STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 4
STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 4 BSC197
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annabelle Shaffer on Monday November 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC197 at Illinois State University taught by Wade Nichols in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 11/30/15
Study Guide: Exam 4 BSC 197 Test Date - December 4, 2015 Homeostasis Homeostasis is maintaining a state of health. This includes maintaining optimum temperature, pH, salt concentration, glucose concentration, etc. For humans, the optimum temperature is 37 degrees C and pH of 7.4. To maintain homeostasis, the animal takes no action unless there is an imbalance. Animals also have feedback systems to maintain optimum levels. Ectotherms: animals that depend on external heat sources for body heat Endotherms: an animal that maintains body heat by internal body functions as opposed to ambient heat. Torpor Torpor is when the body decreases metabolism and other activities to keep itself alive in unfavorable conditions. Examples of this include cold-hibernation and heat-estivation. Types of Organisms Classiﬁed by Diet Herbivores-eat plants Carnivores-eat other animals Omnivores-eat both plants and animals (humans are normally omnivores) Animals who exclusively eat plants or animals have specialized teeth for such a diet. Omnivores have teeth that have characteristics of both herbivores and carnivores. An animal’s diet must supply the following essentials: • chemical energy (calorie content) • organic molecules (protein, polysaccharides, nucleic acid, lipids) • vitamins and minerals EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE - BSC 197 Under- and Mal- Nutrition Undernutrition is eating too few calories. If an animals eats too few calories, the body begins to break down muscle to stay alive. Malnutrition is not getting the proper amounts of nutrients. Digestion Ingestion - eating or feeding Digestion - breaking down the food into molecules the body can absorb Absorption - animals’ cells take up small molecules Elimination - any molecules that are left undigested by the body pass through the digestive system Digestion starts in the mouth. Chewing breaks down the food by physical methods and saliva breaks down the food chemically. In the stomach, enzymes are mixed with the food and the chyme muscle churns the food/enzyme mix. Digestion of macromolecules requires the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. The pancreas is responsible for producing amylases, proteases, nuclease, and lipase.The liver produces bile which helps in the usage of lipids. The bile is stored in the gallbladder until secreted into the small intestine. The small intestine also produces digestive enzymes. Nutrients are absorbed on the small intestine’s surface area. The large intestine is used to reabsorb water. The colon is responsible for removing water from the feces as it passes through. The rectum holds the feces until time for defecation. The appendix is involved in immune function and ﬂora archiving. Circulatory System Role: allows cells to obtain nutrients and oxygen. It also allows cells to get rid of waste products and carbon dioxide. Open System: hemolymph is not always contained in the circulatory system. The leaked hemolymph will act as interstitial ﬂuid. There is also an exchange of molecules between the cells and the hemolymph. The hemolymph will eventually drain into the sinuses and be channeled back into the blood stream. Closed System: blood stays in the system and any exchange of materials will occur by movement across the blood vessel walls. Blood in a closed system should not be leaking out to surrounding tissue. Human Cardiovascular System Heart: a muscle that is used to pump blood through the blood vessels EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE - BSC 197 Arteries: blood vessels that are used to take blood AWAY from the heart to the capillary beds. Arterioles are the small branches of arteries. Capillaries: thin blood vessels that are involved in material exchanges Veins: blood vessels that are used to take blood from the capillary beds TO the heart. Venues are the small branches of veins. Blood Flow through the Heart EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE - BSC 197 To keep blood moving, arteries rely on pressure from the heartbeat. Veins rely on skeletal muscle contractions to maintain a ﬂow of blood. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which the arteries narrow. This has the potential to turn into a heart attack due to the decreased blood ﬂow in the organism. This condition is the result of chronic inﬂammation. Acommon cause is diet. It could also lead to a stroke if the blood ﬂow to the brain is blocked. Blood Composition Blood’s ﬂuid component is plasma. It is comprised of water, ions, proteins, and material needing to be transported. Red blood cells are the most abundant and contain hemoglobin which binds to oxygen. White blood cells -aka leukocytes- are important in immune function. Platelets are important for the functions in blood clotting. Blood clotting occurs when a blood vessel is damaged. Platelets will plug the cite. Aseries of reactions will occur to produce ﬁbrin. Fibrin is used to hold platelets in place until the blood vessel’s hole can be repaired permanently. This ﬁbrin would show up as a “scab”. Hemophilia is a condition is which the person lacks clotting factors. Respiration Respiration is the gas exchange to take up oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide. Ventilation is the process of passing of air or water over the respiratory surfaces. Structures involved in gas exchange: gills, tracheal systems, and lungs. Positive pressure breathing: taking in air into expanded structures in the mouth, seal off mouth and nose goes away and these pouches are constricted, air pressure increases, air is forced into lungs. Amphibians use positive pressure breathing. Negative pressure breathing: as you inhale the diaphragm and rib muscles contract. This draws air in. Air goes out as you exhale relaxing the diaphragm and rib muscles. Humans use negative pressure breathing. Hemoglobin: binds to oxygen and stores it until the surrounding oxygen pressure drops. Hemoglobin is affected by pH levels. At a low pH level, oxygen is released. EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE - BSC 197 4 Myoglobin: a respiratory pigment (like hemoglobin) that allows animals (usually marine animals) to store and retain oxygen until they release the oxygen at later time during their dive. Infectious Disease and the Immune System Pathogen: a tiny organism that causes a disease in its host Virulence: ability of an organism to cause disease Transmission of Pathogens Direct Transmission (typically less severe): a pathogen goes directly from one host to another. Examples: cold, ﬂu, measles Vector-borne Transmission: pathogen is transmitted to a new host by someone who is not a host. Examples: water, food, mosquitos, doctors/nurses Transmission and Symptoms • Coughing and sneezing cause pathogens to become air-borne • Water-borne pathogens typically cause diarrhea • Mosquito-borne pathogens cause malaise in the host Inﬂammation and Host Responses • Inﬂammation is the recruitment of specialized cells to a certain area. There is an increase in blood ﬂow which can result in swelling, redness, and increased temperature. • Flu-like symptoms are usually in response to viral infections. They include fever, malaise, and myalgia. Immune System Role: kill foreign molecules (with the exception of food) Main 2 Branches • Innate Immunity: looks at the broad traits of pathogens and is early to respond • Adaptive Response: looks at speciﬁc traits of the pathogens and is slower than innate but more precise EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE - BSC 197 Antigen Presentation Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) - how cells present antigens MHC Class I • viruses produce capsid proteins to present • invasive bacteria produce fewer free antigens when invading MHC Class II • used to show antigens of the pathogens present in the blood stream Immune Cells • Macrophages: present in blood stream and tissues, presents antigens • Dendritic cells: most common antigen presenter, located in lymph nodes, interacts w/other immune cells • Neutrophils: most abundant leukocyte, can deliver harmful chemicals via vesicles • Helper T-cells: recognize antigens, inform other immune cells via cytokines • Cytotoxic T-cells: recognize antigens, release toxic chemicals to kill infected cells • Natural Killer Cells: kill cells that are not producing MHC I molecules • B-cells: produce antibodies that bind to speciﬁc antigens Immunoglobulins • Antibodies: proteins that are used to bind to antigens • T-cell Receptor: binds antigens that are presented on the MHC scaffold, located on he surface of T-cells • B-cell Receptor: binds antigens that are presented on MHC II, located on the surface of B- cells Vaccinations Vaccinations are used to present antigens as puriﬁed molecules (they are dead pathogens so they are not able to cause any disease). Vaccines allow the immune system to see a dead version of the disease and learn to ﬁght it before it has to ﬁght the live version later on in life. As a result of having the vaccine, the immune system is better prepared to ﬁght the live version of the virus and can clear it out of the body rapidly. EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE - BSC 197 Osmoregulation and Excretion Osmoregulation: the process of maintaining a balance of water and solutes in physiological systems Osmoconformers: same osmolarity as the surrounding environment (Marine animals) Osmoregulators: maintain a range of osmolarity by a regulated function Challenges of Osmoregulation Saltwater ﬁsh: the higher salt concentration in ocean water causes the animal to lose water and take up salt Freshwater ﬁsh: the lower salt concentration in the ocean water causes the animal to lose salt and take up water Land animals: will dehydrate if there is a lack of water Osmoregulation requires a large amount of energy due to its use of active transports to maintain a gradient. This gradient is between the animal and the surrounding environment. Nitrogenous Waste Excretion: the process of removing harmful materials Nitrogenous waste: waste resulting from the breaking down of proteins and nucleic acids Types: • Ammonia • very toxic • becomes very diluted in the ocean water when excreted • aquatic animals • Urea • less toxic than ammonia • requires a lot of energy for the animal to convert ammonia to urea • mammals, amphibians, ﬁsh • Uric Acid • relatively non-toxic when compared to ammonia and urea • excreted as a semi-solid paste • requires a lot of energy to convert ammonia to uric acid • birds, reptiles EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE - BSC 197 Human Excretion Kidneys are responsible for the majority of the excretion work. The main to regions of the kidney are the renal cortex (outer layer) and the renal medulla (inner layer). The renal artery is responsible for bringing blood to the kidney’s capillaries. The renal vein is responsible for bringing blood from the capillaries back to the HEART. The nephrons are responsible for blood ﬁltration. Any waste collected in the nephrons is directed to the ureter (large tube). The best diagram for the structure of the nephrons is located in the lecture slide shows. It is on slide 9 of the “osmoexcret” powerpoint which is located in ReggieNet under Resources and Materials> Exam 4 Material> Powerpoint Files. Hormones and the Endocrine System Endocrine System: responsible for long-range cell signaling; organs involved are called glands. Hormones: signaling molecules that act as legals binding to cell receptors Types of Hormones: • Polypeptides: proteins serving as signaling molecules • Steroids: cholesterol base, 4-ring structures • Amines: synthesized from a single amino acid • Water-soluble: polypeptides, hydrophilic amines • bind to membrane associated receptors • causes cytoplasmic or nuclear response • Lipid-soluble: steroids, hydrophobic amines • soluble hormones that bind to the receptors located inside the target cell • causes alterations in transcription pattern and nuclear responses Main Glands • Pineal Gland: regulates sleep patterns by releasing melatonin • Hypothalamus: regulate pituitary activity • Pituitary Gland: regulates gonads, growth hormones, lactation, water retention, social behavior • Thyroid Gland: primary regulator of metabolic function • Parathyroid: works with thyroid to regulate calcium levels • Adrenal Glands: ﬁght/ﬂight response, regulates the reabsorption of Na+ and K+ in kidneys • Pancreas: secretes insulin which decreases the levels of glucose EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE - BSC 197 8 • Gonads • Ovaries (F): produce estrogens, progestins • Testes (M): produce androgens The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are physically connected. Posterior pituitary secretes neurohormones that are synthesized in the hypothalamus. Anterior pituitary regulates the hormones released by the hypothalamus. To regulate calcium, the parathyroid gland increases Ca++ via another enzyme. Bones also release Ca++; the kidneys then take up an increased amount of Ca++. Stress and the Adrenal Glands Hypothalamus receives information about the stress. The hypothalamus then sends an immediate nerve impulse to stimulate the adrenal glands to produce epinephrine. The hypothalamus can also release long-lasting steroids. EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE - BSC 197
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