Anthro 2A FINAL STUDY GUIDE
Anthro 2A FINAL STUDY GUIDE Anthro 2A
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joyce Nguy on Monday November 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anthro 2A at University of California - Irvine taught by DOUGLAS, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see INTR SOCIOCULT ANTH in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 11/30/15
December 9 2015 Anthro 2A Final Study Guide Anthro 2A WEEK EIGHT 1 Macro and Local Levels of Social Analysis a local i one village in a society ii one community b macro i looking at relations between societies ii people producing stuff for global markets iii migration iv consumption of imports in shores far away v Mokas 2 History of Current Global World a imperialism and colonialism i imperialism practice of running an empire 1 subjugating and dominating others ii colonialism special kind of imperialism 1 imperialism that has direct administration of subjugated people 2 send your own people over and they form the government of this conquered area 3 British conquered Asia created colony British India 4 people of this colony subjects of queen and king b late 15th century Western and Northern Europe c three waves of western European Imperialism 1 Discovery of the New World a Spain Portugal b United Provinces of Netherlands Great Britain France c imperialism similar model to that of former empires 2 Early industrial capitalism a great britain in 18th and early 19th centuries b industrial capitalism c british economy has new meanings new economic demands i raw materials ii markets 3 Late 19th and early 20th centuries a other nations industrialize b mad dash to divide up the world i problem they didn t know anything about these new places which didn t make any sense just drew lines through tribes c Japan industrialize very quickly 3 How to Profit from the Colonies a direct settlement of overseas territory i send your own people over to new land ii form new communities control resources iii penal colonies send criminals to new land b develop resource extraction i mining ii plantations growing cash crops c make use of labor of local peoples i cheaplabor ii direction coercion force them to do labor 1 slave trade 2 blackbirding in the Pacific a indentured service workers work for a set period of time and pay comes at the end of that period of work b blackbirding is when people are FORCED into indentured service 3 conscnp on a order to work on a specific thing b MULAN c ex order for all young men to work on a road d costly mold resources to force people iii indirect means 1 taxes a TAX HAD TO BE PAID IN THE CURRENCY OF THE FOREIGN POWER 2 take away people s land a leave them only small piece b but now that small piece is insufficient c they re going to have to supplement now they have to work in your tin mines coffee etc i British colonial administration of Kenya ii took over 70 of all farmable land and did next to nothing with it 4 impact of colonialism upon the colonized a depopulation i disease 1 North and South America and Pacific Islands 2 3 smallpox measles influenza Native American Populations US and Canada only a 15th century estimates 7 million people b population drops to 390000 over 90 of all people ii wars of conquest and subjugation 1 91900 6 Herero in German SW Africa Herero Revolt in 1904 8000 Herero rose up and pushed Germans out 1500 German troops sent to retake the colony execution like Herero population of 100000 reduced to 20000 by 1906 in genodde 1 2 3 4 systematically trying to kill of an entire group of people Native Americans The Frontier a cultural ordering of space b we give meanings to spaces which affects what we do and think about those spaces can t think about sex in church c Frontier West and East i West nature chaos East culture ii transform nature to culture 1 tame the wild west iii Native Americans become part of the nature they need to tame an impediment dehumanized Native Americans Ex State of California a in 19th century hired INDIAN BOUNTY HUNTERS i 10scalp 20head ii US Federal Government reimbursed CA 1 millions 5 order dollars 111815 ANTHRO 2A WEEK EIGHT LECTURE TWO Colonialism 1 Impacts of Imperialism upon the Colonized a depopulation i disease ii wars in genodde b dispossession of land land seizure 1 Indian Removal Act of 1830 2 Trail of Tears thousands of Native Americans died being relocated 3 taking indigenous people and putting them in land they don t want reserves where the land sucks 2 Indirect Means of Taking Land a cheaper b changing local systems of land tenure communal land vs privatized land 1 communal land not held individually Trobrianders but held as a lineage Our land associated with ancestors your connection to the people of the past is through the land itself Don t sell communal land 2 privatized land individually owned land 3 commodified land gives land a value A market where you can buy and sell land c Kingdom of Hawai i The Mahele of 1848 chief Kamehameha managed to take over and unite all the islands established Hawaiian state kingdom of Hawaii 19th century constitutional monarchy Hawaii had communal system of land but people wanted to buy land for sugarcane Mahele 1848 LAND DISTRIBUTION ACT distributed and privatized land Bit by bit Hawaiians lost their lands Bad things would happen and Americans came to buy land for huge sugar cane plantations d Abusive forms of labor control colonial administrators often felt free to use abusive means to get people to work on projects Rubber Production in the Belgian Congo the automobile and the Rubber Boom 1 automobile dramatically increased demand for rubber 2 Belgian King said to use WHATEVER MEANS NECESSARY to produce as much rubber as possible a mutilation extortion e Environmental Degradation short sighted initiative of colonial administrations 1 get in get profits go somewhere else and get in and get profits 2 were not concerned with environment instead of terracing build on hillside all soil washed away people were left with destroyed ecosystems Nauru Phosphate Mining 1 a pacific isle 2 colonized by Germany 3 developed phosphate mining 4 stripmined so that theres nothing left of the island f undermining local cultural traditions i ii iii iv colonial administrators of mindset of change backwards ways of these peoples progress changing people into their own culture forcibly changed aspects of culture local languages forbidden 3 Anthropology and Colonialism a anthropology as a discipline emerges in context of colonialism colonial powers send anthropologists out to conquered colonies to find info about them to better administrate and achieve OUR goals anthropological theory 1 consider these theories by resituating and looking in the context of colonialism b deconstruction when we considered scientific racism and unilinealism we critiqued these where do ideastheories come from what do ideastheories do c Scientific racism i ii iii iv humankind are divided up into discrete biological types races races are not equal superior and inferior races designed to find slavery dehumanization failure to qualify for human rights Justifies slavery d Social Evolutionism I ii iii iv v social danvinism all of societies of world is in competition for resources more fit societies will dominate less fit societies natural competition unilinear evolution 1 idea that all societies change in one particular prescribed way evolves in a set sequence captured by stage model differences in society societies get stuck and progress stops societies stuck in process of unilinear evolutionary development White Man s Burden we must help our less fortunate brothers and sisters in the world W WN 112015 ANTHRO 2A WEEK EIGHT 1 Decolonized World LECTURE THREE a Imperialism is not dead persists b First world Second world third world terminology c instead 2 Capitalist world system a different way of looking at economic and political relations than first world second world third world b define a single global system of economic and political relations in which capitalist relations of production and exchange dominate c concept defines three different sets of position i core 1 the nationstate is the unit 2 nations that are fully industrialized people have a high standard of living powerful influential wealthy nations 3 production is capital extensive money spent on technology not very labor extensive 4 import raw materials tin rubber oil and exported cars television sets etc 5 Ex US Japan UK Western Europe Canada ii semiperiphery 1 in between 2 are industrialized 3 lack the wealth and standards of living 4 Ex Brazil India Mexico South Korea iii periphery 1 nations with very little industrialization 2 low standards of living for their peoples poverty 3 generally laborintensive 4 export raw materials cash crops import manufactured goods 5 Africa d dynamic system i always changing ii change these tiers of position occupied by your relations to other nations of the world Can change their position EX US and Japan was peripheral but became core Spain and Portugal was in core now semiperiphery e Globalized World i globality 1 the phenomenon of being in vast relations 2 consuming products produced far far away 3 media television 4 the idea perception of living in a globalized world a when one thinks about themselves they think about a big world of globalization b i m in a globalized world and i m a part of it c im Tongan two hundred years ago im not from there i m from here now I m tongan and part of the world ii nation state 1 unit for political organization 2 loses some of its relevance in globalized world 3 people are moving across borders now nation state does not confine them anymore 4 creates an infrastructure 5 not going away but the relevance of it is changing 3 Capitalism a what is it 4 Attribute Capitalism Trobriands a attributes orientation towards values how to use value i organization of labor in production b capitalism i login of reinvestment of profits for never ending capital accumulation ii commodity things you get with money to commodity iii commodity to money to commodity iv money to commodity to money v always growing othenNise its a recession c trobriand i redistribution 1 chief overturning yam house 2 logic of kayasas Anthro 2A WEEK NINE 1 Capitalism a Attributes i orientation towards value 1 how to use value ii organization of labor 1 find way to allocate labor iii control over means of production 1 things that you need to produce in society resources etc b Capitalism i reinvestment for never ending capital accumulation vii Commodity to commodity commodity to money to commodity money to commodity to money the goal is for more money labor power is bought and sold as a commodity 1 system of wages and salaries 2 class structure a we have a capacity to do work b in capitalism we are able to take capacity to do work and sell it to people not selling ourselves not slavery selling capacity to do work c we can extract this from ourselves control over means of production 1 private ownership c Trobriands redistribution 1 chief overturning yam house 2 kayasa organization of labor men as fathers or brothers grow yams for daughters or sisters 1 KINSHIP organizes labor 2 hierarchal relations of kinship chief asks for yams from men of tribe control over means of production 1 how is land controlled a CORPORATE CONTROL b the lineages control the land 2 Avoid the Perils of Totalisins a totalisins a form of misrepresentation 3 World Capitalist System Globality a industrialization of countries made for the same economic needs b cultural values are taken for granted labor c in capitalism things have to be done in different ways 4 Intro to Ong s Book a Malaysia geography 1 peninsula heavy rainforest wet rice agriculture former british colony now independent nation 2020 program to fully industrialize Malaysia by 2020 1 by encouraging foreign companies to come 2 makes malaysia very attractive a wages low not a lot of taxes or environmental laws makes it easy to come here and make a lot of money 3 microchips 4 various tensions emerge a hire young single women 5 changes in global political economy a manufactured work is becoming less and less in US but has shifted to countries like Malaysia and Mexico b what has changed i routinization of production 1 9 technological changes in machines and management techniques for people make things a routine so simple to do things routine becomes subconscious no longer calls for better work conditions or wage DON T NEED SKILLED LABOR TO DO MANUFACTURING ANYMORE 112515 Anthro 2A WEEK NlNE LECTURE TWO 1 Recent changes in global political economy a routinization of production i one given improvements in machines plus automation improvements as well as various management techniques ii don t need skilled labor for most manufacturing jobs anymore b peripherysemiperipherythird world i poveny ii work for very low wages c multinational corporations i when cost of labor is low corporations will move out of America to other countries ii MNC multinational corporations not contained within a single nation operating within many nations d trends i in today s world ii highly routinized productionmanufacturing is shifting to the third world periphery and semiperiphery iii competition in 3rd world for multinational corporation investment 1 establish free trade zones FTZs a benefits workers safety environment checkbut here s a specific provence in our country where you don t have to pay these things b malaysia has established FTZs to attract multinational corporations 2 Creating capitalist workers in Malaysian free trade zones a was single young women people don t come readymade from nature to work in industrial places need to mold workers to be efficient industrial workers efficient capitalist workers must be produced by PROLETRIANIZATION establishing DISCIPLINE i capitalistdiscipline 1 kind of power not one that people wieldbut a force that keeps them working 2 body of the worker where can your body be uniform 3 tries to transform into docile bodies no resistance 1 consequences in the eyes of the villagers the world is also inhabited by spirits and demons called the HANTU that cause all kind of harm WILL POSSESS YOU 2 can lose days of labor because women won t come back unless shaman comes to exorcise Hantu 3 Interpreting Spirit Possession a b 39 FDQQ not studying them as an act of demonic possession but a social practice looks at village life what s life like in the village notions of gender power relations effect of single young women working for wagesas wage earners effects on preexisting patterns of male authority organization of the factories where these women worked negative public opinion of the women workers throughout Malaysia 4 Gend r village and family life a b C gender is a cultural construct people think of natural in different ways Kampung Life general term for village i mix of two different cultural sources ii Adat older cultural order matrilineal iii Islam are muslim entered area in 13th century by 16th century most Malaysians have already converted 1 tremendous cultural diversity in Islam 2 has been received in different ways men women authority and spiritual essence i father and mother in family life 1 authority rests with the father islamic tenant 2 but vestigial matriliny not strong patriarchal emphasis ii gender and authority 1 gendered constructs men are assumed by nature to have stronger spiritual essence stronger moral character willpower to resist feeling temptation and do the right thing governed by reason and not carnal passion 2 women of weaker spiritual essence weaker moral character don t have the same willpower to resist feeling in the moment feelings get carried away make bad decisions d women are a threat to men i women can tempt men with their bodies ii destroy honor e therefore women must be controlled i don t talk to men who aren t your relatives ii must avoid dangerous places where hantu are said to be lurking Because weaker spirits means more possession f spiritual vulnerability and stages of a woman s life i spiritual weakness of women changes as they get older build spiritual moral strength ii youth most weak spiritual state stay in village 1 under authority of their father iii mature women 1 most dangerous 2 Janda woman who is divorced or widowed not under a man s authority but is sexual most dangerous woman iv elderly women 1 strong spirits go wherever they want Anthro 2A WEEK TEN FINAL WED DECEMBER 9TH 8001000 AM F288 SCANTRON PENCIL PHOTO ID 1 Time a in the village and in the factory is different b Westerners linear sense of time time goes in one direction in seconds hours Homogenous units preceding on in a direction linearly now that this time has passed it has passed and gone forever c Cyclical Time i sun comes up and rises and sets again over and over ii spring summer fall winter over and over again plant in spring harvest in fall iii reincarnation d Time in the village i time is past not spent ii time is not something measured out in units not divided up according to rigid schedule instead time flows with the rhythm of activities that happen through the day iii going to meet someone I ll meet you in the early morning iv time flows given the rhythm of activity v NO DISTINCTION between social time and work time 1 men talk to people and neighbors while working 2 if someone is hurrying and can t talk they are morally suspect people are suspicious if they can t take that time 3 functional whole e Factory i time is not past time is spent ii time is a linear model iii rigid schedule 900 start work need to clock in at 900 iv time can be wasted time is money v wasting time wasting money vi constantly shifting work schedules is a mess no set schedule makes the body not settle in to schedule source of stress vii these women work and then go home all the chores waiting for them another source of stress viii The Fractured Day 1 while in the village social time and work time were a seamless whole 2 but on the clock there is no socializing 2 School work and young women a boys and girls in village schools i girls do better than boys ii by secondary school high school boys do much better than girls iii by the time you go to secondary school girls are now given chores explains lower test scores but boys aren t given chores daughter given less time to study b differing parental expectations for sons v daughters i sons 1 would be able to get through school do well and be able to land the much coveted government jobs 3 The Factory 2 boys excused from doing household chores and instead told to study and do well in school to get government jobs 3 will endure long periods of unemployment for sons daughters 1 daughter is to get married and pass the authority to husband and start a family in Malaysia young women get to go to work and make wages at the factory TEMPORARY job because expectation is to get married and start family this is just a delay of a few years to make wages VESTIGIAL MATRILINY mother determines where all the money is distributed single young women now have power over their brothers have money a employing a female work force microchip assembly around the world are done by single young women benefits 1 keep wages low a work is seen as temporary not career just a few years given particular cultural expectations gendered beliefs what a woman should be doing b when you work somewhere a long time you need to give raises but when it s temporary it keeps the wage low not worried about pensions companies able to avoid inefficiencies that are associated with deteriorating worker eyesight a headaches from the strain microscopes put on eyes b only get a couple years out of the workers right about the time eyesight starts to go they re quitting c cultural expectation no problem company doesn t have to worry about longterm eye problems top local structures of patriarchal authority to create worker compliance with corporate goals a hire single young women to be workers hire MEN in charge so workers won t cause problems local structure of patriarchal society b women believe women are weak and men are strong c women need to be under the authority of men grew up with it in village d want women to be docile bodies b reproduction of patriarchy in factories patriarchy hierarchy where men are on top ii hire women workers but make supervisors males iii companies like to use family terms to speak of workers there workers are daughters supervisors are fathers recreate patriarchy iv have prayer halls in factories Muslims on breaks can pray 1 got to make sure people constantly coming in 2 will organize tours to take the parents to the factories got to keep parents happy so they ll send their daughters v however men supervising them in the factory is not recreated from the villages in the village older women supervise young women source of stress c capitalistdiscipline i power 1 traditionally we think of power as attributes of persons the king has lots of power 2 power is form of energy that operates through a technology ii what does power do and how does it do it 1 makes women produce microchips very very efficiently
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