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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie S on Monday November 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric McKibben in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology 3640 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/30/15
3 Goals of psych Describe Predict 0 Control 0 Explain Predict HR is PREDICTING who will do best at a certain job these predictions are used to make hiring decisions Need to collectuse data and learn from the data Goal is to Maximize productivity Will g measured today accurately predict job success today AND 6 months from now job analysis must hold true over a long period of time Staffing decisions Associated with recruiting selecting promoting amp separating employees F Job and need analysis Identification of applicants identi cation of lrecrwting or dropin desired traits Preliminary assessments Development and tapplicationformsresume quotHquotHHHHquotHquotH validationof interviews etc assessment methods Formal assessments test structured interviews assessment centers etc Prediction preliminary decision to refer or to hold on file Prediction final decision by manager of job function Administrative procedures including background checks physical examination etc Rejection High performance work practices Having a formal statistical job analysis 0 Include use of formal job analyses selection from within for key positions amp use of formal assessment devices for selection 0 Generally the more systematic approach your firm has the better performance ex Pepsi 0 Known for HR practices understanding internal talent and managing them in order to move them up within into key positions Staffing practices have positive associations with firm performance CUSTOMER Line managers Coworkers Applicants NEEDS DESRES AllU GOALS FOR SELECT0N Accurate and informative indicators of applicant potential 0uick and easy touse selection process Flexibility and accommodation of selection procedures Perceived validity of selection process Accurate and informative indicators of applicant potential Input into the selection decisionmaking process Perceived validity of selection process Appropriate hiring decision Unbiased jobrelated selection process that gives them a chance to demonstrate their potential Honest and sensitive interpersonal treatment Timely and informative feedback SOURCE Gilliland S W amp Cheny B 2000 Managing quotcustomersquot of selection processes In J Kehoe Ed Managvng selection in changing orgam39zations pp 158 195 San Francisco JosseyBass Copyright 2000 Reprinted with pennission of John Wiley amp Sons Inc Internal Staffing 0 Job descriptions used universally 0 Educational qualifications amp application forms widely used for initial screening Interviews amp references are common postscreening techniques 0 Cognitive ability tests used less frequently personality tests used more frequently Validity Accurateness of inferences made based on test or performance data lUD r 100 95 9o 85 30 3 75 7o 65 60 o 10 zo 3o m ioolt 90 85 o g 80 39 39 g 75 In 704 65 1 r5l 60 r i i i i 010 zo 3o 40 50 so 70 80 Predictor bl Selection Ratio SR Predictor Criterion Cl 100 95 9D 85 80 75 70 65 60 Predictor Index ranging from 0 to 1 that reflects the ratio of available jobs to applicants SR nN n number of available jobs N number of applicants assessed Want the ratio to be low if you only have a smaller of ABOVE average at the very least you will save money in resources 0 it is a waste of money to higher mediocre people want the higher end of the distribution this is why there are 3 yr experience requirements 0 The more applicants you have the better False positive Applicant accepted but performed poorly False neqative Applicant rejected but would have performed well True positive Applicant accepted amp performed well True neqative Applicant rejected amp would have performed poorly Cut score or cutoff score Specified point in distribution of scores below which candidates are rejected Raising cut score will result in fewer false positives but more false negaUves Strategy for determining cut score depends on situation 239 X39 Successes 1 CD 5 D C 2 9 lt5 Fa ures Low 25 50 75 High Predictor Scores 1 Criterionreferenced cut score 0 Consider desired level of performance amp find test score corresponding to that level 2 Normreferenced cut score 0 Based on some index of testtakers scores rather than any notion ofjob performance Utility Analysis 0 Assesses economic return on investment of HR interventions like staffing or training 0 Utility analysis can address the costbenefit ratio of one staffing strategy versus another 0 Includes consideration of the Base Rate which is the percentage of the current workforce performing successfully o If performance is already high then new staffing system will likely add little to productivity 0 Utility analysis calculations can be very complex Review Utility Analysis 0 Assesses economic return on investment of HR interventions like staffing or training 0 Utility analysis can address the costbenefit ratio of one staffing strategy versus another 0 Discovering worth of an employee based on Mean and STD 0 Includes consideration of the Base Rate which is the percentage of the current workforce performing successfully o If performance is already high then new staffing system will likely add little to productivity 0 How successful are they right now The ROI to measure more is dramatically reduced adding additional info will maybeeeee marginally benefit the organization if at all 0 Utility analysis calculations can be very complex many other factors uncertainty Reality 0 We get messy data and validity is somewhat hard to depict 0 We can correlate coefficients When we utilize this data we can come up with 1 False positive Applicant accepted BUT performed poorly Bad choice 2 False neqative Applicant rejected BUT would have performed well Bad choice 3 True positive Applicant accepted AND performed well Good choice 4 True neqative Applicant rejected AND would have performed poorly good choice Positive ACCEPTED Negative Rejected candidate True AND False BUT have a vertical line that indicates the cut off line The prediction line is sloped the horizontal line indicates actual performance Validity coefficient Feelings of unfairness regarding Staffing Strategies can lead to Initiation of lawsuits if there are a lot of FALSE NEGATIVES than the system seems unfair and that there is an underlying bias of some sort PROCEDURALLY UNJUST minority groups of some sort 0 Filing of formal grievances with company representatives 0 Counterproductive behavior can index based on the CPB Will index how good prediction system is Want a comprehensive idea of an individual need the staffing model to cover everything we can think of 0 Problem is everyone has strengths and weaknesses rarely do we get the ideal candidate 0 Most will lie in the middle and will need you to decipher which combo is going to be more effective Practical issues in staffing 0 Staffing Model 0 Comprehensiveness Enough high quality information about candidates to predict likelihood of their success 0 Compensatory Candidates can compensate for relative weakness in one attribute through strength in another one providing both are required by job AWLCd 39MWPBWES JOB DEMANDS Physical ability Checking invoices General mental ability Processing customer orders Problem solving Reducing shipping costs Ural communication Attending staff meetings Written communication Developing price structure Personality Supervising assistants Interests Developing spreadsheets Interpersonal skills Knowledge job demands outcomes deshed which outcomes are most important which predictors do we look for Combining info 1 Clinical decision making 0 Human 0 Uses judgment to combine information amp make decision about relative value of different candidates 0 Single hiring manager uses own judgment to hire Combine all by self 2 Statistical decision making 0 Machine 0 Combines information according to a mathematical formula Algorithm for combining info on person on job to find the best candidate Algorithm is the best less bias TABLE 63 Using Multiple Predictors to Choose a Candidate BANDDA TE URAI WRIITEN CHENT I VE EXPERIENCE CUNSCENTIUUSNESS TUTAL CUMMUNICA TIUN CUMMUNICA TIUN ABILITY SCORE A 5 7 8 ll 5 29 B 9 8 6 5 9 37 C 9 9 ll 3 6 31 D 6 6 9 7 5 33 E 5 5 7 6 7 30 All attribute scores were transformed such that the highest possible score on any single attribute is ll and the lowest score is 1 3 Hurdle system of combining scores 0 How we space the info out over time all at once or gradually o Spacing out the predictor variable over time creating hurdles minimum qualifications need to be met at EACH step of the way 0 Ex resume data gathered first and ONLY x candidates will make it to the next round next hurdle is gtest then interview hurdle Noncompensatory strategy individual has no opportunity to compensate at later stage for low score in earlier stage 0 Establishes series of cut scores can narrow down candidates Compensatory approach 0 Multiple regression analysis 0 Results in equation for combining test scores into a composite based on correlations of each test score with performance score Opposite of NON may not pass hurdle but you have another skill that would compensate for said deficiency O Crossvalidation 0 Regression equation developed on first sample is tested on second sample to determine if it still fits well Predictor l Predictor 2 Predictor 2 Predictor l Predictor l PredictorZ 3 lb cl criterion what we WANT to predict 0 need to establish How important each predictor is weight 0 need to look at overlap between the 2 predictors and between each and the criterion Score banding Individuals with similar test scores can be grouped together in a category or score band CREATE bands around predictions 0 Selection within band can be made based on other considerations 0 Score Banding is controversial 0 Score Banding uses the Standard error of measurement SEM for the test 0 SEM provides a measure of the amount of error in a test score distribution 0 Function of reliability of test amp variability of test scores 2 types of Score Banding 1 Fixed band system 0 Candidates in lower bands not considered until higher bands have been exhausted 2 Sliding band system o Permits band to be moved down a score point when highest score in a band is exhausted Primary reason for score banding is to help with diversity within an organization Subgroup Norming 0 Develop separate lists for individuals in different demographic groups who are then ranked within their respective group 0 In general subgroup norming is not allowed as a staffing strategy Review 0 Develop separate lists for individuals in different demographic groups who are then ranked within their respective group o In general subgroup norming is not allowed as a staffing strategy 0 Subgroup norming is illegal Biases Homogeneity is good shortterm but longterm diversity is needed to thrive Having separate groups for majority and minority and choosing from these is illegal SELECTION RATIO 0 The Minority group SR needs to be 40 of the Majority SR Selection vs Placement Sometimes the challenge is to place an individual rather than simply select an individual Placement 0 Process of matching multiple applicants amp multiple job openings 0 Strategies Vocational guidance Pure selection Cut amp fit Deselection 2 typical situations 0 Termination for cause Individual is fired for a particular reason Generally not unexpected foreseen due to poor practices and performance 0 Layoff Job loss due to employer downsizing or reductions in force organization needs to cut costs a Want to get rid of the more expensive employees usually the more experiencedmanagement n Cheaper to replace older employees with younger cheaper employees who can also match performance Ageism Often occurs with little or no warning Legal issues in staffing decisions 0 Charges of employment discrimination o Involve violations of Title VII of 1964 CRA ADA or ADEA ADA protects physical and mental abilities Title VII minority groups are protected n 1964 Protects Age 0 IO psychologists often serve as expert witnesses in these lawsuits 0 Consequences can be substantial 0 Most often brought by individual claiming unfair termination Layoffsbiases Discrimination or adverse treatment 0 Could be overt or covert intentional Overt o Adverse treatment Disperet TREATMENT very intentional mistreatmentdiscrimination of a person Disperet treatment means differently from the others directed at one person in an organization 0 Plaintiff attempts to show that employer treated plaintiff differently than majority applicants or employees 0 Cove rt 0 DisperetAdverse IMPACT Unintentional but occurs due to hiring practicestests developed the innate biases o Acknowledges employer may not have intended to discriminate against plaintiff but employer practice had AI on group to which plaintiff belongs Burden of proof on plaintiff to show u a heshe belongs to a protected group amp n b members of protected group were statistically disadvantaged compared to majority employees 8000 Ol 4500 rule 0 Guideline for assessing whether there is evidence of Adverse Impact AI Shows ratio of selectionmajority group and the minority ratio to see if hiring is fair Job offers number of people who apply 0 Plaintiffs must show that protected group received only 80 of desirable outcomes received by majority group in order to meet burden of demonstrating AI Basically select 5 white applicants out of 10 50 selection ratio for WHITE Applicants The selection ratio for Black applicants must be 80 of the majority n Therefore the selection ratio for blacks must be 58 4 D So out of 20 total applicants 820 must be black AAATest Q o If the KSAOs are missing from a minority applicantunder qualifiedmust demonstrate that all predictors point towards the applicant not doing well 0 Results in AI ratio Can be substantially affected by sample sizes 0 Burden of proof shifts to employer once AI is demonstrated 0 Social Networking Sites and the workplace 0 Employees or applicants posting information on a social networking site eg Facebook Twitter that is accessed by an employer have been increasingly getting in trouble 0 Job candidates who have been found to post on SNS that they like to shoot peoplequot or blow things upquot have been removed from hiring consideration 0 Employment lawyers are still debating the legality of employment decisions based on information on social networking sites Ch7 Training amp learning 0 Training 0 Systematic acquisition of skills concepts or attitudes resulting in improved performance in another environment 0 Basic foundation for training programs is learning Develop skills knowledge and attitudes which result in higher performance Focus on building KSAOs but you cannot develop ability I Ability innate quality is a capacity If you don t selectively choose the right employees no amount of training will ever change them abilitywise 0 Training can affect skills attitudes and knowledge 0 Learning 0 Relatively permanent change in behavior amp human capabilities produced by experience amp practice Develop o 3 broad categories of learning outcomes Cognitive outcomes Skillbased outcomes Affective outcomes Performance 0 Actions or behaviors relevant to organization s goals can be measured in terms of each individual proficiency 0 Can often be directly observed 0 We assume learning takes place from observing performance 0 Training increases probability of learning and learning increases probability of better job performance 0 Training does NOT Guarantee learning Needs Assessment Needs assessment 0 Organizational analysis 0 Task and KSAU analysis 0 Person analysis Training and Training Development Evaluation Validity Levels Training Development T ld W l 39 T quoty gt Transfer validity Intraorganizational validity Use of validity W Training Needs Analysis 0 3step process 1 Organizational analysis asses What are the needs 2 Task analysis Task employee organizational which departments need help Who is under performing 3 Person analysis Which Person needs training Required to develop systematic understanding of where training is needed organizational what needs to be trained task amp who will be trained person TABLE 71 Training Needs Analysis A Organizational analysis Examines companywide goals and problems to determine where training is needed B Task analysis Examines tasks performed and KSAUs required to determine what employees must do to perform successfully I Person analysis Examines knowledge skills and current performance to determine who needs training 1 Organizational Analysis Examines org goals available resources amp org environment to determine where training should be directed o Takes into account climate of organization amp its subunits o How does upperlevel feel about training 0 Broad 2 Task Analysis Examines what employees must do to perform job properly 0 Can consist of 0 Developing task statements 0 Determining homogeneous task clusters 0 Identifying KSAOs required for job 0 May also include assessment of competencies o What are the attributes needed to complete job job analysis What are the minimal KSAOs needed for minimal 3 Person Analysis 0 Identifies which individuals within organization should receive training amp what kind of instruction they need 0 Assessments of trainee personality ability amp experience increasingly being used as part of needs analysis 0 What type of instruction is needed learning styles types of instructions Based on experiences resources personality characteristics assessing IF this training is worth whileresources TABLE 72 Task Clusters for Train Operators T Preoperation responsibilities Preparing for operating the train for a given shift This includes reporting for duty in a state of preparedness with proper equipment and getting information from the bulletin board andor dispatcher 2 Preoperation equipment Checking the train for defects and safety including checking brake system inspection gauges and track under the train 3 Train operations The actual operation of the train in a safe and timely manner This includes controlling the train in the yard or on the road consideration of conditions such as weather curves and grades speed restrictions and interpretation of warningssignals 1 Maintaining schedule Activities associated with timely operations including adhering to the timetable and communicating with personnel to prevent disruption of service 5 Emergency situation activities Identifying and reacting to emergency situations keeping customers safe communicating with the control center and troubleshooting mechanical difficulties Learning Process in Training 0 Original motivational goal is to get THE job however motivation is a characteristic within a person based on CONTEXT 0 Not everyone is as motivated Trainee characteristics of interest 0 Goal orientations Performance Goalorientation a goal of X OUTCOME based on behavior a Concerned with doing well a Not necessarily the process Mastery Goalorientation wants to master the material in order to become more effective a Concerned with increasing competence a Care about the process of acquiring knowledgegrowth 0 Experience level 0 Trainee motivation o Trainee readiness Training Design Characteristics 0 Objectives 0 Principles of learning Learning Outcomes 0 Cognitive Transfer Outcomes 0 Generalization and maintenance 0 Skill 0 Affective Trainee Characteristics 0 Readiness 0 Motivation Learning amp Motivational Theories Applied to Training 1 Reinforcement theory 0 Learning results from association between behaviors amp rewards Somet ng ls Something Is GIVEN TO TAKEN FROM Dog Dog INCREASES WW5 kenhood of m m beh39avtor be n repeatged DECREASES likelihood of POS39I39NE NEGATIVE bghfwor PUNISI39IJEN39I39 PUNISI39HT e I quot W P Positive reinforcement Increase n Desired behavior followed by reward n stimulus added A Increase Negative Reinforcement Increase n Taking away an UNDESIRED thingexperience n stimuus taken away A Increase Positive Punishment Decrease In Adding an Undesirable stimulus n stimuus added decrease Negative Punishment Decrease I Take away a desired stimulus n stimulus taken away decrease Negative Taken away Positive Added Reinforcement Increase behavior Punishment decrease behavior 0 Behavior modification Simple recognition amp feedback can be effective in increasing performance a Using these techniques to change behavior 2 Social learning theory proposes that there are many ways to learn including o Behavioral modeling 1 Observe actual job incumbents demonstrate positive modeling behaviors Learning does NOT only occurs when you experience it yourselfnot just through direct reinforcement Watching is an expert is an influential way to learn 2 Rehearse before using roleplaying Practicing and gaining experience for self but simulation of skill 3 Receive feedback on rehearsal Learn what you did wrong 4 Try behavior on the job Test out behavior fuy Review Something is Something is GIVEN TO TAKEN FROM Dog Dog INCREASES POSITIVE NEGATIVE kgquothood of REINFORCEMENT REINFORCEMENT behavior rebpeelgged DECREASES likelihood of POSITIVE NEGATIVE behavior PUNMENT PUNISI39MENT gagged HP 4 Positive reinforcement Increase Desired behavior followed by reward stimulus added Increase Negative Reinforcement Increase Taking away an UNDESIRED thingexperience stimuus taken away Increase ex taking an Advil when you have a headache Positive Punishment Decrease Adding an Undesirable stimulus stimuus added decrease given a clemerit Negative Punishment Decrease Take away a desired stimulus stimulus taken away decrease taking a phone away Negative Taken away Positive Added Reinforcement Increase behavior Punishment decrease behavior Training way to influence behaviors COGNITIVE AND SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES 1 Reinforcement Theory 2 Social learning theory proposes that there are many ways to learn including 0 Behavioral modeling 1 Observe actual job incumbents demonstrate positive modeling behaviors 0 Learning does NOT only occurs when you experience it yourselfnot just through direct reinforcement 0 Watching is an expert is an influential way to learn 2 Rehearse before using roleplaying o Practicing and gaining experience for self but simulation of skill 3 Receive feedback on rehearsal 0 Learn what you did wrong 4 Try behavior on the job 0 Test out behavior fully 3 Broad Approach Selfefficacy o Belief in one s capability to perform 0 The more confidence in ability to perform a behavior the better chance you have to do it well Believing you can answer test questions well the better chance you have at answering correct 0 Goal setting 0 Specific difficult goals direct attention amp improve performance The more specific the goal the more likely to achieve it 0 Feedback 0 Knowledge of results of one s actions 0 Enhances motivation learning amp performance Principles of Learning 0 Active practice 0 Actively participating in trainingwork tasks 0 Autopilot Automaticity o Occurs when tasks can be performed with limited attention likely to develop when learners are given extra learning opportunities overlearning after they have demonstrated mastery of a task 0 Fidelity o Extent to which task trained is similar to task required by job Physical fidelity n Extent to which training task mirrors physical features of task performed on job a Simulating a reality model planning practicing Psychological fidelity n Extent to which training task helps trainees develop KSAOs necessary to perform job a Simulating the 0 Whole learning 0 When entire task is practiced at once 0 More effective when complex task has relatively high organization 0 Part learning 0 When subtasks are practiced separately amp later combined 0 More effective when complex task has low organization 0 eg surgeons amp pilots Massed practice 0 Individuals practice task continuously amp without rest eg cramming for test 0 Distributed practice 0 Rest intervals between practice sessions 0 Generally results in more efficient learning amp retention than massed practice Learning Organizations 0 Companies that emphasize continuous learning knowledge sharing amp personal mastery Additional features 1 Emphasize problem solving amp innovation 2 Develop systems that enhance knowledge sharing 3 Encourage flexibility amp experimentation 4 Value wellbeing amp development of all employees 5 Encourage employees to find or make opportunities Global challenges require emphasis on global learning organizations 0 Center shared throughout world 0 2way communication and decisionmaking 0 Fully inclusive creative thinking 0 Center of business world at home 0 Communication and directives slow and usually oneway 0 Best ideas created at home 0 Different perspectives tolerated 0 Philosophy Treat others as I would like to be treated 0 Different perspectives sought after and utilized 0 Global marketing perspectivesstrategies 0 Philosophy Treat others as they would like to be treated Ethnocentric Globally Inclusive Training methods 0 4 basic principles 0 1 Present relevant information amp content to be learned What needs to be learned 0 2 Demonstrate KSAOs to be learned 3 o Create opportunities for trainees to practice skills Engage o 4 Provide feedback to trainees during amp after practice Growth On site Methods 1 Onthejob training Trainees observe amp learn from more experienced employees Shadowing 2 Apprenticeship Formal program used to teach a skilled trade 0 Watching a master learning from watching 3 eb retatien NGZI39 GN 39FESIF n Empleyees meve te vaeieusjebsrdepartmentsreeareas ef eemnanv Off site methods 1 Classroom lectures classroom simulators is a controlled setting 2 Programmed instruction 0 Linear programming 0 Branching programming 3 Simulators Controlled reproducibility 0 Safety considerations 0 Learning considerations Transfer of Training 0 Degree to which trainees apply knowledge skills amp attitudes gained in training to theirjob 0 Transfer of training climate 0 Workplace characteristics that either inhibit or facilitate transfer of training 0 Learning that you are able to transfer to Job vs learned and forgotten never making it to the job Outcomes lessons KSAOs The culture maters greatly as to whether or not info will be transferred negative climate means no Horizontal Transfer In Training that takes place within the same level skills you learn and can share within same level of business Vertical Transfer a Training spans multiple levels of an organization broader skills additional insight BUT YOU never actually participated in first hand training skill is passed down boss ot employee Training Programs 0 Training evaluation Billions of spent on training but training does not always result in learning which is why we evaluate 0 Systematic collection of descriptive ampjudgmental information that can be used to make effective training decisions 0 Several purposes of training evaluations ON TEST Kirkpatrick s 4level model Reaction criteria Level 1 Internal criteria Learning criteria Level 2 External criteria Behavioral criteria Level 3 Result criteria Level 4 2 take place within training environment 0 Level 1 attitude about training how you felt your reactions Positive reaction typically means you did learnwill grow 0 Level 2 has learning occurred Do we see a difference evaluate 0 Level 3 did the behavior change Is there an external change Has the behavior changed 0 Level 4 the outcomes results Did training increase profits decrease customer complaints decrease costs 0 TEST Coaching 0 Practical goalfocused form of personal oneonone learning for busy professionals 0 Practical flexible targeted form of individualized learning for managersexecutives Informal training 0 Include specific job assignments experiences amp activities outside work Specialized Training 0 Sexual harassment awareness training 1 Quid pro quo exchange scenario do this and get that 2 Hostile working environment more one sided uncomfortable inappropriateness EEOC encourages following steps 0 Clearly communicate a zero tolerance policy 0 Establish an effective grievance process 0 Take immediate amp appropriate action when employee complains 0 Sexual harassment Training 0 Supervisors should receive additional training beyond what employees receive Effective in increasing knowledge of amp ability to identify sexual harassment More field research necessary to understand short amp longterm effects
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