman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cognitive Science in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.

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Date Created: 11/29/15
Skyrms 1 In logic, a premise is: a) A sentence that makes a definite factual claim. b) A sentence that states the point being argued for. c) A sentence that states the reasons advanced in support of the conclusion. d) All of the above e) A and C a. E 2 It is the logician’s task to: a) Evaluate whether the premises are true b) Evaluate how well the conclusion follows from the premises c) Use Bayes Theorem to adjust priors to arrive at a posterior probability d) Evaluate whether the conclusion is true e) A and D a. B 3 Which of the following is a deductively valid argument? a) Socrates is a mortal. Socrates is a man. All men are mortals. b) Diodorus did not know how to tie a square knot. Diodorus was well-educated. Knot-tying was not an integral part of education in Ancient Greece. c) All apples are blue. All blue things taste good. Apples taste good. d) The sun has risen every day from the east. The sun will rise from the east tomorrow. a. C Which of the following is true of an inductively valid argument? a) The truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion b) The conclusion makes a claim that goes beyond the premises c) It is impossible that the conclusion is false, given that the premises are true d) All of the above a. B Epistemic probability relies on what two things? a) Individual observations, and constraints about the way the world works based on those observations b) True premises and inductively valid conclusions based upon those premises c) Justification for an inductive logic, and the uniformity of nature d) Our existing stock of knowledge, and the inductive logic used to grade the strength of the argument from that knowledge to the conclusion a. D What is a key difference between certainty models and fallibility models of epistemic probability? a) Whether observation reports are supposed to have been rendered certain by experience, or merely likely b) Whether the items within the stock of knowledge are events known to have occurred or events known never to have occurred c) Whether conclusions based on observation reports are revised if eventually proven to be false d) A certainty model is guaranteed to lead a correct prediction, whereas a fallibility model is not guaranteed to lead to a correct prediction every time a. D What is the principle of uniformity of nature? a) The idea that the requirements of a deductively valid argument will never change because the principles of deductive logic derive from inherent truths about the world b) The idea that the things and events that actually occur in the world are more similar and fewer in number than would be expected, given the infinite possibilities c) The idea that the frequency of similar natural events should be given the greatest weight in prediction calculations d) The idea that, upon introduction of new knowledge, epistemic probabilities increase or decrease to reflect what is true in the natural world e) The idea that nature is uniform, thus the future can be expected to resemble the past a. E Essay: What is the traditional problem of induction (3.5 points)? The traditional problem with induction is that one has to rationally justify scientifice induction by the use of an inductively strong argument, putting them in the position of having to assume that scientific induction is reliable in order to prove that scientific induction is reliable=begging the question. ***What is the problem with using deductive logic to resolve the traditional problem of induction (1.5 points)? Deductive logic can only prove what is assumed in the premises so unless the problem is resolved in the premises, it would not be resolved in the conclusion. What is the problem with using inductive logic to resolve the traditional problem of induction (1.5 points)? See above. Explain the levels of argument approach to this problem (3.5 points), (356) Lower levels are justified by higher levels but always higher levels of scienfitic induction. (362). The rules of each level are different but all levels assume the uniformity of nature. Arguments on level one talk about particulars in the world and level 2 talks about arguments on level 1. as well as the counterinductive approach (3.5 points). (362) Induction, through the uniformity of nature assumes that the future will be like the past. Counterinduction, assumes just the opposite, that the future will not be like the past. It assigns low inductive probabilities to arguemtns that are assigned high inductive probailites by scientific inductive logic and vice versa. ****Are either of these two approaches adequate to justify a system of scientific inductive logic? Why or why not (1.5 points)? No, begging the question. We don’t have to justify induction to use induction, we just cant say that we have justified. The pragmatic justification of induction*** argues that: (371) a) It is unreasonable to suggest that the future will not be like the past, therefore the counterinductive approach is invalid b) It can be shown that scientific induction will be successful, if any method of induction will be successful c) Because nature is largely uniform, induction leads us to true predictions most of the time d) Inductive logic is justified by that fact that, without it, there is no machinery left for justification a. B ESSAY: Construct a deductively valid argument with at least two premises; write it in standard logical form (4 points). All A are B All B are C Therefore, All A are C Then, construct an inductively strong argument with at least two premises, and write it in standard logical form (4 points). The sun has risen every day since I can remember The sun came up today Therefore, the sun will rise tomorrow. Answer the following questions: What is deductive validity (2.75 points)? (332) True premises with a certainly true conclusion to follow What is inductive probability (2.75 points)? (335) The type of probalitility that grades the inductive strength of arguments and relies on the evidential relation between the premises and the conclusion. Can either of these kinds of logic be used to predict the future, why and how (1.5 points)? Inductive can predict the future but not with certainty since it uses the uniformity of nature. Wertheimer: Wertheimer conducted a set of experiments with children. He first showed them how the area of a parallelogram is to be found with auxiliary lines. He then put before them pairs of “A-Figures” and “B-Figures”. Which of the following reactions did Wertheimer suggest demonstrates real thinking in this experiment? a) Applying auxiliary lines to find the area of the figures b) Realizing that none of the problems are solveable c) Solving the A figures, and rejecting the B figures d) Deriving a unique formula to calculate the area of each of the figures a. B Wertheimer investigations situations in which students often fail to solve problems after traditional classroom instruction in solving problems of that type. What does he find is the cause of students’ difficulty solving these problems? a) Failure to carry out the learned operations correctly b) Lack of generalization from familiar problems to novel problems c) Generalization to novel problems from too few familiar problems d) Lack of demonstrative proof of the solution e) Blind repetition of learned procedures without understanding structural features of the problem a. B Wertheimer conducted an experiment in which he taught a group of students a cruel, alternate method of deriving the area of a parallelogram. Which of the following would demonstrate productive thinking in this situation? a) Correctly applying the learned procedure to a novel problem b) Coming up with an alternative way to prove the solution is correct, such as weighing a tin parallelogram on a scale c) Questioning the reasoning for using the alternate method rather than a simpler procedure d) Constructing an inductively strong argument to arrive at a solution a. A Essay: Wertheimer discusses several experiments conducted with children to examine their ability to solve certain kinds of problems. Explain one such experiment. Include discussion of the stimulus (5 points), the task (5 points), and the general findings – the sorts of responses Wertheimer observed, including what sort of response demonstrated productive thinking (5 points). (400-402) Stimulus: Showed children single figures of pairs of A or B figures right after showing the area of the parallelogram is to found with auxiliary lines. Task: To solve for the area of the shapes Reponses: “this one I can’t do; I don’t know what the area is” “how should we know” They are all new. Reponses that demonstrated productive thinking: “of course I do not know the area of the little figures, but that does not matter as long as they are equal.” Ericcson & Smith The expertise approach attempts to account for outstanding performance in terms of : a) general, inherited characteristics b) general, specific characteristics c) acquired, general characteristics d) acquired, specific characteristics o D Ericsson & Smith discuss results of some pioneering work on chess expertise. Which of the following are true of chess players with greater expertise? a) They are able to explore longer move combinations b) They recall a greater amount of chunks of information c) They are able to correctly recall the locations of more pieces for representative chess positions d) They are able to correctly recall the locations of more randomly placed pieces e) All of the above a. B What three steps characterize the expertise approach? a) Capturing superior performance, analysis of expert performance, and accounting for superior performance b) Defining expertise within a domain, finding expertise within that domain, and proving inheritance of domain-general expertise characteristics c) Identifying subjects with acquired expertise, evaluating planning and reasoning skills, and measuring application of planning and reasoning within a domain d) Uncovering general basic cognitive processes that define expertise in a domain, identifying subjects with those characteristics, and demonstrating expertise of those subjects a. A Tversky & Kahneman Tversky & Kahneman discuss several heuristic principles people use to reduce complex tasks of assessing probabilities and predicting values to simpler judgments. Which of the following is an example of employing the representativeness heuristic? A is representative of B by the degree that A resembles B. When A is highly representative of B, the probability that A originates from B is judged to be high. This is a problem because representativeness does not take into account prior probability of outcomes, sample size, misconceptions of chance, insensitivity to predictability, the illusion of validity and misconceptions of regression. a) Likelihood of Steve being a librarian is assessed according to the degree to which librarians are well represented in the population b) Likelihood of Steve being a librarian is assessed based on the degree to which his personality description matches the librarian stereotype c) Likelihood of finding a librarian within a drawn sample is assessed based on the likelihood of a sample of that size not being representative of the population as a whole (e.g. having no librarians given the population mean number of librarians) d) Likelihood of finding a librarian within a drawn sample is assessed based on the ease with which familiar instances of librarians belonging to that population come to mind a. b Which of the following is NOT a problem with employing the representativeness heuristic? a) Insensitivity to prior probability of outcomes b) Misconceptions of regression c) Insensitivity to sample size d) Biases due to the retrievability of instances e) None of the above a. e Which of the following situations illustrates regression to the mean? a) Since data on Americans’ average height was first collected in the early 20 th century, children and adolescents have been getting about an inch and a half taller every 20 years. However, recent measurements suggest this trend has ceased. b) In the late nineteenth century, the Netherlands was a land renowned for its short population, but today its population is among the world’s tallest, with young men averaging 183.8cm (6 ft 0.4 in) tall. c) Shaquille O’Neal is 7ft 1 in tall. His eldest full grown son is 6ft 6in tall. d) Seattle experienced 226 mostly cloudy days in 2014. However, Detroit experienced only 185 mostly cloudy days. e) A and B a. C Tversky & Kahneman discuss several heuristic principles people use to reduce complex tasks of assessing probabilities and predicting values to simpler judgments. When people employ the availability heuristic, they assess the probability of an event according to: The frequency of a class or the probability of an event by the ease with which instances or occurrences can be brought to mind. a) Intuitive adjustments away from some readily available, mean value b) The presence of a currently occurring second event, known to commonly precede the to-be-predicted event c) The limited set of mental computations available to a person based on their quantitative proficiency d) The ease with which instances or occurrences can be brought to mind a. D Retrievability of instances, Effetivenss of search set (words that start with R), Imaginability (the ease with which distasters can be imagined need not reflect their actual likelihood), Illusory correlation (drawing correlations between things that are highy associated like succepciousness and eyes. Adjustment and Anchoring: when given a number/anchor people do a poor job of adjusting and not taking that anchor number into account. Markman & Medin Economic models predict that a) People are rational, and they make optimal decisions b) People use heuristics to reduce complex tasks of assessing probabilities to simpler judgments c) People fail to take prior odds into account when making decisions d) People overestimate the probability of conjunctive events and underestimate the probability of disjunctive events a. A Which of the following is not a prediction of economic models? a) Equivalence of transformations b) Consistency across measures of preference c) Options are evaluated independently d) Availability suggests frequency e) None of the above a. B ***Which of the following is true of human decision making? a) People make the same decision whether you describe a situation in terms of gains or losses b) Different measures of preference yield the same results c) The addition of a new option to a set affects the relative preference of previously presented options d) If option A is preferred to option B, adding the same information to both options maintains the preference for option A e) All of the above • D ***Which of the following demonstrates the attraction effect? 476 a) You’re uncertain where to vacation: Mordor has great nightlife, but the weather is miserable; Kashyyyk has no nightlife, but the weather is beautiful. The travel agent then suggests Risa, which has great nightlife and great weather. You decide to visit Risa. b) You’re looking to adopt a tribble. At the animal rescue shelter, you meet 3 tribbles. They’re all so cute, you decide to adopt them all. c) You’re offered one free gift from a pile. You peek inside the boxes of two gifts: a red box contains 6 blobs, and 2 globs; A green box contains 2 blobs, and 6 globs. Peeking inside a third, blue box, you see 1 blob and 5 globs. You decide not to take any of them. d) You can’t decide which club to join: Dumbledore’s Army throws dull parties, but the food is delicious. The Klingons throw exciting parties, but the food is disgusting. The Hobbits then invite you to their club: they throw excruciatingly boring parties, but the food is decent. You decide to join Dumbledore’s Army. a. D If you are given an option A or B, adding a third option does not effect your preference of A or B. ***Which of the following demonstrates the compromise effect? 476-477 a) You’re unable to decide on a future career path: Starfleet officers get paid very well, but enjoy little prestige. Jedi get paid a medium amount and enjoy a medium amount of prestige. Gandalf then asks you to become a ringbearer: ringbearers get paid next to nothing, but enjoy a lot of prestige. You decide to become a Jedi. b) You’re told you must take one person with you on an adventure: Spock is not fun, but is almost always useful. Samwise Gamgee is fun, but is not always useful. Neville Longbottom then offers to go with you: he is sometimes fun, but almost never useful. You choose Sam. c) You can’t decide on a method of transportation: the Enterprise is extremely fast, but sometimes experiences dangerous mishaps. The Millenium Falcon is slower, and almost always experiences dangerous mishaps. Shadowfax then offers to take you: he is slowest, but experiences dangerous mishaps least often. You decide to ride Shadowfax on the way there, and ride the Enterprise on the way back. d) A and B o A, You have two demensions so when you make a choice, you chose the middle of the rode option. ***To satisfice means: a) To choose many options in hopes that one of them will be satisfactory b) To choose the first option that meets a goal c) To first eliminate all options that are unsatisfactory on the most important aspect, then eliminate all options that are unsatisfactory on the second most important aspect, and proceed until there is only one option left d) To use heuristics to estimate a satisfactory, if not optimal solution a. Yudkowsky Yudkowsky reports that people often fail to correctly estimate the likelihood of an event. What error do people commonly make? a) Overestimate the number of false positives b) Fail to consider the number of false negatives c) Ignore the prior probability d) Mix up the conditional probabilities e) All of the above a. C ***Which of the following is the prior probability? a) 14% of Muggles who receive a positive result on the Wizard Screening test have magical ability. b) 90% of Muggles with magical ability receive a positive result on the Wizard Screening Test. c) 95% of Muggles that take the Wizard Screening Test do not have magical ability. d) 70% of Muggles without magical ability receive a negative result on the Wizard Screening Test. a. C ESSAY: ****1% of planets that are screened with the “Class M” test are earth-like planets capable of sustaining humanoid life. 90% of planets that are capable of sustaining life will get a positive result on the “Class M” test. (true positive, likelihood 20% of planets that are not capable of sustaining life will also get a positive result on the “Class M” test. A newly discovered planet gets a positive result on the “Class M” test. What is the probability that this planet can actually sustain life (10 points)? What is the likelihood ratio of this test (3 points)? Ratio of probability of positive given having life. Define and identify the prior probability (1 point). Certain facts about the populations before you make observations Define and identify the two conditional probabilities (1 point each). The ones with the lines. .Gleitman & Newport Which of the following is not true regarding language learning? a) It follows the same milestones of development in children from vastly different cultures b) Children develop according to a maturational schedule that is largely unaffected by variations in Motherese c) Deaf children deprived of linguistic stimulation reach regular milestones with manual gesturing d) The blind experience delays and distortions in language growth due to inability to observe the context associated with words a. D What do the case studies of Isabelle, Genie, and Chelsea suggest? a) With extensive training, normal language performance can be achieved regardless of any linguistic deprivation b) Linguistic deprivation in the first 6 years of life prevents people from ever acquiring any language c) Linguistic exposure must occur within the first 6 years of life in order to achieve normal language performance d) Due to their advanced cognitive development, late life learners acquire first languages faster and more effectively than children a. C ***Elissa Newport studied production and comprehension of ASL in congenitally deaf people. She found that: (576) a) Only those exposed since infancy showed native-level fluency b) Only those exposed before age 6 showed native-level fluency c) Only those exposed before age 12 showed native-level fluency d) None of the above a. B A pidgin is a: a) Rudimentary language with native child speakers who expand upon the structure of the language b) A primitive language created by adults of different languages c) An animal frequently used for behaviorist experiments d) A verb that is irregularly modified to designate tense a. B Gleitman and Newport report on the case study of a boy named Simon, the deaf child of two late learners of ASL. Which of the following is true of Simon? a) Due to an impoverished linguistic environment owing to the limited ASL abilities of his parents, Simon never achieved fluency in ASL b) Though Simon’s ASL was initially characterized by poor grammar and lack of structure, extensive training after he was discovered at age 6 brought his ASL fluency to the level of his peers c) Simon’s ASL surpassed that of his parents d) Simon refined and grammaticized the input he received to create an elaborated language e) C and D o E Saffran ***Saffran presents evidence for a constrained statistical learning framework, which suggests that: (584) a) Linguistic knowledge is innate, and linguistic universals are due to knowledge that is prespecified in the child’s linguistic endowment b) Linguistic knowledge is innate, and statistical methods can reveal the constraints on human language that are dictated by structure in language modules in the brain c) Linguistic knowledge is learned, and linguistic universals are due to statistical regularities being detected at the ecological level of perception, which result in constraints on human language d) Linguistic knowledge is learned, but learning is constrained because learners calculate some statistics more readily than others a. D Saffran discusses evidence suggesting that: a) Adults and infants can detect word boundaries by identifying pauses in the auditory input b) Adults, but not infants, can detect word boundaries by identifying pauses in the auditory input c) Adults and infants can use statistics to discriminate words from sequences spanning word boundaries d) Adults, but not infants, can use statistics to discriminate words from sequences spanning word boundaries e) B and D a. C (585) According to Saffran, which of the following patterns would be most readily learned by infants? a) /d/, /p/, and /k/ b) /p/, /t/, and /k/ c) Both of the above d) None of the above; adults, but not infants can learn such patterns a. B (586) The human mind has the ability to pick some patterns better than others. Those which we pick up better became languages. Pinker According to the rule-association hybrid theory, language is supported by: a) A process that uses weights to associate various structural rules to determine the complete grammar of a language b) A computational component, containing specific kinds of rules and representations, and an associative memory system c) An innate language module with built-in rules for language structure, that also provides for acquiring new structure through learned associations d) A statistical learning framework for learning the rules of language by making associations between words and the context they are used to describe a. B Inflection, as it is used by Steven Pinker, means: a) Transitioning from a bilabial consonant to a dental one b) Transitioning from a dental consonant to a glottal one c) Modulation of the pitch or tone of the voice, used in some languages to express a grammatical function or attribute, such as tense d) Changing the physical shape of a verb to encode the relative time of occurrence a. D Pinker suggests that regular verbs are _2___5__6__7____, while irregular verbs are__4__3 8__1__. (217) 1. Available as the input to other word formation processes 2. The outputs of a word-formation process 3. Individually memorized 4. Marked for tense in various ways 5. Marked for tense by the addition of the suffix –d 6. Computed by a rule 7. Unaffected by properties of memory, such as frequency and similarity 8. Affected by properties of memory, such as frequency and similarity a) Regular: 2, 3, 4, 7. Irregular: 1, 5, 6, 8. b) Regular: 1, 5, 6, 8. Irregular: 2, 3, 4, 7. c) Regular: 2, 5, 6, 7. Irregular: 1, 3, 4, 8. d) Regular: 1, 3, 4, 8. Irregular: 2, 5, 6, 7. e) Regular: 1, 5, 6, 7. Irregular: 2, 3, 4, 8. a. C Which of the following evidence for the effect of frequency is not true? a) Children make errors like breaked more often for irregular verbs their parents use infrequently in past tense b) Low-frequency irregular past tense forms (e.g. smote, slew, strode) sound odd and often coexist with regularized counterparts (e.g. slayed, strided) c) Most surviving irregular English verbs are used at high frequencies d) Irregular verbs in idioms sound strange when put in past tense e) Priming with the past tense form of irregular verbs speeds up recognition of the stem as much as presenting the stem itself a. D Which of the following evidence for the effect of similarity is not true? (218) a) Children make more overregularization errors for irregular verbs that fall into families with more numerous and higher frequency numbers b) Irregular past forms of unusual sounds are rated worse relative to the stem than familiar sounds c) Lexical compounds sound natural when they contain irregular noun plurals, but not regular noun plurals d) None; all of the above are true a. A People with agrammatic aphasia: (219) a) Have impaired speech, but intact reading and spoken language comprehension b) Have trouble reading regular inflected forms aloud, but not irregular plural and past forms c) Are hyperlinguistic d) Have intact cognition, but impaired language a. B Which of the following are true of specific language impairment (SLI)? (220) a) Patients with SLI have greater difficulty converting irregular verbs to past tense than regular verbs b) Patients with SLI have greater difficulty converting regular verbs to past tense than irregular verbs c) It appears to have a genetic component d) A and C e) B and C a. E Roediger & Butler The ‘testing effect’ is the phenomenon that: a) Even with extensive studying, the experience of being tested can cause rapid forgetting with escalating anxiety levels b) Testing uncued retrieval of information from memory does not enhance the memory trace, and has been shown to be a poor indicator of conceptual understanding c) Retrieval of information from memory produces better retention than restudying the same information for an equivalent amount of time d) Repeated experience with test taking in a variety of domains leads to domain-general expertise that results in better test performance Roediger & Butler discuss the following paradox regarding retrieval practice: a) Equal interval retrieval produces better retention after short delays, but expanding retrieval schedules produce better retrieval after long delays b) For short retrieval intervals, massed practice produces better performance on multiple choice tests, but expanded practice produces better performance on essay questions c) Testing with shorter retrieval intervals makes successful retrieval more likely, but longer retrieval intervals confer greater benefit to memory d) Longer retrieval intervals lead to less successful retrieval, but the errors produced are less likely to be replicated than errors produced following a short retrieval interval Which of the following is true of the relationship between feedback and the testing effect? a) Feedback that includes the correct answer increases learning by enabling test-takers to correct errors and maintain correct responses b) Providing feedback after individual test items increases the likelihood of those items being correctly recalled on future tests, but also increases likelihood of those items being incorrectly selected as answers for future items on the same test. c) Feedback only confers a benefit when the correct answer is familiar - If the correct answer is not already in memory, retrieval benefits produced by feedback are limited or absent altogether d) Feedback is particularly important for long answer questions because such questions provide ample opportunities for test-takers to generate incorrect information that may later be misremembered as correct Butler conducted experiments in which students studied six prose passages, then restudied two of the passages, restudied isolated sentences from two other the passages, and took a test on the final two passages. One week later, students were tested on applying critical concepts from the passages to a new inferential question. The results of a final test showed what? a) No difference between studying isolated sentences or being tested, but studying the entire passage led to better transfer than either of the other two conditions b) Restudying the entire passage led to better transfer than restudying isolated sentences; restudying isolated sentences led to better transfer than being tested c) No difference between the two study conditions, but testing led to better transfer than either kind of studying d) Studying isolated sentences highlighted critical concepts, and led to better transfer than either of the other two conditions, among which there was no difference in performance Kellman & Garrigan Perceptual learning, as defined by Kellman & Garrigan, refers to the a) An increase in the ability to extract information from the environment, as a result of experience and practice with stimulation coming from it b) An increase in associative learning involving connections between responses and perceptual stimuli, as a result of conditioning a response to a previously encountered stimulus c) An enhancement of declarative memory for encoded items relevant to a domain, resulting from an increase in chunk size due to expertise d) An enhancement of procedural knowledge for a set of conscious steps with which the subject has expertise, leading to increased fluency Wertheimer and Kellman & Garrigan share an interest in: a) Mental geometric computations b) Apprehension of relations c) Declarative memory for learned procedures d) Enrichment due to past experience e) Rote procedural learning Which of the following are examples of discovery effects? a) Extracting information with ease, increased sensitivity to relevant stimuli, and improved memory for relevant patterns b) Selecting new information relevant to a task, amplifying relevant information, and suppressing irrelevant information c) Identifying patterns in the information, improved speed for pattern identification, and increases in chunk size d) Employing increasingly abstract, higher-order thinking; speedily identifying relevant information, and a reduced detection threshold Which of the following are examples of fluency effects? a) Changes in the ease of extraction; pickup that is less demanding of attention and effort b) Hyperacuity, and extracting relevant patterns c) Optimal efficiency for extracting detail; improved signal detection d) Accumulation of ontogenetic priors; strengthened associations between stimuli and responses e) Discovery of higher-order invariants, improved speed in employing knowledge of familiar patterns Contemporary views of perception emphasize perceptual systems that 1)__________________, in contrast with earlier views, which emphasized perceptual systems that 2)______________________. a) 1) are sensitive to higher-order relationships and produce abstract descriptions of reality; 2) produce initially meaningless sensations, which acquire meaning through association b) 1) produce initially meaningless sensations, which acquire meaning through association; 2) produce initially meaningless sensations, which acquire meaning through association c) 1) are specialized for domain-specific learning through low-level changes in the receptive fields of cells that initially encode the stimulus; 2) are specialized for domain-general learning through incorporation of ecological constraints into declarative memory for perceptual tasks d) 1) are specialized for domain-general learning through incorporation of ecological constraints into declarative memory for perceptual tasks 2) are specialized for domain-specific learning through low-level changes in the receptive fields of cells that initially encode the stimulus According to Kellman & Garrigan, which of the following is not true of perceptual learning? a) Specificity of learning does not implicate low-level mechanisms b) Higher level variables are involved in perceptual learning c) Perceptual learning is not equivalent to sensory plasticity d) Receptive field modification and simple selection from concrete inputs can account for abstract human perceptual learning e) Perceptual learning does not occur when sensory invariants, but not perceptual invariants, are available EXTRA CREDIT: DERIVING BAYES THEOREM


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