Unit 3 Study Guide (READ THE DESCRIPTION)
Unit 3 Study Guide (READ THE DESCRIPTION) PSYC-1000-01
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha R on Monday November 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC-1000-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 322 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 11/30/15
Chapter 12: Emotions, Stress, & Health Wednesday, October 28, 20152:53 PM Introduction to Emotion • Emotion: Arousal, Behavior, & Cognition ○ Emotion: A response of the whole organism, involving: 1. Physiological arousal 2. Express behaviors 3. Conscious experience ○ Historical Emotion Theories James-Lange Theory: Our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli □ Ex) We are sad because we are crying; we don't just smile because we share our teammates' joy, we also share joy because we are smiling with them. Cannon-Bard: An emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneouslytriggers: 1. Physiological responses 2. The subjective experience of emotion □ Neither of these cause the other. ○ Schachter & Singer 2-Factor Theory: Arousal + Label = Emotion 2 Factor Theory: In order to experience emotion one must: 1. Be physically aroused 2. Cognitively label the arousal Spillover Effect: Arousal spills over from one event to the next. □ Ex) When the teacher is stressed they are more likely to snap at the students. Arousal fuels emotion; cognition channels it. ○ Zajonc, LeDoux, & Lazarus: Does Cognition Always Precede Emotion? Zajonc □ We experience many emotional reactions apart from/beforeour interpretationof a situation. LeDoux □ Our emotional response can follow 2 different neurological pathways: □ Some emotional responses don't require conscious thinking. Lazarous □ Cognitive appraisal defines emotion. "Is it dangerous or not?" • Embodied Emotion ○ Emotions & the Autonomic Nervous System Yerkes-Dodson Law: Arousal effects performance in different ways, depending on the task, with moderate arousal leading to optimal performance. Sympathetic Division: Arouses us for my intense experiences of emotion. ParasympatheticDivision: Restores the body to a calm state after crisis. ○ Physiology of Emotions Insula: A neural center that is activated when we experience various negative social emotions (lust, pride, disgust, etc.) □ Although these emotionstake place in the same region, they look and feel different. Negative people tend to have more right frontal lobe activity. (vice virsa) Facial expressions & brain activity vary with emotion. Expressing Emotion • Detecting Emotion in Others ○ Experience can sensitize us to particular emotions. ○ Introverts excel in readingothers' emotions; extraverts are easier to read. ○ We are bad at detecting fake emotions. • Gender, Emotion, & Nonverbal Behavior ○ Women are better at reading emotional cues Could attributeto their higher emotional responsiveness ○ Women are more likely to express empathy • Culture & Emotional Expression ○ Some cultures are more expressive than others ○ Cultures often differ in gestures but not facial expressions ○ Overall emotion is a universal language • The Effects of Facial Expressions ○ The outward expression of an emotion intensifies the emotion ○ Facial Feedback Effect:The tendencyof facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings. ○ Behavior Feedback Effect:The tendencyof behavior to influence our own & others' thoughts, feelings, & actions. Experiencing Emotion • Any emotion is some combination of feeling good vs. bad & being aroused vs. unaroused Unit 3 Page 1 ○ Facial Feedback Effect:The tendencyof facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings. ○ Behavior Feedback Effect:The tendencyof behavior to influence our own & others' thoughts, feelings, & actions. Experiencing Emotion • Any emotion is some combination of feeling good vs. bad & being aroused vs. unaroused • Anger ○ Boosts heart rate, sweating, & testosterone. ○ Triggers blood-flowto our brain's "alarm system" ○ Chronic anger is linked to heart disease ○ Catharsis: Emotional release Catharsis Hypothesis: releasing aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges □ Only true if: It is directed towards the provoker Retaliation seems justifiable Target is not intimidating □ Sometimes acting angry makes us angrier (behavior feedback) ○ Managing Anger: Wait →ind distraction/support→Distance yourself • Happiness ○ Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon: People's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood ○ Positive Psychology: The study & promotion of human strengths & virtues that help us thrive. Explores positive emotions, health, neuroscience, & education. Pillars Of Positive Psychology: 1. Subject Well-Being: Self-perceived happinessor satisfaction with life. 2. Positive Character: Creativity, courage, compassion, leadership, etc. 3. Positive Groups, Communities, & Cultures: Seeks to foster a positive social ecology (good schools, healthy families, etc.) ○ The Short Life of Emotional Ups & Downs Our happiness varies by days of the week & hours of the day Over the long run, emotional ups & downs tend to balance out. Even tragedy is not usually permanentlydepressing (all negative emotions come to an end). We overestimate the duration of our emotions & underestimate our resiliency ○ Wealth & Well-Being People are typically happier & have a better well-being than those who struggle to afford life's basic needs Economic growth in affluent countriesdoesn't boost morale or social well-being. Materialism is growing amongst college students Money does not buy happiness :) ○ Two Psychological Phenomena:Adaptation & Comparison Happiness is Relative to Our Own Experience □ Adaptation-Level Phenomena: Our tendency to form judgementsrelative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience. People from Florida are happier with higher temperaturesthan people from Michigan. Happiness is Relative to Others' Success □ Relative Deprivation: The perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares to oneself □ Equality increases happiness ○ What Predicts our Happiness Levels? Evidence-Based Suggestions for a Happier Life □ Realize financial success may not create happiness □ Take control of your time □ Act happy □ Seek work & hobbies that engage your skills □ Experiences are more important than material items □ Exercise & Sleep □ Prioritize close relationships □ Focus beyond self □ Be grateful □ Nurture your spirituality Genes matter. (identical twin studies prove it) Stress & Illness • Stress: Basic Concepts ○ Stress: The process in which we perceive & respond tostressors ○ Stressors 3 Types □ Catastrophes □ Significant Life Changes □ Daily Hassles ○ The Stress Response System "Fight or Flight" response □ Adrenal glands secrete Norepinephrine, epinephrine,& glucocorticoid stress hormones (ex. Cortisol) General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): The body's adaptive response to stress in 3 phases-- alarm, resistance, & exhaustion. (Selye) 1. Alarm: SympatheticNS activated. Resources are mobilized (blood) 2. Resistance: Adrenal glands secrete hormones. All your body's resources are in use. 3. Exhaustion: Vulnerable to illness or even collapse or death Selye claims that your body can cope with temporary stress, but prolonged stress can damage it. Tend & Befriend: Under stress, people tend to bond over providing & seeking support from others. • Stress & Vulnerabilityto Disease ○ Health Psychology: A subfield that is psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine Unit 3 Page 2 it. Tend & Befriend: Under stress, people tend to bond over providing & seeking support from others. • Stress & Vulnerabilityto Disease ○ Health Psychology: A subfield that is psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine ○ Psychoneuroimmunology:Study of psychological, neural, & endocrine processes' effects on the immune system. ○ Your immune system can malfunction & overreact or underreact ○ Stress can trigger immune suppression Stress can worsen or speed up the development of AIDS Stress can inhibit fighting off cancer ○ Stress & Heart Disease Stress can increase plaque build-up in heart vessels □ When stressed, your blood-flowcirculates through the liv→r picking up cholesterole & excess fat Personalities □ Type A: Competitive, impatient, verbally aggressive, hard-driving, & anger-prone. More likely to suffer a heart attack □ Type B: Easygoing & relaxed. □ Type D: Suppress their negative emotion to avoid social disapproval (Type A exerts it) Also at risk for heart attack Depression & Pessimism increase risk for heart attack Health & Coping • Coping with Stress ○ Coping: Alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods. Problem-Focused Coping: Directly changing the stressor or the way you interact with it Emotion-Focused Coping: Avoiding/Ignoring a stressor & attending to our emotional needs ○ Personal Control Learned Helplessness: The passive resignation when one is unable to avoid repeated aversive events. Losing control provoke outpouring of stress hormones More control →etter health, morale, & performance External vs. Internal Locus of Control □ External Locus of Control: The perception that outside forces determine our fate. □ Internal Locus of Control: The perception that we control our own fate Depleting & Strengthening Self-Control □ Self-discipline in one area of your life may strengthen your self-control in other areas as well. ○ Optimism & Pessimism reflect in one's performance ○ Social Support Calms us & reduces stress hormones & blood pressure Strengthensimmune system Allows for expression of emotions (relieving some stress) • Reducing Stress ○ Aerobic Exercise Alleviates depression & anxiety ○ Relaxation & Meditation Strengthen neural connections Increases reflective awareness Calms brain activation in emotional situations ○ Faith/SupportCommunities Promotes self-control Social support Positive emotions Unit 3 Page 3 Unit 3 Page 4 Chapter 13: Social Psychology Monday, November 2, 2015 3:54 PM Social Thinking • Social Psychology: The scientific study of how we think about, influence, & relate to one another. • The Fundamental Attribution Error ○ Attribution Theory: We explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition. Dispositional Attribution or Situational Attribution These are often valid attributions, but sometimes it causes… Fundamental Attribution Error: The tendency to overestimate the impact of a situation or personal disposition. ○ What Factors Affect our Attributions? Individualist cultures often attribute to personal traits. We often attribute our intentional & admirable actions not to situations but to our own good reasons. We are sensitive to the power of the situation when explaining the behavior of those we know well since we've seen them in various contexts ○ Consequences of our Attributions Attributions determine blame/credit for various behaviors. They often determine how we look at others' potential & abilities □ Ex: Do you blame the individual for being poor OR the cycle of poverty they are in? • Attitudes & Actions ○ Attitude: Feelings--often influenced by our beliefs--that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, & events. ○ Attitudes Affect Actions 2 Types of Persuasion □ Peripheral Route Persuasion: Influence via incidental cues Ex: One's appearance □ Central Route Persuasion: Influence via evidence, arguments, & responses that aim to trigger favorable thoughts ○ Actions Affect Attitudes Attitudes follow behavior □ Behavior reinforces the attitude Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon: If someone has agreed to a small request they will likely comply later with a larger request. Role Playing Affects Attitudes □ Role: A set of expectations that define how one in a particular social position ought to behave □ If one adopts a certain role, they will likely begin to reflect it in their own life An actor may begin to adopt the traits of his character Cognitive Dissonance: Relief from Tension □ Cognitive Dissonance Theory: We act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when 2 of our thoughts are inconsistent. Ex: I care about the well-being of animals; I eat meat □ Changing our behavior can change how we think and feel about people, things, or events. Social Influence • Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures ○ Automatic Mimicry Chameleon Effect: The unconscious mimicry of others in one's current social environment. □ This is why people yawn when others yawn Mimicry aids empathizing Mood Linkage: Sharing of moods/emotions ○ Conformity & Social Norms Conformity: Adjusting our behavior/thinking to coincide with a group standard □ Unconformity is still a version of conforming We are more likely to conform when we: □ Feel incompetent/insecure □ In a group of 3+ □ In a group where everyone else agrees Ex: Even if you are 100% correct, when the majority of the room gives an incorrect answer, one might hesitate to believe that they are still correct Milgram's Experiment (A person was ordered to shock the "prisoner" with increasingly □ Admire the group's status □ Haven't made a prior commitment to any response powerful shocks) □ Know others will observe our behavior Normative Social Influence: Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval Informational Social Influence: Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions Conformity is embraced & shamed to different extents in different cultures • Obedience ○ Obedience is Highest When: (Milgram Experiment) The person giving the orders was close & was perceived to be a legitimate authority The authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution The victim was depersonalized or @ a distance There were no role models for defiance ○ Strong social influences can make people conform to falsehoods or cruelty • Group behavior ○ Social Facilitation: Improved performance in the presence of others What you do well you are likely to do better in front of an audience Phenomenon Social Context Psychological Effect of Behavioral Effect What you find difficult is likely to seem impossible in front of an audience. Others’ Presence ○ Social Loafing: Individuals in a group will exert less effort than when they are held individually Social Facilitation Individual being obserIncreased arousal Easy task Better Performance accountable. Difficult tasWorse performance People feel less accountable when in a group Social Loafing Group project Diminished responsibility & Decreased effort □ They may view their contributions as dispensable accountability Group members share equal benefits regardless of their individual contribution Deindividuation Group setting that fosterReduced self-awareness Reduced self-restraint ○ Deindividuation: Loss of self-awareness & self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal & anonymity. arousal and anonymity EX: The UVA fraternity incident last year when the frat pledges raped that girl. ○ Group Polarization: Enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through group discussion By magnifying & connecting inclinations of likeminded people, these inclinations are reinforced and boosted. This is a big concept when we think about interactions & movements on social media ○ Groupthink: The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives You compromise your beliefs to avoid conflict ○ Power of Individuals Social Control vs. Personal Control □ Both have the potential to exert a great deal of power and influence Unit 3 Page 5 ○ Groupthink: The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives You compromise your beliefs to avoid conflict ○ Power of Individuals Social Control vs. Personal Control □ Both have the potential to exert a great deal of power and influence Minority Influence: When the power of a small-numbered group sway majorities Antisocial Relations • Prejudice ○ Prejudice: An unjustifiable attitude towards a group & its members. ○ Prejudice it typically a mixture of: Beliefs (stereotypes) Emotions (ex: hostility, fear, etc.) Predispositions to action (to discriminate) ○ How Prejudiced are People? Explicit & Implicit Ethnic Prejudice □ As overt prejudice has decreased subtle prejudice lingers in the US. Racial Macroaggression: brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities towards people of color. □ Implicit Racial Associations One was more likely to quickly associate good things with white names □ Unconscious Patronization A women grading papers was more likely to be harsher on the white students' writing than the writing of the black students □ Race-Influenced Perceptions People more often shot black men holding harmful objects than white men holding harmful objects □ Reflexive Bodily Responses One may give off telltale signals as their body responds selectively to another's race. BUT it is what we do with our feelings that matters Gender Prejudice □ Men are perceived as more intelligent □ Women are paid less □ People generally feel more positive about women than men Sexual Orientation Prejudice □ 40% of LGBT said it would be difficult to live openly in the US □ 80% of LGBT adolescents report being sexually assaulted in the past year □ 39% of LGBT has been rejected by a family member or friend □ In same-sex marriage banned states LGBT experience a… 37% increase in depressive disorder rates 42% increase in alcohol disorders 248% increase in anxiety disorders ○ Social Roots of Prejudice Social Inequalities □ Just-World Phenomenon: People believe the world is just & that people get what they deserve & deserve what they get Blame-the-Victim Dynamic: Victims of discrimination often self-blame & outsiders often blame the victim as well □ Stereotypes rationalize inequalities Us & Them: Ingroup & Outgroup □ We associate ourselves with certain groups & contrast ourselves with others through our social identities □ Ingroup "Us": People we share a community with □ Outgroup "Them": Those perceived as different/apart from our ingroup ○ Emotional Roots of Prejudice Scapegoat Theory: Prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame □ EX: Hitler blaming the Jews for Germany's economic depression created a wave of antisemitism Those who lack fear & its associated activity in the emotion-processing amygdala also lack racial stereotypes & prejudice. ○ Cognitive Roots of Prejudice Forming Categories □ We all categorize by race; those of a mixed race are often associated with their minority race □ We overestimate the homogeneity of other groups They aren't all the same stupid -_- □ Other-Race Effect: We recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Remembering Vivid Cases □ Ex: Since 9/11 there has been a disproportional connection drawn between Islam & Terrorism Islam terrorism Believing the World is Just □ Victim blaming (see previous notes) • Aggression ○ Aggression: Any act intended to harm someone physically/emotionally. ○ Biology of Aggression Genetic Influences Temperature & Retaliation □ MAOA Gene: Helps break down dopamine & serotonin Low MAOA Gene expression→Aggressive tendencies □ The Y chromosome is a common genetic marker for aggressive behavior (Men have this) Neural Influences □ Low frontal lobe activity→Increased aggressive tendency Biochemical Influences □ High testosterone levels→Increased aggressive tendency □ Alcohol induces violent tendencies ○ Psychological & Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression Aversive Events □ Frustration-Aggression Principle: The principle that frustration creates anger, which can generate aggression. □ High temperatures have been shown to increase individual violence, wars, & revolutions □ Poverty, food scarcity, & migration have shown to increase violent outbreaks Reinforcement, Modeling, & Self-Control □ In situations where experience has taught us that aggression pays off, we are likely to act aggressively again. □ When we are exposed to aggression we are more likely to act aggressive as well (mimicry) Unit 3 Page 6 (mimicry) Prosocial Relations • Attraction ○ The Psychology of Attraction Proximity □ Mere Exposure Effect: The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them Within certain limits, familiarity feeds fondness Typically what is familiar is typically safe (evolutionary survival) Modern Matchmaking □ Men are more transparent □ When given more options, our choices become more superficial □ Women tend to be more choosy □ A much higher percentage of homosexual couples meet online than heterosexual couples □ After talking online for 20 minutes, people took more of a liking to the person than if they had met face □ to face Attractiveness □ Attractive people are perceived to be more socially skilled, sensitive, successful, happier, & healthier □ Different cultures have different beauty perceptions □ Symmetry is beautiful □ Average is attractive (not extreme features) Similarity □ The more similar two people are, the more likely they are to like each other and stick with it □ We like people who like us Reward Theory of Attraction: We will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us ◊ Including those who are both able & willing to help us achieve our goals ○ Romantic Love Passionate Love: An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another □ Usually present @ the beginning of a love relationship □ 2 Factor Theory of Emotion assumes that Emotions have 2 ingredients: physical arousal & cognitive appraisal Arousal from any source can enhance one emotion or another, depending on how we interpret & label the arousal Companionate Love: The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. □ Increased presence of oxytocin: hormone supporting feeling of trust, calmness, & bonding □ Equity: When people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give □ Self-Disclosure: The act of revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others Establishes trust □ Positive Support • Altruism ○ Altruism: Unselfish regard for the welfare of others ○ Bystander Intervention Bystander Effect: A bystander is less likely to aid if other bystanders are present ○ The Norms for Helping Social Exchange Theory: Our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits & minimize costs Reciprocity Norm: An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them Social-Responsibility Norm: An expectation that people will help those needing their help • Peacemaking ○ Elements of Conflict Conflict: A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. Social Traps: A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each pursuing their self-interest rather than the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior Enemy Perceptions □ Mirror-Image Perceptions: Mutual views often held by conflicting people. Each side sees itself as ethical & sees the other as immoral □ Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: A belief that leads to its own fulfillment. ○ Promoting Peace Contact □ Negative contact provokes disliking (vice versa) Unit 3 Page 7 □ Negative contact provokes disliking (vice versa) □ Studies show that interracial roommates improve each other's attitudes towards one another's race. Same goes for homosexual & heterosexuals Cooperation □ Superordinate Goals: Shared goals that override differences among people & require their cooperation Conciliation □ GRIT: A strategy designed to decrease international tensions. Graduated & Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction Unit 3 Page 8 Chapter 14: Personality Monday, November 9, 2015 9:43 AM Introduction to Personality & Psychodynamic Theories • Personality: An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling & acting. • Psychodynamic Theories: Focuses on the unconscious & the importance of childhood experiences ○ Freud's Psychoanalytic Perspective Psychoanalysis Theory of Personality: Thoughts & actions are attributed to unconscious motives & conflicts □ Unconscious: A reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, & memories. Free Association: A method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes & says whatever comes to mind. □ Freud believed it would allow him to follow a chain of thought leading to the patient's unconscious. Personality Structure □ Human personality arises from a conflict between impulse & restraint. □ The mind consists of 3 interacting systems: Id: Unconscious energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual & aggressive drives. ◊ Operates on the pleasure principle of instant gratification Ego: The largely conscious "executive" part of the personality; Mediates the demands of the superego, id, & reality. ◊ Operates on the reality principle that satisfies the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather that pain. ◊ Contains our partially conscious perceptions, thoughts, judgements, & memories. Superego: Represents internalized ideals & provides standards for judgement (the conscience) & for future aspirations. ◊ It is the moral compass Personality Development □ Psychosexual Stages: The childhood stages of development where the id's pleasure- seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones. □ Oedipus Complex: A boy's sexual desires toward his mother & feelings of jealousy & hatred for the rival father. □ Identification: The process in which children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos. Believed this provided a gender identity. □ Fixation: A lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies from unresolved conflicts in an earlier psychosexual stage. Defense Mechanisms □ Defense Mechanisms: The ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. □ Repression: Banishment of anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, & memories from consciousness. Unit 3 Page 9 consciousness. ○ Neo-Freudian & Later Psychodynamic Theorists Neo-Freudians □ Place more emphasis on the conscious mind's role in interpreting & coping with experiences & environments. □ Doubted that sex & aggression were all-consuming motives. □ Emphasized lofty motives & social interactions. Alfred Adler & Karen Horney □ Believed childhood social (not sexual) tensions were crucial for personality formation. □ Alfred Adler Inferiority Complex: Our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood inferiority feelings that trigger our strivings for superiority & power. □ Karen Horney Childhood anxiety triggers our desire for love & security. Women have "Penis envy" Carl Jung □ The unconscious contains more than repressed thoughts & feelings Rorschach Inkblot Test □ Collective Unconscious: A shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history. Widely discounted ○ Assessing Unconscious Processes Projective Test: A personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): A projective test in which people express their inner feelings & interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes(Henry Murray) • Modern Views of the Unconscious ○ Our development is lifelong, not fixed in childhood. ○ Challenging the Idea of Repression It is far more common that stress & trauma enhance our memory of events ○ The Unconscious Mind The unconscious mind also involves: □ The schemas that automatically control our perceptions & interpretations □ Priming by stimuli to which we have not consciously attended □ The right-hemisphere activity that enables the split-brain patient's left hand to carry out an instruction the patient cannot verbalize □ Implicit memories that operate without conscious recall □ The emotions that activate instantly (before conscious analysis) □ The stereotypes that automatically & unconsciously influence how we process information about others Terror-Management Theory: A theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional & behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death Humanistic Theories & Trait Theories • Humanistic Theories ○ Humanistic Theories: Viewing personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth ○ Abraham Maslow's Self-Actualizing Person Self-Actualization: The process of fulfilling our potential Self-Transcendence: Meaning, purpose, & communion beyond the self. ○ Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Perspective People are basically good & are endowed with self-actualizing tendencies. A growth promoting environment requires 3 conditions: □ Genuineness (in people) □ Acceptance (from people) □ Empathy (in people) Self-Concept: All our thoughts & feelings about ourselves □ A central feature of personality ○ Assessing the Self Interviews & intimate conversation is a better indicator than any standardized test • Trait Theories ○ Trait: A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel & act. ○ Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a type of personality test ○ Personalities are defined in terms of identifiable behavior patterns (traits) ○ Exploring Traits Unit 3 Page 10 • Trait Theories ○ Trait: A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel & act. ○ Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a type of personality test ○ Personalities are defined in terms of identifiable behavior patterns (traits) ○ Exploring Traits Factor Analysis □ Eysenck believed we can reduce our individual variations into 2-3 dimensions Introversion-extraversion & Emotional stability-instability Believed these factors are genetically influenced Biology & Personality □ Brain arousal activity tends to be higher in extroverts □ Genes influence our temperament & behavior style ○ Assessing Traits Personality Inventories: A questionnaire (often true/false or agree/disagree) designed to a gauge a wide range of feelings & behaviors. □ Used to assess selected personality traits □ Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Initially used to identify emotional disorders, but is now widely used It is empirically derived: developed by testing a pool of items & then selecting those that discriminate between groups ○ The Big 5 Factors ○ Evaluating Trait Theories Person-Situation Controversy □ Look for the traits that persist over time & across all situations □ With age, personality traits become more stable & stronger □ Personality tests predict our average behavior patterns much better than our behavior in any situation Social-Cognitive Theories & The Self • Social-Cognitive Theories ○ Social-Cognitive Perspective: Behaviors are influenced by the interaction between people's traits & their social context. ○ Reciprocal Influences Reciprocal Determinism: The interacting between influences of behavior, internal cognition, & environment Consider these 3 interactions with environment: □ Different people choose different environments □ Our personalities shape how we interpret & react to events □ Our personalities help create situations to which we react ○ Assessing Behavior in Situations The best predictor for behavior in situations is looking at behavior in past similar situations (not personality tests or whatever) Unit 3 Page 11 • Exploring the Self ○ Self: The center of our personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, & actions ○ We often think of our self-concept in terms of our "possible selves" (what we could be) ○ Spotlight Effect: Overestimating others' noticing & evaluating our appearance, performance, & blunders. ○ The Benefits of Self-Esteem Self-Efficacy: One's sense of competence & effectiveness People who are down on themselves tend to be down on others (vice versa) ○ Costs of Self-Esteem Excessive Optimism □ Blinds us to real risks. Blindness to One's Own Incompetence □ Ex. If you're shocked upon receiving a poor grade on a test you thought you did well on Self-Serving Bias: Readiness to perceive oneself favorably □ People accept more responsibility for good deeds than bad, & for success than failures. Ex. Blaming the teacher for your poor grade □ Most people see themselves as better than average Narcissism Unit 3 Page 12 Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Sunday, November 15, 2015 9:57 PM Introduction to Psychological Disorders • Defining Psychological Disorders ○ Psychological Disorder: A syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. This disturbances must be maladaptive (interfere with normal day-to-day life) • Understanding Psychological Disorders ○ The Medical Model Medical Model: The concept that diseases (psychological disorders) have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated,& often cured in a hospital. Credibility gained from recent discoveries that genetically influenced abnormalities in brain BiopsychosocialApproach structure & biochemistry contribute to many disorders. ○ Biopsychosocial Approach Disorders reflect genetic predispositions& psychological states, inner psychological dynamics, & social-culturalcircumstances. Epigenetics: The study of environmental influenceson gene expressions that occur without a DNA change. • Classifying Disorders & Labeling People ○ Classification aims to: Predict the disorder's future course Suggest appropriate treatment Prompt research into its causes ○ DSM-5 is a widely used system (manual) for classifying psychological disorders This manual undergoes constant changes ○ Labeling allows communication between doctors using a common language ○ Labeling could cause one to act as they have been labeled or trigger assumptions that will change our behavior towards those who are labeled. • Rates of Psychological Disorders ○ 1 in 4 American adults suffer from a diagnosable mental illness ○ The US has the highest rate of psychological disorders ○ Immigrant Paradox: 1st generation immigrants are less likely to experience psychological disorders than the 2nd & 3rd generation. ○ What increases/decreases vulnerability to mental disorders? ○ Over 75% of people with disorders experience symptoms by age 24 Antisocial & phobias (age 8-10) Alcoholism, OCD, Bipolar, & Schizophrenia (age 20) Major depression (age 25) Anxiety Disorders, OCD, & PTSD • Anxiety Disorders: Distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety. ○ Generalized Anxiety: One is unexplainably & continually tense & in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. The anxiety is free-floating (not linked to a specific stressor or threat) Often accompanied by depressed mood Could lead to high blood pressure Fairly rare by age 50 Unit 3 Page 13 The anxiety is free-floating (not linked to a specific stressor or threat) Often accompanied by depressed mood Could lead to high blood pressure Fairly rare by age 50 ○ Panic Disorder: One experiences panic attacks (minutes-long, sudden episodes of intense dread) & fears the unpredictableonset of the next episode. Panic Attacks often include chest pain, choking, or other frighteningsensations. Worries about anxiety often amplify anxiety symptoms Smokers have a doubled risk of panic disorder. After panic attacks, people may fear & avoid situations where panic attacks have struck (agoraphobia) ○ Phobias: One is intensely & irrationally afraid of a specific object, activity, or situation. Some phobias have specific triggers (ex. Heights, spiders, etc.) Not all phobias have specific triggers. □ Social Anxiety Disorder: Intense fear of other people's negative judgements,therefor they avoid potentiallyembarrassing social situations & experience anxiety when they take part in them. • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (OCD): Occurrence of unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions (compulsions), or both. ○ More common in teens & young adults 1 in 5 completely recover 40 years after (in a study) • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness, &/or insomnia that linger for 4+ weeks after a traumatic experience. ○ Commonality 25% of Iraq & Afghanistan veterans were diagnosed with PTSD Estimated 2/3 prostitutes experience PTSD Women are twice as likely to develop PTSD after a traumatic event ○ PTSD patients have smaller amygdala ○ Most do recover • Understanding Anxiety, OCD, & PTSD ○ Conditioning Through conditioning,a short list of events can create a long list of fears. □ Stimulus generalization occurs when a person experiences a fearful event & later develops a fear of similar events. □ Reinforcement helps maintain them. 58% of social anxiety disorders arise after a traumatic event ○ Cognition By observation we learn many of our fears. Past experiences shape our expectations & influence our interpretations& reactions. Anxiety is especially common when people can't switch off such intrusive thoughts & perceive a loss of control. ○ Biology Genes □ Genes can influence disorders by regulating neurotransmitters. □ Child abuse leaves long-termepigenetic marks. The Brain □ Experiences can leave fear circuits within the amygdala □ Higher amygdala activity Natural Selection □ Phobias focus on dangers faced by ancestors. □ Compulsive acts typically exaggerate survival aiding behaviors (ex. Grooming) Depressive Disorders & Bipolar Disorders • Potential Upsides to Sadness ○ Depression resembles a sort of psychic hibernation Slows us down, defuses aggression, lets go of unattainable goals, & restrains risk-taking ○ Mild sadness can even improve memory recall • But if taken to an extreme, sadness becomes maladaptive • There are 3 Disorders involving Depression… • Major Depressive Disorder: One experiences 2+ weeks with 5+ symptoms--one of which must include depressed mood or loss of interest/pleasure. ○ Symptoms: 1. Depressed mood most of the time 2. Challenges regulating sleep 3. Challenges regulating appetite & weight 4. Physical agitation or lack of enthusiasm/energy 5. Feeling worthless or guilty (poor self-esteem) 6. Problems thinking, concentrating,or making decisions 7. Dramatically reduced interest/enjoymentin most activities most of the time 8. Thinking repetitively of death or suicide • Dysthymia: Persistent depressive disorder Tends to be milder but often lasts 2+ years Unit 3 Page 14 ○ Tends to be milder but often lasts 2+ years ○ 2+ symptoms present (symptoms 1-6) • Bipolar Disorder: One alternates between depression & mania. (manic-depressive disorder) ○ Mania: A hyperactive, wildly optimistic state. Dangerously poor judgement is common □ Loud speech, decreased sexual inhibition □ Find advice annoying ○ Seasonal patterns sometimes occur • Understanding Depressive Disorders & Bipolar Disorder ○ Many behavioral & cognitive changes accompany depression Nearly half the time people exhibit other disorders ○ Depression is widespread 17% of US adults ○ Women are at double the risk ○ Most depressive episodes self-terminate Therapy can help speed recovery ○ Stressful events often precede depression ○ With each new generation, depression strikes earlier & affects more people. Now often hits late teens □ 90% Hide it from their parents May reflect increased amount of people coming forward about their depression ○ Biological Perspective Genetic Influences □ Strong correlation between twins □ Depressed gene regions have been discovered The Depressed Brain □ Brain activity is slowed in a depressed state □ Smaller frontallobes □ Norepinephrine is scarce during depression & excessive during mania □ Serotonin is scarce ○ The Social-Cognitive Perspective Explores how people's expectations & assumptions influencewhat they perceive Negative Thoughts & Negative Moods Interact □ Self-defeatingbeliefs & negative explanatory style feed depression's vicious cycle Often explain bad events in stable (constant) & internal (self-blame) ways. □ State Dependent Memory: Recalling experiences consistent with one's mood □ Learned helplessness may arise □ Rumination: Compulsive fretting (overthinking about problems) Depression's Vicious Cycle □ Depression both causes & results from stressful experiences ○ Suicide & Self-Injury Suicide □ Statistics US, Canada, & Australia double Britain, Italy, & Spain's suicide rate. Women are more likely to attemptsuicide Men are 2-4x more likely to succeed when attempting suicide Suicide rates increase @ late adulthood(peak @ middle age) 25% of suicides occur on Wednesday (in US) Suicide rates are higher among… ◊ Whites & Native-Americans (2x in the US) ◊ Rich ◊ Nonreligious ◊ Non-married 9% of people have contemplatedsuicide ◊ 3/10 actually attempt 25% of those succeed – 1/3 of these have tried before Self-Injury Rates □ Social suggestion may trigger suicide Rates increase after it appears on a highly viewed TV show Unit 3 Page 15 ◊ 3/10 actually attempt 25% of those succeed – 1/3 of these have tried before Self-Injury Rates □ Social suggestion may trigger suicide Rates increase after it appears on a highly viewed TV show Experiencing suicide in your family increases your risk 8x Self-Injury □ Tend to be less tolerant of emotionaldistress. □ Typically self-critical □ Typically have poor communication skills Schizophrenia • Schizophrenia: Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, &/or diminished, inappropriate emotional expression. • Symptoms: ○ Positive vs Negative Symptoms Patients with positive symptoms may experience hallucinations,disorganized & deluded speech, & inappropriatelaughter, tears, or rage. Patientswith negative symptoms may have toneless voices, expressionless faces, or mute & rigid bodies. ○ Disturbed Perceptions Hallucinations are common (sound, smell, visual, touch, taste) □ Most commonly sounds (voices) ○ Disorganized Thinking & Speech Delusions: A false belief, often of persecution or seemingly great importance. Paranoid tendencies (think they're being threatenedor pursued) Breakdown of selective attention (cannot filter out sensory stimuli) ○ Diminished & Inappropriate Emotions Expressed emotions are often inappropriate& split off from reality. Some lapse into an emotionless flat affect: state of no apparent feeling. Most have an impaired theory of mind: difficulty perceiving facial emotions & reading others' states of mind Motor Behavior □ Some perform senseless, compulsive acts. (Ex: continually rubbing an arm) □ Others have the condition catatonia: motionless for hours & then become agitated Sleep problems are common *With a supportive environment & medication 40% of patients will have periods of 1+ years of normal life experience (Others remain socially withdrawn & rejected into isolation for much of their lives) • Onset & Developmentof Schizophrenia ○ Statistics Nearly 1/100 people will experience schizophrenia this year. Typically strikes between ages of 16-30 □ Average is 18 for men & 25 for women Men tend to experience it earlier & more severely Child abuse victims are 3x more likely to develop schizophrenia ○ Chronic Schizophrenia: Symptoms usually appear by late adolescence/early adulthood.As people age, psychotic episodes last longer & recovery periods are shorter. Often exhibit constant negative symptoms of social withdrawal. Symptoms worsen over time ○ Acute Schizophrenia: Can begin @ an age; frequentlyoccurs in response to an emotionally traumatic event; has extended recovery periods. (AKA: reactive schizophrenia) More often exhibits positive symptoms More responsive to drug therapy • Understanding Schizophrenia ○ Schizophrenia is linked to abnormal brain tissue & genetic predispositions. ○ Brain Abnormalities Dopamine Overactivity Positive symptoms Medication blocks dopamine receptors→lessen symptoms Abnormal Brain Activity & Anatomy □ Low Frontal Lobe activity Out-of-sync neurons disrupt integrated functioning □ High Thalamus activity Hallucinations □ Small Thalamus Inability to filter sensory stimuli (inattention) □ High Amygdala activity Paranoia □ Enlarged Fluid Areas & corresponding Shrinkage/Thinning of Cerebral Tissue Thought Disorganization ◊ More shrinkage & fluid area→More severe □ Small Cortex & Corpus Callosum (connects 2 brain hemispheres) Prenatal Environment & Risk Unit 3 Page 16 □ Enlarged Fluid Areas & corresponding Shrinkage/Thinningof Cerebral Tissue Thought Disorganization ◊ More shrinkage & fluid area→More severe □ Small Cortex & Corpus Callosum (connects 2 brain hemispheres) Prenatal Environment & Risk □ Fetal-virus infections contribute to the development of schizophrenia ○ Genetic Factors (YES) 1/10 patients have a sibling/parent with schizophrenia If your identical twin has schizophrenia you have a 50% chance of getting it ○ Environmental Triggers There are no environmental triggers that are strong enough to be a sole cause schizophrenia development Dissociative, Personality, & Eating Disorders • Dissociative Disorders: Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, & feelings. ○ Very rare & controversial **Dissociation itself is not rare (many feel a sense of being unreal or separated from one's body) ○ Fugue State: Sudden loss of memory or change in identity Often a response to an overwhelmingly stressful situation ○ Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): Patient exhibits 2+ distinct & alternating personalities. Understanding DID □ Evidence of differing body & brain states Handedness sometimes changes Shifts in visual acuity & eye-muscle balance have been recorded as patients switch personalities □ Brain Abnormalities Shrinkage in brain areas dedicated to memory & threat detection Heightened activity in brain areas associated with control & inhibition of traumatic memories □ DID is coping/defensive response to anxiety • Personality Disorders: Inflexible & enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. ○ 3 General Characteristic Categories Anxiety Eccentric/Odd Behaviors Dramatic/Impulsive Behaviors ○ Antisocial Personality Disorder: Patient exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing (even toward friends/family); may be aggressive & ruthless or a clever con artist Psychopaths & Sociopaths Low emotional intelligence Often evident by age 15 (1/2 of these children will continue this disorder into adulthood) Impulsive behaviors typically with little/no remorse UnderstandingAntisocial Personality Disorder □ Less frontallobe tissue □ Low autonomic nervous system arousal □ Low stress hormone levels □ Genetics create a vulnerabilityto the disorder □ Child abuse & poverty increases risk • Eating Disorders ○ Anorexia Nervosa: Patient maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly underweight. Sometimes accompanied by excessive exercise Most common in females (9/10) & adolescents 50% display a binge-purge-depressioncycle ○ Bulimia Nervosa: Patient alternates between binge eating with purging or fasting. Most common in females & late teens/early 20s Unlike anorexia, bulimia is marked by weight fluctuation within or above normal ranges (harder to identify) ○ Binge-Eating Disorder: Patient exhibits significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt No purging or fasting Typically leads to being overweight Unit 3 Page 17
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