FInal Exam Study Guide
FInal Exam Study Guide HIS 136
Popular in History Of The United States Since 1865
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Popular in History
This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Notetaker on Sunday November 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIS 136 at Illinois State University taught by William Biles in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see History Of The United States Since 1865 in History at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 11/29/15
Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Final Exam Study Guide Harlem Renaissance 1924 0 Cultural social and artistic movement Intent on being treated fairly Migration of African Americans from the South to the North Changed the image of blacks from rural uneducated peasants to urban sophisticated cosmopolitans Took place in Harlem Arts Revolution Rebirth of African American Arts Signi cance It brought to light the black experience in American cultural history It rede ned culturally and sociologicay how America and the world viewed African Americans Marcus Garvey Famous 20 s gure 0 Thought African Americans should go back to Africa due to poor treatment in America Founded Pan Africanism the idea that all black people everywhere have a common cultural heritage in Africa They should redeem Africa by working to end colonialism there Signi cance Pan Africanism was important because for the rst time black people were represented a having a common culture and cause to bind them all together no matter which country they lived in Scopes Trial 1925 0 Law said you cannot teach evolution of man Scopes taught evolution anyways to test how this law would hold up in court 0 Judge didn39t allow scientists to testify in court about the truth behind the theory of evolution 0 Important because it represented traditionalism vs modernism Signi cance Undermined bibica authority and paved the way for secular philosophy to pervade the culture and education system The in uence of the Church has since been weakened greatly in the Western world KelloggBriand Pact 1928 Outlawed war Promised not to use war to resolve quotdisputes or con icts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be which may arise among themquot Showed the desperation of nations not to engage in a quotGreat Warquot again Signed by Germany France and the United States originally and most other nations afterward 13 years later all those who signed the pact were at war again Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Signi cance It had almost no real signi cance It did not live up to its aim to end war so it made no immediate contribution to international peace It also erased the legal distinction between war and peace because countries who had signed the treaty began to start wars with other nations without legally declaring them Stock Market Crash October 1929 0 Biggest stock market crash 0 Little to no recovery Confusing because people didn39t know what went wrong US was the biggest economic power at the time yet it still happened 0 Due to maldistribution of income and purchasing power 0 Poverty in the midst of plenty Signi cance While the stock market may usually crash it also usually recovered But this time there was hardly any recovery It showed that even though we were one of the biggest economic powers in the world we weren39t prepared for crazy things like this It also happened at the worst time with the economy already on a decline and is also one of the biggest con icts leading to the Great Depression Maldistribution of Income 0 The biggest cause of the Great Depression Badly distributed income n income distributed in an unhealthy way 0 The rich people have a lot of money while the poor have hardly any Wealth is concentrated in the top 0 The Upper class did not invest their money 0 Purchasing power of the lower class diminished they could not afford products even though America was a top producer 0 Productivity up 32 Pro ts up 60 Wages up 8 o How do we x it Give more money to the working class raise their wages so the consumers can consume Signi cance It was the most signi cant cause of the Great Depression and the biggest issue to be addressed during the New Deal and the xing of the depression It also led to a lot of protest and an even bigger division between the rich and the pooc Purchasing Power Producing more than the people can buy 0 Companies can39t sell their product since the working class isn39t making enough money 0 Selling less cutting costs by ring people 0 The nancial ability to buy products and services c As the poor were losing jobs their purchasing power decreased TrickleDown Economics Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 0 Put money into the rich in hopes it would trickle down through the economy 0 Economic policies that favor the wealthy or privileged Usually associated with aissezfaire capitalism Depression 0 Negative growth of wealth Leads to an increase in unemployment Unemployment in 1929 n 16 million Unemployment in 1933 n 188 million The Great Depression 0 Winter 19321933 was the worst Unemployment at 25 Including families dependents and workers whose hours were cut so short they couldn39t support themselves 40 of the population couldn39t support themselves economically Industrial cities Chicago worse than the norm Hit harder by the failings of the industrial industry Extraordinarily high homelessness rates 0 Con ict over whether or not the government should step in Signi cance While it led to great devastation ridiculously high unemployment and massive struggle around the country it was also important in the fact that it acted as a push for America to have a better economic system Laws were put into place after to protect another Great Depression from happening It also led to the creation of a lot of programs to help once struggling people out Herbert Hoover President during the beginning of the Great Depression Blamed heavily for the Great Depression though he did not start it c As the depression got worse and worse Hoover continued to insist that everything was ne quotProsperity is just around the cornerquot 0 Lost in the 1932 election to FDR because he didn39t think it was necessary to do anything to resolve the depression 0 Didn t manage his image we canceled many public appearances because he was so unpopular At the time he was the most unpopular president when he left office in 1933 Signi cance While he is commonly blamed for the Great Depression it began while he was barely in of ce and his strengths before becoming president weren39t applicable to a crisis of this magnitude He strongly believed that American Business can manage better than the government His waiting around for things to improve however brought us deeper and deeper into the depression and created a lot more work for FDR to clean up Hooverville Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 o A shantytown built by the unemployed and destitute people during the Great Depression in the early 193039s Named after President Hoover because the American people blamed President Hoover for their poverty and lack of involvement and he was unpopular among the people who lived in these towns Tent cities where homeless made homes together with shabby material Bonus Army 0 World War I veterans who were promised a bonus that Congress kept putting off giving them during the Great Depression Camped out to protest their nonpayment in 1932 due to starvation and unemployment Hoover responded negatively assuming the group was a threat to the government and stopped the riots by having them teargassed out of their camps in Washington DC Protests lasted for a couple of weeks and then congress voted no for the early bonus money FDR used this incident as promotion for his campaign Major PR disaster for Hooven Eventually led to slightly better care for veterans Signi cance This made Herbert Hoover look even worse during this time where everyone was struggling and it worked in FDR39s favor because it helped support his campaign and get him elected This would also be used as a strong example of the poor treatment of veterans which would eventually lead to laws being passed that further supported them Franklin Roosevelt quotLet Jesus free you and Roosevelt feed youquot o Is responsible for the New Deal Introduced a series of measures to lift the US economy out of the Great Depression 0 Passed laws aimed at providing relief to victims of the depression and reforming businesses nancial and agricultural practices Restored public con dence in the banking and nancial systems Developed and enforced codes of fair practices for businesses D improved conditions of labor assured minimum wages restricted work hours and increased bargaining position through trade unions Signi cance Created many relief measures to help the US economy during the Great Depression He led the US into World War II as well which ultimately pulled us completely out of the depression His policies shape our economic system today He was such an important in uence on America that he was the only president allowed to serve more than 2 terms l he served 4 New Deal Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Can39t be given all the credit to pulling us out of the Great Depression but did have a major effect on relieving the economic hardships caused by the Great Depression Permanently and dramatically transformed the politics and economy of the United States Relief recovery and reform l The 3 R39s Relief Created new jobs and gave relief to the millions of people who were unemployed at the darkest hour of the Great Depression Reform Drastically altered the relationship between the capitalist market the people and their government Created a system that provided individual citizens a measure of security against the unpredictable turns of the market Recovery Failed slightly on this level While it gave relief and reform it didn39t actually pull us out of the Great Depression and recover the US Signi cance It lead to expanded government intervention into new areas of social and economic affairs and the creation of more social assistance agencies at the national level The relationship between the national government and the people changed drastically Civilian Conservation Corps 1933 1942 Young men joined and employed to work in the countryside Built state parks bridges and planted trees in rural lands owned by the federal state and local governments Designed to provide jobs for young men to relieve families who had dif culty nding jobs during the Great Depression and implement a general natural resource conservation program in every state and territory Participation in the CCC led to improved physical condition heightened morale and increased employability One of the most popular New Deal programs by the American public Congress voted to close the program by 1942 because of WWII National Recovery Act 1933 One of the most important measures in the New Deal Centerpiece of his initial efforts to reverse the economic collapse of the Great Depression Dealt with industry Attempted to make structural changes in the industrial sector and tried to alleviate unemployment with a public works program Industry laborers and consumer representatives from each group meet and created codes of production Outlined what the automakers had to produce and pay their workers Ruled unconstitutional Failed because it lost most of its support promoted monopolies and was poorly administered Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Signi cance Parts of it were implemented in the National Labor Relations Act even thoughitfaHed Tennessee Valley Authority 1933 Harnessed power of Tennessee River by building dams and then selling electricity to people in the Tennessee Valley Attempted to provide navigation ood control electricity generation fertilizer manufacturing and economic development in the Tennessee Valley 0 Led by Senator George W Norris of Nebraska Signi cance It became a model for America s governmental efforts to seek assist in the modernization of agrarian societies in the developing world Agricultural Adjustment Administration Dealt with farming Worked better than the NRA Same problems as with industry D Farmers were doing ne with production but the product couldn39t be sold and it was decreasing pro t 0 Paid farmers to produce less Paid subsidies to burn crops and kill livestock Created scarcity and prices went up Farmers and people around the country were bothered by this US Supreme Court found the AAA unconstitutional 0 Agricultural prices never got back to a good level in the 193039s but the record is better with the AAA than with the NRA Signi cance The purpose was to reduce crop surplus so as to effectively raise the value of crops thereby giving farmers relative stability again It is considered the rst modern US farm bill While it was later deemed unconstitutional it was not supposed to be a permanent bill much like most of the bills passed during the Great Depression and it remedied the Agricultural problems brie y and brought some relief to the farmers Homeowners Loan Corporation Attempted to address how mortgages were foreclosing Gave a second mortgage to people GlassSteagall Act 1933 Law passed during the New Deal to address the banking problem at the time Built a wall between commercial and investment banking Prior to the Great Depression all banks could do both Commercial D Checking accountsavings account Restrained from what they could do with your money Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 0 Investment Allowed to play with the money in high stakes investments 0 Worked for about 70 years but then it was repealed Signi cance It was also considered a short term New Deal aid to economic de ation but it served a purpose and that purpose worked Gutting it by repealing so many of its key provisions led the nancial mess that we re in today Works Progress Administration WPA 1935 0 Put in by the federal government 0 Wanted to create government jobs instead of giving handouts to support the unemployed Government became the employer and government paid people Employed 3040 of people who were unemployed Vast majority of the jobs were construction Republicans very critical of the WPA Beginning stages of socialism Brought lots of uproar about its constitutionality Survives today Built lots of stuff using the people that were employed by the federal government 0 Biggest achievement for the New Deal Signi cance Like the other assistance given during the Great Depression the WPA was a successful temporary aid to the unemployment problem and provided a lot of jobs to those who didn39t have any When it became unnecessary with the introduction of new jobs during the war it was ultimately terminated Social Security Act 1935 0 One of the most important long term changes in American society triggered by the New Deal 0 Retirement act unemployment Compensation and aid to Dependent Children Welfare 0 Social Security was only supposed to be a supplement not supposed to be a full support 0 Not federally funded D come from your income and your employer Signi cance Unlike most of the New Deal legislation passed the Social Security Act was not a temporary x to the problems the economy was facing This was a more permanent act that is still around today It created a safety net for the elderly and disabled that wasn t around previously It allowed people to retire from work comfortably when they reached an age where they wouldn39t work anymore and prevented them from dying out in the streets because of it National Labor Relations Act Wagner Act Called the most important piece of legislation in American history Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 0 Created by Senator Wagner Outlawed yellow dog contracts forced workers not to join unions Allowed Americans to join Unions uninhibited Foundation D guaranteed the right of collective bargaining Originally people of power didn39t need to recognize unions Guarantees that management behaves in an appropriate manner Passed by Roosevelt Made his a quottraitor of his classquot Signi cance Important because it gave the American Labor Unions recognition at the Federal level as being spokesmen for the American worker Previous to the Wagner Act owners and managers had branded the American Labor organizers as trouble makers It allowed secret ballots for members to decide if union membership is what they want and no retaliations for workers who speak up for unionization or who speak out against the owners and managers Collective Bargaining Guaranteed by the National Labor Relations Act Gives everyone a voice instead ofjust letting one person be the voice for everyone Gives people the power to form a union and elect a person to represent the union 0 The process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at reaching agreements to regulate working conditions Interests of the employees are commonly presented by representatives made possible by the Wagner Act John Maynard Keynes An English economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments Circular ow of money theory the circular ow can falter when people start hoarding money and results in a recession Believed the central bank should expand the money supply putting more money in people39s hands and compelling them to start spending again Signi cance After its success during the war almost all free governments around the world became Keynesian The policies have reduced the severity of recessions since then and seem to have eliminated depression from world economies Roosevelt Recession 1937 Blamed Roosevelt for the recession that follows the brief incline of the economy 0 Due to de cit spending Spending more money than we have coming in from taxesL Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 While Roosevelt was blamed for the Recession he also accredited for rescuing many people from the Depression and stopping the incline of unemployment that follows the trend of Hoover A lot of the New Deal programs required spending money from the Federal budget In 1937 Rooselvelt began to cut back on de cit spending because he believed the worst of the Great Depression had passed Premature cut back because the economy buckled again Roosevelt Recession Roosevelt Coalition Prior to the election the Republicans were the majority party Roosevelt led a quotrevolutionquot and ipped the majority party to democrats Made up of groups that followed Roosevelt into the Democratic Party Unions minorities women D groups who typically still vote democratic today lsolationism United States39 policy during the time of World War II World War I led to the United States39 policy of isolationism being at an alltime high The US would isolate themselves from con icts abroad in order to prevent another war like World War I It prolonged US involvement in World War II Nye Committee Investigates why the United States entered into World War I Rumors were spreading that arms manufacturers Merchants of Death had tricked the United States into entering World War I Nye drew connections between wartime pro ts of banking and munitions industries to American involvement in Millions of Workers Unemploweo World War I 1 Report con rmed that it was a 4 mistake to enter the war The US entered the war 32 for reasons of pro t not policy 1393 Roosevelt Recession quot Election of Roosevelt 1E Tear 19 3U 31 32 33 341 35 BE 3 BE 3539 Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 because it was in America s commercial interest for the United Kingdom not tolose Led by Senator Nye Signi cance The ndings of the Nye Committee were a signi cant factor in public and political support for American neutrality in the early stages of World War II Merchants of Death America was manipulated by quotMerchants of Deathquot Merchants of Death were people who were going to pro t off of World War I Referred to industries and banks that supplied and funded World War I Business community pressured participation in World War I in order to boost business prosperity Ludlow Amendment Did not pass failed in Congress by one vote FDR thought it would be terrible if it was passed Amendment stated that Congress wouldn39t have the power to declare war they39d only be able to declare war after a national poll Supporters argued that ordinary people who were called upon to ght and die during wartime should have a direct vote on their country39s involvement in military con icts Congress almost surrendered one of their powers Manchuria 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria and took control for no particular reason Followed the Mukden incident the Japanese bombed bridges in Mukden to make it seem like the Manchurians were being aggressive and so it could justify Japan invading them Part ofJapan39s bigger plan Speci cally invaded to see what America s response would be America did not respond because they wished to remain isolated Japanese continued into Manchuria and took their territory and resources Their occupation lasted until the end of World War II Signi cance It led to the US boycott of raw materials to Japan It was also one of the incidents that would eventually lead the United States into declaring war on Japan Ethiopia 19351936 Extremely poor country with a small population ltaly invaded and seized control to test their military Ethiopia was unable to respond effectively US refused to supply arms to stay committed to their isolationism Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Signi cance It is one of the incidents that paved the way for World War II because it demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations It also contributed to international tensions between the fascist states and the Western democracies Quarantine Speech October 5 1937 FDR39s speech in Chicago about foreign policy He said most nations were ne with a few exceptions FDR suggested to internationally quarantine the bad nations and avoid contact with them quotQuarantine of aggressor nationsquot Just like a community agrees to quarantine a few members who are af icted by a disease for its larger good peace loving nations should also similarly quarantine evil powers which endangered world peace FDR believed they could not remain mute spectators and expect to stay unscathed from the effects of war People were very critical of the speech it led to violent action FDR said he was taken out of context and misquoted Signi cance Roosevelt signaled his desire to shift from the traditional US policy of noninterference and adopt a more aggressive stance Because of the backlash that the speech received Roosevelt avoided implementing any such policy Spanish Civil War 19361939 Civil war fought between people who were loyal to the democratic Second Spanish Republic republicans and a fascist group nationalists Nationalist side had support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy Republican side was supported by Communist Soviet Union and Socialist Mexico Britain France and US operated an official policy of nonintervention Nationalists won and Francisco Franco ruled Spain for the next 36 years America supported the loyalists but passed another neutrality act that says that the United States will not get involved in wars with other nations Signi cance Much like the con ict in Ethiopia it demonstrated how the League of Nations wouldn39t intervene and also contributed to antidemocratic tensions CashandCarry 1939 Any nations in Europe that want to buy American goods America would only accept if their ships picked it up and they paid in cash The purpose of it was to avoid American ships going to Europe and getting pulled into any con ict another example of how Americans wanted to remain isolated Also allowed America to send materials that could be used in war to Europe after Germany invaded Poland Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Prevented US business interests backing the success or failure of any warring nation Paved the way for LendLease Signi cance The purpose was to maintain neutrality between the United States and European countries while giving aid to Britain by exploiting the fact that Germany had no funds and could not reliably ship across the Britishcontrolled Atlantic It also allowed for a boom in industrial manufacturing following the Great Depression even though we weren39t actually ghting the war DestroyersBases Deal 1940 FDR said that the best way to stay out of war was to support the British FDR believed that if he asks Congress for them they will say no Instead of asking FDR just gives the 50 destroyers to England in turn to let the US use some of their military bases around the world 0 American people weren t too happy Signi cance Because it was technically an exchange of goods and services and not just an outright support of one side or the other the Germans had to respect our neutrality in World War II Fair Employment Practices Commission 1941 0 Created to promote the fullest employment of all available persons and to eliminate discriminatory employment practices 0 Required companies with government contracts not to discriminate on the basis of race or religion LendLease Act 1941 0 United States would lend and lease war supplies to the British US believed that by supporting the British they wouldn39t have to ght Permitted Roosevelt to quotsell transfer title to exchange lease lend or otherwise dispose of to any such government whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States any defense articlequot Signi cance Because the United States was supporting the British militarily they believed that they wouldn39t need to join the war because the British had enough power to win it all on their own It allowed us to stay neutral for a little bit longer even though it was obvious that we weren39t being neutral Pearl Harbor Dec 7 1941 o quotA day that will live in infamyquot Pearl Harbor the base for the Paci c Fleet prior to World War II lts position was strategically important because it cut the distance from the Philippines Japan and the rest of the Paci c Island groups Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Japan has a treaty with Germany to go to war with people who threatened them Japanese understood that the United States was a superior military power they thought that if the United States attacked then they would have a two front war in Europe and Asia Only one congressman opposed the declaration of war While we supported Britain and France with our Atlantic Fleet very few of those countries warships came to aid us on the Paci c front Signi cance lt ignited the fury of the United States and got them to enter the war after they had been practicing isolationism and quotneutralityquot It is considered the ultimate betrayal of one country toward another a sneak attack leading to many innocent deaths It was also the rst occasion in modern times when a foreign country attacked the United States on American soil War Powers Act 1941 President must inform Congress within 48 hours if he wants to send the military into action If the President does activate the military they can ght for sixty days without congressional approval Signed by Franklin Roosevelt The act was to remain intact until six months after the end of the war Signi cance It gave the president an enormous amount of authority to execute World War II in an ef cient manner It also led to the War Powers Resolution 1973 when this Act was taken advantage of by the presidents during the Vietnam War Entry into World War II Post World War I feelings were negative and many people resented going into it World War II felt like a disappointment When war broke out in Europe FDR recognized the threat to United States security and looked for ways to help the European democracies without direct involvement in the war Europeans were desperate for the United States to enter the war Felt that Europeans were ungrateful for American help United States of cially entered the war after the bombing of Pearl Harbor FDR Declaring War December 8 1941 After Pearl Harbor FDR addresses Congress and asks for a declaration of war againstJapan Senate and House approve the war almost unanimously only one person voted against it Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 0 Gave one of his most famous speeches to Congress when asking for the declaration lnternment Camps Forced relocation and incarceration ofJapanese Americans during World War II after Pearl Harbor attack 0 Between 110000 and 120000 people ofJapanese ancestry who lived on the Paci c coast were put in camps in the interior of the country 0 The only exception were those who volunteered to ght 0 Japanese Americans on the West Coast were considered a security threat during World War II Signi cance At the time it was signi cant because it was an attempt to keep a quotthreatquot contained and gave people a peace of mind The regrets that followed the war over the internment camps led to the US government and society recognizing their mistakes and led to a lot of controversy over whether this was unconstitutional Effect of War on Minorities Led to a lot of blind racism and drastic measures being taken such as the Japanese lnternment Camps American citizens with foreign ancestry were allowed to enlist and ght in World War II despite being a minority Homefront During WWII Women join workforce in nontraditional roles Rations throughout the nation food gas clothing Economic gap closed between the rich and the poor Japanese Americans had their rights as citizens stripped from them during internment 0 People in the United States grew increasingly dependent on radio reports and media for news on the ghting over seas Second Front 0 Denmark Norway Luxembourg Belgium the Netherlands the UK France Italy and Western Germany c 90 of German military was along the Soviet side Soviets believed that the United States would attack from the other side Instead the United States set up in North Africa because the troops were not quotBattle Readyquot Stalin wanted the Allies to open up a second front in Europe along the West Without the second front Stalin believed that Germany would defeat Russia 0 The second front was established with DDay Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Signi cance Led to more paranoia and hate between the United States and the Soviet Union Stalin believed that there were political reasons for not opening up a second front in Europe He was suspicious that Winston Churchill and FDR signed a peace agreement or would sign a peace agreement with Adolf Hitler Manhattan Project 1942 0 Code for the development of atomic bombs Research was done at the University of Chicago and led by the United States o If it were not for the bomb then the United States would have had to invade Japan DDay June 6 1944 o lnvolved a water landing by the Allies on the beaches of Normandy France The largest military operation by sea in history The amphibious landing was preceded by extensive aerial and naval bombardment and airborne assaults Five sectors of the landing Utah Omaha Gold Juno and Sword beach 0 Allied casualties were at least 10000 Signi cance Before DDay the Germans had the advantage in their position by only having to ght the war on one front It led the tides to turn against the German forces at Normandy shortening the war and giving the Allies momentum on the European continent Status Quo Ante Bellum Wanted to go back to what it was like before World War II quotThe state existing before the warquot 0 Originally used in treaties to refer to the withdrawal of enemy troops and restoration of prewar leadership World Court 1945 Formed as a result of the Treaty of Versailles after the failing of the League of Nations 0 United States refused to join despite receiving a lot of pressure from Europe they wished to be isolated They did not want to get involved in any international organizationeuro politics 0 No one could reinforce the World Court Baby Boomer 19461964 c A person born in the years following World War II when there was a temporary marked increase in birth rate Happened because people had postponed marriage and childbirth during the Great Depression and World War II and people were eager to start families Mao Tse Tung 19451976 Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 0 One of the two groups ghting for control of China for a long long time Fighting against Chang Kai Shek The United States wasn39t rooting for this side 0 Bad because they were communists Worried the United States because we feared they would ally with Russia and share the atomic bomb secrets 0 Chinese civil war ongoing for years resulted in outcome of communism Founded the People s Republic of China Responsible for the disastrous policies of the quotCultural Revolutionquot and the quotGreat Leap Forwardquot Signi cance His policies led to the famine and death of millions of people and cultural heritage being destroyed He brought communism to China and chased the nationalist party out of China and to Taiwan Containment 0 Was the US policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of communism abroad Component of the Cold War This policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge its communist sphere of in uence in Eastern Europe China Korea and Vietnam Marshall Plan 19481951 c European Recovery Program 0 The economic arm of containment Goal quotrestore the con dence of the European people in the economic future of their own countries and of Europe as a wholequot Asked for money to help rebuild Europe and put Europe back on its feet 0 Guaranteed economic aid to war torn countries around the globe Americans saw the plan as generous assistance to Europe while the Soviet Union saw it as an attempt to interfere in the internal affairs of other states and refused to participate Signi cance The export of dollars to Europe kept the United States from backsliding into a depression by providing a market for US capital goods It allowed the US to remake the European economy in the image of the American economy Truman Doctrine 1947 0 Military Arm of Containment Help going to supply countries ghting communism Policy of the United States to assist free peoples to nd their own destiny in their own way Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Allowed the United States to aid Turkey and Greece both economically and militarily as they were threatened by communism Signi cance It was the start of the containment policy to stop Soviet and communist expansion and was a major step in beginning the Cold War It also committed the United States to the role of ghting and resisting communism worldwide George Keenan Architect of Containment lnspired the Truman Doctrine and the US foreign policy of containment Played a major role in the development of de nitive Cold War programs and institutions notably the Marshall Plan Whittaker Chambers 1948 0 Claims he knows a Russian spy who played an important role in smuggling nuclear secrets to Russia Alger Hiss Originally identi ed with the communist party but later denounced communism and became an outspoken opponent Time magazine reporter with a serious drinking problem 0 One of the 1 came from old money and made a lot of money Alger Hiss 1948 Accused of being a Russia spy by Whittaker Chambers Tried twice for being a Russian spy Convicted of perjury Went to prison despite the fact that he had many famous people supporting him 0 If Alger Hiss can be convicted of being a Russian spy who could the United States trust Russia Gains Atomic Capabilities 1949 0 End of United States39 atomic monopoly Originally believed that it would take 1015 more years for Russia to gain atomic capabilities Because of Russian spies Gains atomic capabilities in 4 years McCarren Act 1950 0 Internal Security Act Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Passed over Truman39s veto Believed that the Truman administration was not diligent enough against Communists and Communist sympathizers It said all people must register if they39re a part of the communist party even though it was also illegal to be a part of a group who wants to overthrow American rule Eventually it was tested in court and ruled unconstitutional in the 196039s but it served as an actual law for at least a decade House Committee on UnAmerican Activities Formed as permanent investigative House Committee in 1938 It was formed to nd communists the Red Scare started before McCarthyism as well as citizens with Nazi ties within the United States Tried any supposed communists and attempted to make them talk and give up any other communists if they didn39t they39d be arrested for contempt and blacklisted meaning they couldn39t work in their eld anymore Led to the creation of the Hollywood blacklist HCUA was led byJoe McCarthy Joseph McCarthyMcCarthyism 1950 Emerged in 1950 Became the face of the Red Scare US Senator heavy drinker Pathological liar and overall unremarkable Used the fear of communism to get reelected by saying that he had a list of communists working in the American government but was making it up the whole time Big Lie Technique tell a lie big enough and nobody will think that you39re lying Accused many men even those in the army of being communists when they weren39t Forced people to go in front of HUAC committee if uncooperative they would be blacklisted in Hollywood and unable to work again Actually uncovered zero communists Senate censored him because they didn39t agree with him Exposed many homosexuals threatened to expose them if they didn39t leave Congress Believed that homosexuals would betray the country Signi cance People listened and agreed with him Even if he was crazy people listened to him because they were afraid It really shows how scared people were of communism because they were ready to believe his terrible ideas Censure Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Formal and public group condemnation of an individual often a group member whose actions run counter to the group39s acceptable standards for individual behavior Governmental censure is done when a body s members wish to publicly reprimand the President of the United States a member of Congress or a judge Members who have been censured are required to give up any committee chairs they hold but aren39t removed from of ce McCarthy was eventually censured when his investigations of security threats was televised and his bullying turned United States public opinion against him McCarthy was of cially censured December 2nd 1954 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg 1951 Suspected communist spies who were executed Had two little children at the time The only people to be executed for being suspected communist spies It was controversial at the time because it was seen by many on the left as an example of quotred scarequot hysteria For decades many people saw it as a case of paranoia and injustice The two stuck to the claim that they were innocent until their deaths Julius even rejected a plea to spare his wife39s life in exchange for a guilty plea In the end after their execution and the fall of the Soviet Union evidence was released that julius was really a Soviet spy Korean Con ict June 24 1950 United States didn39t of cially declare war but did end up ghting against North Korea Looks like a war in all of the fundamental issues Became involved because of the United Nations 95 of the United Nations force that fought in Korea were American Post World War II Korean was occupied by other armies lt divided the country in half as a transition to Korean independence North Korean communists vs The South Koreans Chinese supported the North Koreans as the North Koreans were pushed back into China In 1953 the war ended and they called it a draw which made most Americans unhappy Signi cance It was the rst war fought by the United Nations lt encouraged McCarthyism lt solidi ed the United States39 role as a world police The factors that caused this war are still present and unresolved Douglas MacArthur 1951 Openly critical of President Truman Played an important role in the Paci c Theater during World War II Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 0 Led the United Nations Command in the Korean War 0 Wanted to attack and nuke the Chinese and was promptly red NATOWarsaw Pact 1955 North Atlantic Treaty Organization The United States and other nations formed NATO Soviet Union and other nations formed Warsaw Pact 8 total nations Occurred during the Cold War Was a major cause of the Cold War Parted Europe into two different groups the democratic west and the communist east 0 Warsaw Pact ideology opposed much of the rest of the world and considered armed conquest to be a viable means of spreading their ideology Signi cance It led to the division of Europe into separate armed groups NATO was important because it provided protection against political con ict with Germany39s fate and the Berlin Airlift The Warsaw Pact was important because it provided stability between both con icting forces and was a form of nonnuclear confrontation between the allied Soviets and the United States Spheres of In uence Russia wants to control surrounding countries so those countries don39t pose a threat to Russia 0 During World War II Northern and Eastern Europe were divided into Nazi and Soviet Spheres of in uence 0 During the Cold War many countries were under the Soviet sphere of in uence With the end of the Cold War came the end of the Soviet sphere of in uence Domino Theory 0 If a few small weak countries became communist then it would lead to a domino effect that would allow other countries around them to fall to communism This would hurt the United States39 idea of free trade and capitalism It was the main theory driving the Communist plan with their Sphere of In uence Brown v Board of Education 1954 o The landmark court case in regards to race and public education Many cases against many boards of education all lumped together in one court trial entitled Brown v Board of Education Thurgood Marshall was representing the African American students Ruled in the Supreme Court that segregation in schools was unconstitutional Reversed Plessy v Ferguson separate but equal Led to many protests and opposition Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Signi cance lt overruled segregation in schools when the previous logic to segregation institutions was that the institutions were quotseparate but equalquot Black and white children were now allowed to attend the same schools It gave the Civil Rights Movement a push and had a legitimizing effect that encouraged further action on behalf of the quest for equality Rosa Parks 1955 Refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man 0 Montgomery Alabama 0 At the time public law said that blacks had to sit in the back of the bus and whites had to sit at the front of the bus If all seats were taken blacks had to stand up and give their seat to the white people Rosa Parks was arrested led to a 382 day bus boycott in Montgomery Signi cance Many people regard this moment as the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement She has been awarded for the bravery she exhibited by the President It also led the Montgomery massive public transportation service boycott by raising public awareness of the issue SitIn Movement 1960 Wasn39t a brand new tactic of protesting Greensboro Was a way to challenge local segregation rules Sat in at a store where whites only were allowed to sit police came to usher them out of the store They got multiple people join them and they continued the sit ins Organized by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Signi cance Sparked interest in the push for Civil Rights Freedom Rides 1961 0 Charter buses were segregated in the South blacks in the back and whites in the front 0 People bought bus tickets and refused to move from the places they sat Wanted to challenge the nonenforcement of Irene Morgan v Commonwealth of Virginia and Boynton v Virginia ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional The federal governments didn39t enforce these rulings despite this declaration Many people participating were arrested or attacked by mobs Led to integrated seating Signi cance The freedom riders put a great deal of pressure on the federal government to do something about the lack of enforcement of the rulings that Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 segregated buses were unconstitutional It also inspired African Americans to join the movement Bay of Pigs April 1961 0 Was a location in Cuba 0 Supported by the CIA An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961 which was sponsored by the United States 0 Its purpose was to overthrow the Cuban dictator Fidel Castro 0 Huge embarrassment forJFK The failed invasion strengthened the position of Castro39s leadership as well as his ties with the USSR Signi cance It led eventually to the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 because it showed the Soviet Union that Cuba needed to be protected from the United States and led to the Soviet Union sending Cuba missiles Cuban Missile Crisis October 1962 o The communist response to the Bay of Pigs Invasion 0 Huge success forJFK An international crisis in October 1962 the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the US and the Soviet Union 0 When the United States discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba President John F Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island Khrushchev gave into the US demands a week later 0 Led to the withdrawal of American missiles from Turkey and Italy 0 Created an agreement between the Soviet Union and the United States that the US wouldn39t invade Cuba anymore without provocation Signi cance It nearly led to nuclear annihilation of the United States and the USS and was the closest that the two ever came to nuclear war But it led to both of them cutting back on missiles that they had pointing towards each other Atomic Diplomacy Using the threat of nuclear war to achieve diplomatic goals 0 After the rst use of the atomic bomb US officials immediately considered the potential nonmilitary bene ts that could be derived from the American nuclear monopoly After WWII there were many occasions in which government officials used or considered atomic diplomacy Civil Rights Act of 1964 Lindon Johnson passes the bill a big advocate of Civil Rights Outlaws segregation in all public places Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Banned employment discrimination on the basis of race color religion sex or national origin Provides for equal right to accommodations in restaurants and hotels Provides for equal opportunity for rights to housing No longer legal to seperate people based on their race Signi cance The most important Civil Rights law in history War on Poverty January 8 1964 Declared by Lyndon B Johnson in his state of the union address In response legislation was passed to lower the poverty rate of nineteen percent and the Of ce of Economic Opportunity was established Johnson believed in expanding the federal government39s role in education and health care to prevent poverty and reduce the rate This set of programs introduced by Lyndon Johnson between 1963 and 1966 was designed to break the cycle of poverty by providing funds forjob training community development nutrition and supplementary education United States was the richest nation with the highest poverty rate Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 Authorized the formation of local Community Action Agencies during the War on Poverty This act allowed for VISTA to be formed Passed by Lyndon B Johnson Purpose was to eliminate poverty expand educational opportunities increase the safety net for the poor and unemployed and tend to health and nancial needs of the elderly Peace CorpsNista 1965 A federal government organization that trains and sends American volunteers abroad to work with people in developing countries on projects for technological agricultural and educational improvement VISTA Volunteers in Service to America is a service program designed to ght poverty by LBJ39s Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 It is the domestic version of the Peace Corps 24th Amendment July 23 1964 Outlaws the poll tax People in the South used to have to pay a poll if they wanted to vote Poll tax required people to pay for that full year and every other single year prior that they wanted to vote In a democracy voting is free as long as you register and go to the polls A privilege of citizenship Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Signi cance With the poll tax it not only restricted the poorer blacks from voting which was a majority but it also kept poor white people from voting as well It was unconstitutional and with the poll tax the political spectrum was skewed The addition of the 24th Amendment brought in many new Democrats MedicareMedicaid 1965 0 Medicare is the government program for health when people turn a certain age 65 or older or have a severe disability 0 Medicaid is a government program for health care for the poor 0 Established in 1965 under the Social Security Act Signi cance Allows millions of Americans with greater health needs maintain a livable lifestyle while taking care of them with government provided health care Voting Rights Act of 1965 0 Even though the 15th Amendment allowed POC to vote there were many sneaky ways to keep them from voting understanding clause literacy tests grandfather clause poll taxes etc 0 Cannot deny someone a vote regardless of race gender or sexual orientation Signi cance Even though the 14th and 15th amendments were supposed to make African Americans citizens with the right to vote the Voting Rights Act being passed ensured nally that they would both be enforced It also shifted the balance of political power toward the Democrats with African Americans joining it in droves Immigration Act of 1965 0 Prior laws favored European immigrants while putting limits on people from other parts of the world This abolished the national origins quota system that was American immigration policy since the 19205 0 New policy focuses on immigrants39 skills and family relationships with US residents Signi cance The change in the policy led to an overall increase in immigration to America Kerner Commission Report 1967 0 An 11 member commission established by Lyndon B Johnson 0 Its purpose was to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots and provide recommendations for the future 0 Found that the race riots resulted from black frustration at lack of economic opportunity Signi cance It is extremely signi cant because it found that violence sparked in inner cities was caused by a manifestation of two separate and unequal societies Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 instead of blaming the savagelike Black people It was the rst of its kind to point out the true factors And while it did a great job Lyndon B Johnson ended up ignoring the suggestions made in the report Ho Chi Minh The Vietnamese Communist George Washington 0 Led Vietnamese against the French in order to gain independence for Vietnam 0 Government leader in North Vietnam 0 Key gure in the formation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the People s Army of Vietnam As well as the Viet Cong United States got involved and signed an agreement that Vietnam would be temporarily split into the North and South Ngo Dinh Diem The United States supported the leader of South Vietnam who had many powerful friends in the United States They supported his push for Christianity in Vietnam and opposed communism He was educated in the US and was Catholic unlike the rest of his country Gulf of Tonkin September 1964 0 American ships were red on by the North Vietnamese LBJ asks Congress if the military can respond 0 Turning point in the Vietnam con ict and the US now sends troops into Vietnam Signi cance Led to the passing of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which allowed Lyndon Johnson to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was threatened by communist aggression The Resolution is what eventually led the United States into the Vietnam War Tet Offensive January 30 1968 Largest military campaign in the Vietnam War A campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian commands by the North Vietnamese 0 Its purpose was to break the alliance between the South Vietnamese and Americans or force the United States to withdraw altogether Signi cance It was an embarrassment to the American military and it weakened the American support of the Vietnam War back home It triggers the slow process of withdrawal of American military forces from Vietnam My Lai 1968 0 Highly in uential event Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 US soldiers when into a small village and killed everybody over 300 people 0 Village reportedly had a lot of Vietcong and wanted to eliminate the threat 0 Public opinion of the war continues to downward spiral Most likely would39ve been completely covered up if a helicopter pilot ying over spotted it and reported it back to the US Was told to quotpacify the villagequot 0 All victims were civilians and most of the civilians were women children and elderly Many victims were raped beaten tortured and mutilated Many soldiers were initially charged for what happened but only one soldier was convicted serving only three and a half years under house arrest Signi cance lt prompted widespread outrage around the world Domestically it increased the opposition to the United States involvement in the Vietnam War Support for the Vietnam War was never recovered after the incident at My Lai Vietnamization Nixon39s plan to gradually over time reduce the amount of soldiers in Vietnam while training and arming the South Vietnamese Nixon planned to completely end US involvement in the Vietnam War 0 South Vietnam still ends up falling to communism Vietnamization begins in March 1969 and the last of American troops are nally removed in August 1974 Signi cance The Vietnamization attempt signi es the shift from United States39 policy of containment to cooperative world order It also saved many US lives by allowing us to withdraw from the war but ultimately led to the falling of South Vietnam to communism Cambodia Involvement 1970 0 Americans were actively bombing Cambodia as they noticed the North Vietnamese were traveling through to get to South Vietnam 0 Cambodia was neutral and militarily weak so the United States discovered that the North Vietnamese were using it as a safe zone to establish bases lnvaded Cambodia to close the trail 0 On paper it seemed like the war was escalating and Vietnamization wasn t happening 0 Led to a huge outcry Kent State protests 4 dead Jackson State 2 dead Signi cance It led to much controversy back in the United States over whether or not it was right to invade a neutral country It further caused American opinions to shift against the war It brought many protests and led to American civilians being killed for protesting HawksDoves Brianna Durkin HIS 136 US History October 12th 2015 Hawks were people supportive of Vietnam They were supportive because it was official US policy and a larger effort of containment Doves were people against Vietnam They weren39t supportive because of economics and it was a civil war between their people not ours The percentage of doves in the population increased over time War Powers Resolution 1973 Requires the President to notify Congress within 48 hours of committing armed forces to military action Forbids armed forces for remaining more than 60 days without a Congressional declaration of war
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