Biology Study Guide: Test April 5
Biology Study Guide: Test April 5 BIOL 1010
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Snell on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1010 at Auburn University taught by Kearley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see A Survey of Life Laboratory in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
Biology Study Guide for Exam III What you should study: —notes taken in class —objectives on canvas —application questions on canvas —this study guide! 1. What function does mucus have in the respiratory system?—prevents drying of the lungs, traps dust and pathogens, contains surfactant (allows exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide 2. What is the difference between coughing, sneezing and snoring?—coughing is the irritation behind the uvula; sneezing is the irritation above the uvula; snoring is when folds of tissue blocks your airway when you sleep 3. What happens during inhalation?—diaphragm contracts, the external intercostal muscles contract (raises the rib cage), the pressure drops in the lungs so air rushes in (because the pressure outside the body is greater than inside), oxygen diffuses across the alveolar membrane into pulmonary capillaries, carbon dioxide comes up from the capillaries and into the alveoli 4. What is the path air takes from nasal cavity to alveoli?—nasal cavity, pharynx, glottis, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli 5. What happens during passive exhalation?—carbon dioxide diffuses into alveoli, muscles relax and lungs passively recoil, pressure in alveolar sacs is greater than outside air pressure, air ﬂows out of lungs 6. When do you normally use active inhalation?—when you need to get ride of carbon dioxide faster than normal. Internal intercostal muscles pull thoracic wall down and air is forced out. 7. Deﬁne vital capacity, tidal volume and residual volume—vital capacity is the amount of air that can move out of the lungs in 1 breath (very small amount); tidal volume is air ﬂowing into and out of the lungs in the respiratory cycle (about 1.5 liters); residual volume remains in lungs (keeps them inﬂated) 8. What happens during gas exchange?—oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the membrane, oxygen ﬂows into pulmonary capillaries, carbon dioxide ﬂow out into alveoli. 9. Water and solutes are added by: absorption from liquid and solid food, metabolism and respiration 10. Water and solutes are lost by: urinary excretion, evaporation from respiratory surfaces, sweat, elimination in feces 11. What are the kidney’s job?—ﬁlter water, mineral ions, organic wastes and other substances from the blood 12. How much of it returns to the blood?—99% 13. Deﬁne urine, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra—urine is ﬂuid that rids the body of water and solutes that are not needed; ureter is a tubular channel between the kidney and the urinary bladder; urinary bladder is a muscular sac that stores urine; urethra is a muscular tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body 14. What is the most painful thing that can happen to you?—kidney stones 15. What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?—the nephron 16. What is ﬁltration?—when pressure ﬁlters blood by forcing water and solutes out of the glomerular capillaries 17. What is reabsorption?—when solutes and water move out of the nephron tubules are absorbed into the peritubular capillaries and return to general circulation 18. What is secretion?—solutes from the peritubular capillaries are secreted into the nephron 19. What is excretion?—water and solutes that were not reabsorbed ﬂow into the renal pelvis and is eliminated from the bod yay the urinary tract 20. What are some other secretory organs and structures in the body?—sweat glands, large intestine and the lungs 21. What do hormones do for you?—regulates processes such as growth, reproduction and maintenance 22. The pineal gland produces melatonin, thyroid gland is important in growth, thymus gland helps with immunity in children 23. Where is the hypothalamus and what does it do?—in forebrain, secretes hormones which are conveyed to the pituitary gland 24. Where is the pituitary gland located?—at the base of the hypothalamus; contains the posterior and anterior lobe 25. What does the posterior lobe secrete?—2 hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus; antidiuretic hormone (responsible for reabsorption of water from the nephron) and oxytocin (the cuddle hormone and in females it is responsible for labor contractions and milk letdown) 26. What does the anterior lobe secrete?—follicle stimulating hormone (females-causes follicle to mature, males-stimulates testes to produce sperm), luteinizing hormone (female- ovulation; males-testes to produce testosterone), thyroid stimulating hormone (stimulates the thyroid gland to produce hormones), adrenocorticotropin hormone (stimulates cortex of adrenal glands to produce cortisol), prolactin (milk production in females), somatotropin (growth hormone) 27. What is gigantism?—producing too much somatotropin 28. What is acromegaly?—when you produce somatotropin when you are done growing. Your facial features thicken, ﬁngers grow 29. When we have physical touch, how do our hormones change?—oxytocin goes up, cortisol goes down 30. Where is the adrenal medulla found? What does it secrete?—the inner part of the adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine (ﬁght or ﬂight hormone) 31. What does the adrenal cortex secrete?—cortisol (raises blood glucose levels); cushing syndrome is the over production of cortisol) 32. What does your thyroid gland help regulate?—metabolism 33. Where is it located?—base of the trachea 34. What does it secrete?—thyroxine (regulates metabolism) and calcitonin (promotes deposition of calcium into the bone) 35. What is a goiter?—when the thyroid gland gets bigger because of not enough iodine 36. Whats the difference between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism?—hypothyroidism occurs when there are low levels of blood in the thyroid. This can make you sleep a lot, can cause fatigue, gain weight, dry skinned, confused and depressed. Hyperthyroidism is when blood levels in the thyroid gland are too high. This causes increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, profuse sweating and weight loss. 37. What does the parathyroid gland produce?—parathyroid hormone (raises blood calcium levels; goes from bone to blood) 38. What does the pancreas secrete—glucagon (raises blood glucose levels) and insulin (causes glucose uptake by the muscle and adipose cells from the blood, lowers blood glucose level) 39. Where does diabetes mellitus cause glucose to accumulate?—in the blood 40. Difference between type 1 and 2 diabetes—type 1 is juvenile onset diabetes and requires insulin shots; type 2 happens when cells produce less insulin and can be controlled with a diet and taking prescription drugs 41. What do the testes secrete?—testosterone 42. What are male secondary sex characteristics?—facial hair, broad shoulders 43. Males are 4x more likely to die in an accident than women 44. What do ovaries produce?—estrogen (produces secondary sex characteristics and maintains pregnancy) and progesterone (maintains the uterine lining for pregnancy 45. When did you have a thymus gland?—as a child. Thymosine hormones cause the maturation of lymphocytes (white blood cells) 46. What does the pineal gland produce?—melatonin 47. What does melatonin do?—delays the onset of sexual maturity, regulates biorhythms such as day and night activity cycles (kiwi helps too) 48. What is seasonal affective disorder?—SAD, a major effect on depression. Alaska has the highest suicidal rate 49. Where does sperm production take place?—testes 50. If sperm is in the vas deferens, where did it just come from?—the epididymus 51. What is semen?—mix of sperm and glandular secretions (the seminal vesicle secretes fructose in the semen so the sperm can use it as an energy source) 52. What does the prostate gland and bulbourethral gland do?—its secretions buffer the pH of the female reproductive tract 53. What is the leading cause of death for men?—prostate cancer 54. What type of cancer should young boys look out for?—testicular cancer
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