2015 Final Term Sheet Study Guide
2015 Final Term Sheet Study Guide IFS 2026
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Popular in Environmental Science
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lana Notetaker on Monday November 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to IFS 2026 at Florida State University taught by Frederick R Davis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 259 views. For similar materials see Environment and Society in Environmental Science at Florida State University.
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IFS 2026 Final Term Sheet Arcadian view 1 Intense attachment to the land and its inhabitants 2 Reverence for divine providence produced beautiful whole 3 Love for nature and God were united Whites Arcadian View 1 Nature should provide a benign and pro table environment for mankind 2 quotNever lose sight of utility 3 Harmony between man and nature Related to Christian Pastoralism Idealizes pastors relationship to ock and image of good shepherd DD Imperialist view 1 Gave naturalists common scienti c language 2 Facilitated scienti c colonization imperialism Apostels joined expeditions 3 Accessibility to the public 4 Basis for thinking about life and evolution Carl Linneus Botonist that gave animals structural hierarchy DD Darwin View 1 Nature as a site of constant struggle for survival for organisms as the species adapted to the environment survival of the ttest 2 Enlightenment notions of progress attain full expression in utilitarian conception of nature improving 3 quotNature red in tooth and clawquot Charles Darwin DD Environmental History The history of how people organize their lives within the ecological systems of the planet 2 How they conceive of the natural world 3 How they reshape their environments often struggling with one another with how to do so 4 How humans respond to changes in nature EU The Black Death The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 134653123 Although there were several competing theories as to the etiology of the Black Death analysis of DNA from victims in northern and southern Europe published in 2010 and 2011 indicates that the pathogen responsible was the Yersinia pestis bacterium probably causing several forms of plague45 carries by rodents and rats DD Buboic Plague Traveled from Europe to Himilays via Silk Road Caravans reached the silk road along with ships that carried eas on black rats and rodents the Bubonic form was carried by eas while the Pneumonic form was carried and transmitted air borne by cough DD Effect on Europe 1346 The Black Death is thought to have originated in the arid plains of Central Asia where it then travelled along the Silk Road reaching Crimea by 13436 From there it was most likely carried by Oriental rat eas living on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships Spreading throughout the Mediterranean and Europe the Black Death is estimated to have killed 3060 of Europe39s total population DD Decimate kill destroy or remove a large part down to 1 tenth of a whole DD Virgin Soil Epidemic disease outbreak in an unexposed population Indians lost whatever acquired immunities they once had Most were susceptible to European diseases DD Cayapo Indians Cayapo Indians hosted a missionary who tried to protect his ock from the dangers of civilization 1903 8000 Indians 1950 0 Indians Alcan Highway 1950 exposed a remote Indian community to many diseases all in a single year many airlifted to modern hospitals 7 of 130 died DD Tenochititlan Nov 8 1519 Began with 300k residents largest city in Spain Market brought in thousands of people to sell and trade goods Cortes Motezuma Aztec King offered gold to cortes Moctezuma taken captive by cortes and died Cortes and his soldiers were driven out of Tenochtitlan causing cortes to lose men and gold Despite steel technology and weapons Aztec army was strong enough to hold their ground Cortes Succeeds Small pox began to destroy Aztecs Cortes attacked Tenochtitlan again and destroyed thousands of Aztecs and homes DD Micmac Society Hunting gathering and shing plants no tools no farming and traded for maize beans pumpkins and tobacco They had seasonal diet winter mammals beaver otter moose bears and caribou SpringSummer Fish different each month waterfowl and eel depending on migrations of species Consumption made from need not technology or skill Guided by spiritual rules Incorporated wildlife into their folklore in anthropomorphic terms European disease caused social disorganization missed critical phases in subsistence cycles and winter fasting deadly with diseases DD Winter vs Summer Diet winter mammals beaver otter moose bears and caribou SpringSummer Fish different each month waterfowl and eel depending on migrations of species DD Depopulation and Land 16001675 Indian population fell Abenaki declined greatly Decimation Dependency Lost subsistence Indians became dependent on trade with Europeans Loss of land Indians were left with fur to trade for the European luxuries Commodi cation of animals wild spread destruction of animal populations DD Paul Martin Overkill Faunal Blitzkrieg Overkill human destruction of native fauna either gradually over thousands of years or suddenly in a few hundred years or less Faunal Blitzkrieg sudden extinction following initial colonization of land mass inhabited by animals especially vulnerable to a new human predator Evidence Losses of mega fauna occurred 11k years ago in North Americaseveral species disappeared from fossil records and humans began to use distinctive projectile points 11k years ago DD Wampum Europeans joined in wampum trade Cut shells that served as another trade item for the native Americans Europeans treated wampum like currency DD Pleistocene Extinctions Surviving animals originated in Eurasia which means that they were somewhat conditioned to mankind Most migrated erratically depending on foodbison elk moose grizzly bear or lived solitary lives in dense forest minimizing contact with humans DD Fur Trade Traditional Narrative Animals became saleable commodities and value to animal furs Personal Prestige Indians could buy personal status by killing animal and exchanging skins Before Europeans and Diseases lndians had no reason to kill more animals than they needed Northern Indians Accumulated furs to sell for corn grown in southern England Key effect conservation of fur bearing mammals in the northeast DD Beaver Decline Habitat Loss Beavers Declined By 1675 beaver almost extinct in new England Wild turkeys and white tailed deer also Ducks lost valuable pond habitat Muskrats and otters too Mink and raccoon amphibian diets Populations Crash 1800 most game animals in steep decline 1850 many had vanished Predators Wolves and Cougars preyed on livestock highbounties Wolf population declines heavily DD French Example Fur Trade Voyagers traveled west in search of beaver pelts Former alliances and married Indian women and had children Brought furs back to settlements for shipment to France Wampum bit as gift giving symbol DD Grids and the Alienation of Land Europeans extended conceptual system or bounding land Needed some way to extend land system to new regions after revolution Alienation of land land sold as property not attached to clan or family village DD Metes and Bounds Tools Chain both Chain and system required abstraction which created sections and townships DD Northwest Ordinance 1787 The ordinance created the Northwest Territory the rst organized territory of the United States from lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains between British Canada and the Great Lakes to the north and the Ohio River to the south The upper Mississippi River formed the Territory39s western boundary It was the response to multiple pressures the westward expansion of American settlers tense diplomatic relations with Great Britain and Spain violent confrontations with Indians the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the empty treasury of the American government DD Calvin Martin native spirituality DE The Fur Trade The Fur Trade Traditional Narrative Indians traded with Europeans for sophisticated technology rearms and alcohol Casts Native Americans as primitive prawns Other trade items brass and copper pots over clay pots woven fabrics over animal skins and iron over stone Items had greater value to the Indians as status symbols than as forms of new technology DD hunting rituals MicMac Mimacs only killed in portion of need Though they did initially begin by using stone inevitably they became more ef cient hunting using steel spears and musket to kill animals from a farther distance more ef ciently For fur they kill and use for personal use and leave the rest where the animals have been killed The skin used were made for bags tobacco holders purses etc the woman xed the price to the sherman according to the kind of skin and sherman would buy or trade them for brandy or wine For hunting Mimacs focused on beavers and larger animals they would leave traps in the water or near dams for beavers or break the dams to nd them easier and mimic mating calls for moose while on a canoe late at night attracting larger male dears then shooting them from a far distance with a musket DD proximate and ultimate factors Jared Diamond Proximate EuropeansSpaniards had steel swords guns and horses genetic immunity to diseases more ef cient ships maps and writing system Ultimate domesticated animals larger land mass east west axis farmer and herding ef ciency DD Transportation revolution Transportation Revolution 18001840 Technological revolution Transformed American communities Boosted American Enterprise developed American identity rural communities and urban cities could integrate and identify themselves together 1807 Robert Fultons steamboat quotthe Clermontquot 181725 The Erie Canal Consolidated New Yorks power DD quotClinton39s Ditchquot Dewitt Clintion Liked New York City and Great Lakes Clintons Folly 364 Miles longest existing canal was 27 miles long which took 9 years to build and earie canal was more than 12 times that Engineering and Construction Challenge 40 ft wide 4 ft deep 364 mi long 83 locks 300 bridges Clintons Ditch 1817 NY legislature approved bond issue and NY and English merchants invested 7 million 1817 Dewitt Clinton claimed the Erie canal would be nished in under 10 years and Erie canal opened in less than 9 years 1825 DD Canal Workers Initially local farmers 8 per month 1819 malaria killed local farmers then NY imported 3000 irish laborers very expensive Dependent on immigrant labor DD Seneca Chief First canal boat Seneca chief inappropriate name mules provide power 4mph Erie Canal and Access goods and people traveled easily except for in the winter Opened interior parts of the country DD Eerie Canal 18201840 200 million to build canal Erie Canal was most successful 85 million dollars earned in tolls EU The Steam Boat Steam engine evolution Thomas Newcomens single cyHnder1705 James Watts condenser 1765 Increasing ef ciency higher pressures more exible power source Early fuel wood esp for steamboats Risk and Technology Extremely dangerous Frequent boiler explosions Public demanded regulation in 1838 DD Robert Fulton 1807 Fulton demonstrated feasibility More ef cient engines Shallower broader hulls Steamboats transformed commerce on the island river systems DD Oliver Evans Improved Mill Oliver Evans Improved Mill single driven train grinding sifting lifting and sacking our Conclusion water provided links power transportation mills and reservoirs for fresh water and disease DD Francis Cabot Lowes Boston Manufacturing Co Waltham Mass 2813 Waltham System cotton cloth manufacture one corporation powered by water DD Lowell Mills Power Pawtucket Falls of Merrimac River MiddleseX Canal Linked town residences factories with canal network DD Water and Cholera sin Men sinned and cholera was punishment quotintemperate imprudent and the lthyquot Not the scourge of mankind sinners Class Wealthy people ed the city and poor remained behind Public Health Campaign Filth Miasma Theory waste came from vapor and air Municipal Clean up helped with recovery of cholera Faith Morality Christian virtue Prayer and Fasting DD NY Metropolitan board of health The New York City Metropolitan Board of Health was the rst modern municipal public health authority in the United States It was founded in 1866 by the New York City Common Counci1 at a suggestion by the New York Academy of Medicine following a campaign led by Dr Stephen Smith2 The several powers and duties of the health of cers are set forth in detail in chapter xix of the rst charter creating Greater New York January 1 1898 amended 1901 In 1915 the health department was administered by a board of health consisting of a commissioner appointed by the mayor the commissioner of police and the health of cer of the port DD Water and Culture Transportcanals and rivers Powerfals Powersteam Water Supply drinking cleaning manufacture Vector for disease Habitat of insect disease vectors DD Intensive Extensive Cultivation Extensive farming or extensive agriculture as opposed to intensive farming is an agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labor fertilizers and capital relative to the land area being farmed Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by a low fallow ratio and the high use of inputs such as capital labour or heavy use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers relative to land area DD McCormick Reaper When Robert McCormick the father of Cyrus drew his crude reaper out to a eld of wheat in the early harvest of 1831 to make a trial of the invention on which he had spent fteen years Cyrus you may be sure was more than an onlooker Not long after Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin Cyrus McCormick invented another signi cant agricultural invention that revolutionized farming the mechanical reaper Prior to this invention reaping was a painstaking process done by hand with a scythe that limited a farm39s harvest Cyrus McCormick invented a horsedrawn reaper that used backandforthmoving cutting blades and a revolving device that pushed the cut grain onto the back of the machine He patented his quotImprovement in Machines for Reaping Small Grainquot on June 21 1834 DD Fertilizers Guano islands Guano via Spanish ultimately from the Quechua wanu is the excrement of seabirds cavedwelling bats pinnipeds or in English usage birds in general As a manure guano is a highly effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen phosphate and potassium nutrients essential for plant growth The 19thcentury guano trade played a pivotal role in the development of modern input intensive farming practices and inspired the formal human colonization of remote bird islands in many parts of the world During the twentieth century guanoproducing birds became an important target of conservation programs and in uenced the development of environmental consciousness Today guano is increasingly sought after by organic farmers DD Von Thiinen39s Rings The Von Thunen model of agricultural land use was created by farmer and amateur economist JH Von Thunen 1783 1850 in 1826 but it wasn39t translated into English until 1966 Von Thunen39s model was created before industrialization and is based on the following limiting assumptions The city is located centrally within an quotIsolated Statequot which is self suf cient and has no external in uences The Isolated State is surrounded by an unoccupied wilderness The land of the State is completely at and has no rivers or mountains to interrupt the terrain The soil quality and climate are consistent throughout the State Farmers in the Isolated State transport their own goods to market via oxcart across land directly to the central city Therefore there are no roads Farmers act to maximize pro ts DD American Bison 1865 Buffalo estimate 15 million Herding survival lndian Hunting Small Harvest No dramatic shift in population Based on previous cases what happened Commodi cation and Transportation 1870s Market in buffalo hides developed improved tanning Railroad shifted transportation prices up making bison market in motion DD Passenger Pigeon quotMarthaquot Flocks like bison herds Alexander Wilson recorded One ock 2 billion birds DD John James Audubon Audubon proposed One ock 3 days 300 millionhour DD Carolina Parakeet Loss of forest and swamp habitat Clearing of bamboo grass for farms Cavity Competition Overhunting and Commodi cation Egg Collecting and ornithological specimens DD Commodi cation Easy to kill several with single gunshot Netting techniques brought in millions Well organized market telegraph for prices location of nesting areas Pigeon Hunting Cutting down or burning trees lled with nests Net adult burds Professional market hunters meat One Colony 588 barrels gt100000 pounds DD Clothing and Taxidermy Millinery and Feather Trades womens hats songbirds also Taxidermy stuffed trophy bodies and heads Sport Hunting evolved DD Millinery and Feather Trades Pamphlets fashionable ladies hat destruction of wild birds Petitioned millineries to get them to stop purchasing feathers for production Hired wardens Bought lands as sanctuaries DD Women and Audubon Societies 1850 rise of middle class rise of consumerism and nonessentials Women hair hats and dresses sprays of breeding plumage 64 species 1886 Frank Chapman counted 40 varieties of native birds or parts in 75 of 700 ladies in NYC DD Sportsmen and their Code Hunting and Angling aristocratic activities in England and Europe lndividualist frontier heroes Daniel Boone and Davy Crocket in America Fusion Theodore Roosevelt Romantic Ideals Re encounter nature outside city to revive spirit Add vigorous manhood Assault on market hunters market was only for pro t and there was no honor or fair play DD George Bird Grinnell39s Critique of Market Hunters Destructive of sport hunters game Wasteful Killed quotcapitalquot rather than quotinterest on principalquot Capita Breeding population lnterest annual offspring DD Rise of Game Conservation Grinell and Roosevelt form quotBoone and Crockett Clubquot 1887 promote manly sport to save game Game Regulations Closed seasons and bag limits Ethical techniques no wing shots no jack lighting no sh in the barrel no cut bait shing Regulated sale and transport Fish and Game Reserves National Wildlife Refuges 1903 DD NonGame Conservation Non Game Conservation 1896 Mass Audubon Society 1900 Lacey Act provided interstate regulation 0 game sales 1905 Naional Association of Audubon Societies protection of songbirds Irony Hunters helped conservation movements the most Subsistence hunters followed rules and continued to hunt Market hunters brought species to brink of extinction DD Anadromous Fish Salmon Atlantic Salmon Runs destroyed by 1900 Transportation and industrial revolutions DD Continental Shelves Most fertile areas located on continental shelves Upwelling cold currents carried nutrients Sustain large phyto and zooplankton populations Base for food web DD Salmon Canneries Commodi cation lndian sh economy shed salmon extensively by nets Commercial shing gold rush migrants after 1849 1864 rst salmon cannery Commodi cation of Salmon 1883 21 canneries shipping all around the world 1882 Peak 12 million pounds of canned salmon 1891 sheries collapsed to 2 million pounds 3 canneries left 1919 last cannery closed DD quotTragedy of the Commonsquot Garrett Hardin If a resource is communally held what is the incentive not to overgraze the sh Garret Harden Possible solution private property public property regulated by state EU The Romantic Legacy Romanticism in uence on American notions of landscape environment Heirs to romantic tradition Preset in environmentalist thought DD Romanticism Romanticism vs secularization of western European culture Threat of scienti c empiricism Romantics rediscover spirituality in nature DD Thomas Cole quotThe Oxbowquot 1836 Question mark Image of return Turning point in human history Line between wilderness and pastoral landscape Rise and fall of civilization DD Revolution and Reaction French Revolution key for English romantics revolutionary ideals Reaction to excesses of the Reign of Terror and Napoleon Retreat into individualistic encounter with Nature EXJohn Martin39s quotThe Bardquot DD Edmund Burke 1757 Sublime dark large awesome vast terrifying painful Beautiful orderly smooth polished pleasurable DD Thomas Cole Expulsion from the Garden of Eden Surrogate for God in Nature Energyspirit behind quotreasonquot Romanticism as reaction to emerging industrialism amp cities DI Transcendentalism Americans Revolution as successful Ralph Waldo Emerson 180382 One American version of romanticism Experience universe directly DD Henry David Thoreau 18171862 Disciple of Emerson Retreat to Walden 18451847 Acted out romantic dream of direct encounter with nature Imagination unencumbered by society DD Thomas Cole 181048 Hudson River school New genre of wilderness landscape Darker more complicated relation to romantic conception of American nature DD Thomas Cole Course of Empire Pastoral innocence to imperial glory and back into decadence and savagery Landscapes recapitulated this cycle Nature never changes Pastoral state ideal condition or Cole Akin to American frontier Could it survive EU The Picturesque Commodity Picturesque middle term to sublime and beautiful quotthat particular kind of beautify which is agreeable in a picturequot Landscape transformed from wild Wealthy tourists DD Niagara Falls Monument to American exceptionalism Natural wonder stands for missing historical depth of European landscape Most frequently painted icon in the entire north American landscape Sublime Picturesque Republican nationalism Popular spectacle Tourism with resulting crowding of commodi ed landscape DD domestication of sublime Embrace of wilderness without human presence one trend Images of fear and loathing in strange landscapes Also a trend no longer terrifying and suffused with mystical beauty DD luminism Ocean shores wetlands pastures suffused with light Classic composition Horizontal planes Minimize brush stroke artists ego Stillness and quietness Divine light is everywhere DD Wilderness into Nostalgic Retreat AX stumps decaying canoe expanding pastoral Vanished frontier icons of industry come to pastoral landscape DD George lnness The Lackawanna Valley c 1855 Industry in nature in harmony Or Romantic sublime retreating DD Agriculture before Insecticides Most crops 3060 loss of the produce to insect damage 19th century farmers desperate for a technological x for insect infestations Pyrethrum insecticide made from chrysanthemum in owers in the Caucasus mountains DD Major Pesticide Classes Natural Pyrethrum and Nicotine Heavy Metals Lead Arsenic and other combos Lead Arsenate Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Synthetic insecticides DDT Aldrin and Dieldrin Organophosphates Synthetic insecticides including Parathion Malathion still in use and Diazinon Phase out DDT rst synthetic insecticides DD Heavy Metals Heavy metals stable long lasting persistent accumulate in soil and animals DD Chlorinated Hydrocarbons DDT Chlorinated Hydrocarbons DDT Very stable long lasting persistent pesticides and accumulate in soil and animals DD Organophosphates and Carbamates Organophosphates short lived compounds but do not persist in environment and more toxic to vertebrates DD World War II and DDT 1939 Swiss chemist rst noted properties of solid form of DDT 1940 US gov obtained DDT for testing USPHS and USDA tested DDT against malaria carrying mosquitos DD Low Acute Toxicity Low Dermal Absorption DDT destroyed 95100 of the mosquitos after aerial spraying no observed effect on vegetation Birds Mammals and humans did not appear to react to DDT Low acute toxicity Low dermal absorption Deploying DDT DD Post War Proliferation Time Magazine DDT and Atomic Bomb as technologies that save lives DDT rapidly became preferred agricultural pesticide after the war Farmers were soon spraying tons of DDT in the US EU Rachel Carson 1962 Silent Spring 1962 Silent Spring Nature devastated by fallout of a different sort Chemical pesticides Cancer and bombs come together DD Carson39s Hierarchy of Insecticides DDT and chlorinated hydrocarbons Organophosphates more toxic than DDT Systemic lnsecticides absorbed by tissues of plants and functions within plant making plants toxic themselves Why not heavy metals DD Unintended Consequences Soil Water Air degradation due to consumption of insecticides Fish Birds Mammals and even humans bioaccumulation and bio magni cation Topline predators suffered the greatest risk Birds of Prey and DDT Decline in nesting behavior Florida and immature eagles Hawk Mountian Ospreys and Peregrines suffered effects of the bioaccumulation of DDT DD Bioaccumulation Biomagni cation Chemical advances through trophic level DD Birds of Prey and DDT DDT lingered in soil water and even organisms when it would bioaccumulate and biomagnify Bald Eagles Osprey and Peregrines have recovered esp ospreys Organophosphates quickly break down into component parts into the environment DD 1973 DDT banned in the US Persistence in environment DDT lingered in soil water and even organisms when it would bioaccumulate and biomagnify Bald Eagles Osprey and Peregrines have recovered esp ospreys Organophosphates quickly break down into component parts into the environment 1973 Scientists in England synthesize Pyrethroids Very high toxicity to insects as high as Parathion Very low toxicity to huans Problem Cost DD US population 321986390 World Population 7280159000 in The Wilderness Society Marshall MacKaye Leopold Harvey Broome Bernard Frank and Robert Sterling Yard eite well connected linked wealth to wilderness preservation DD Land Philanthropy John D Rockefeller Jr John D RokefellerJr Helped acquire or grave outright Acadia National Park Grant Tatons NP Shanandoah NP and others to nation Governor Percival Baxter of Maine purchased 202000 acres to preserve Mt Ktahdn to state EU The Sierra Club John Muir39s organization John Muirs organization Outing club major force in wilderness preservation David Brower editor of SC bulletin 1946 executive director 1952 Major ght of 19505 Think of Muir and Hetch Hetchy Another proposed dam Echo Park would ood dinosaur national monument DD David Brower 1912 2000 This is Dinosaur Wallace Stegner edits 1955 book to educate public Photograph by Ansel Adams Browers testimony Bureau of Reclamaton miscalculated own data re loss to evaporation DD Ansel Adams 190284 Ansel Adams and Nancy Newhall Ansel Adams 190284 started photographing Sierra Nevadas19205 Countrys most popular landscape photographer Sierra Club board member 1934 DD Wilderness Act Sept 3 1964 Sept 3 1964 91 Million acres initially DD quotShould we also ood the Sistine Chapelquot June 1966 Nrpwer runs NY Times ad quotShould we also ood the Sistine chapel so tourists can get nearer the ceilingquot June 10 IRS revokes tax exempt status of Sierra Club Sierra Club broad ousts Brower DD Creating Parks and Cemeteries Cemeteries Parks Monuments Roadless Areas Wilderness too good for us a perfection against which we measure or gross imperfection Roderick Nash Wilderness exists on spectrum Purely wild to purely civilized EU The Atomic Bomb 0 No similar event in human history to compare with the bombs Brought people to understand the world has a whole Major event in environmental movement DD Thomas Robert Malthus 1798 0 An essay on the Principle of Population People increase geometrically Food increases arithmetically 0 Without control starvation inevitable o Believed control was possible DD An Essay on the Principle of Population Critics of Malthus vs NeoMalthusians o Marx quota libel on the human racequot 0 Engels quotwe are forever secure from the fear of overpopulationquot o Mao quotof all things in the world people are the most preciousquot Was is Malthus right 0 Writing at the dawn of industrial revolution pop was just under a few billion DD conUnued NeoMalthusians 0 Those who accept Malthus39 central claim Humans will outstrip the resource base and their population will crash Paul Ehrlich 1968 Bill McKibben 1998 maybe one Cornucopias or anti Malthusians o The most important bene t that pop growth confers on an economy is an increase in the stock of useful knowledge 0 You are wrong because the larger pop means the greater production of useful knowledge and with more people the likelihood of genius to be born and solve all our problems DD Paul Ehrlich The Population Bomb 1968 o Ehrlich chose 5 commodity metals that he believed would drop in value Copper chromium nickel tin and tungsten September 29 1980 September 29 1990 All but one dropped in price 0 Copper because of PVC and silicon replaced it Ehrlich paid up 1000 567 adjusted for in ation Simon offered 20000 no one accepted National media attention DD Primary Productivity and People 0 Our food 0 Food for our livestock o Forests for timber and paper 0 Overgrazed grassland 0 Total 40 of the world39s primary productivity supports human beings 0 Biological limits and carrying capacity DD Consumption Hunter gatherers used about 2500 calories a day Modern humans average 31000 calories each day fossil fuel The average American uses nearly 180000 calories each day Fossil fuels EU The Green Revoluton 0 Mexico 1962 Wheat varieties vulnerable to rusts diseases Long thin stems blew over lodging Fertilization and irrigation taller plants lodging worse DD Norman Borlaug semidwarf wheat 0 Short stature lt2 feet minimized blow over 0 Resistance to common rust diseases 0 Higher yield depends on fertilizers and pesticides DD History of Toxicity and Pollution 1970s Oil Crisis Economic Crisis Environmental Legislation DD Exxon Valdez Oil Spill 1989 Prestige Oil Spill Greek operated single hulled oil tanker of cially registered in the Bahamas but with a Liberian registered single purpose corporation as the owner 1 out of 12 tanks burst off Galicia Spain Sought port denied Nov 19 2000 hu split in half 20 million gallons of oil released Extensive damage to shore spain and Portugal DD Deepwater Horizon BP Gulf Oil Spill 2009 April 202010 explosion off deepwater horizon which drilled on the BP operated Macondo Prospect explosion killed 11 men working on platform and injured 17 others July 152010 gushing wellhead capped Sept 19 2010 relief well process completed Well ef ciently quotdeadquot BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill by the numbers 49 Million barrels of oil 2058 million gallons leaked rom the Deepwater Horizon well about half the amount of crude oil the US imports per day 19 Times more oil leaked from deepwater horizon than spilled from the Exxon valdez DD National Environmental Policy Act of 1970 NEPA The National Environmental Policy Act NEPA is a United States environmental law that promotes the enhancement of the environment and established the President39s Council on Environmental Quality CEO The law was enacted on January 1 1970 DD Reagan39s Revolution James Watt as Secretary of the Interior Tries to open wildernessdesignated lands to development 1982 announced 5 of public domain open to private sector Reagan calls federally owned lands quotunconstitutionalquot 1983 removed 17 million acres from wilderness consideration DD Earth Day April 22 1970 Widespread activism Declarations of crisis Calls for a new spiritual vision DD Earth Rise from Apollo 8 Vison of earthrise over Appollo 839s moon Environmentalism a call to unity Collective guilt