Midterm 2 Study Guide
Midterm 2 Study Guide PSY 202
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Janiel Celeena Santos on Monday November 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Measelle J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 11/30/15
Week 7 - Psych 202 Lecture Psychopathology Psychopathology: refers to mental disorder, mental distress and or abnormal/maladaptive behavior The disease model of psychopathology is most commonly used within psychiatry Pathology refers to disease processes or a disorder In Psychology , psychopathology is conceptualized on a continuum Disease/Disorder vs Dimension/Continuum Abnormalities in Relation to Psychopathology Personal suffering: Subjective distress Violates normal standards of conduct Disability: Harmful Dysfunction Statistical Approach: abnormal if rare Diagnosable: behavior conforms to specified patterns Models of Psychopathology Etiology (Cause) Diathesis-stress o Combines biology and environment Transactional Models of Psychopathology o Individual embedded in contexts o Causes may exist within different contexts but express themselves in the individual 50% of Adults with be diagnosed with a mental disorder in their lifetimes Classification of Disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – 5 (DSM-5) o Problems: Based on subjective judgements and norms within a given social context Culturally Insensitive Western construction of mental disorder E.G. hearing voices in some cultures valued Does week job of considering development Maltreatment During Childhood will lead to o Depression o Anxiety o Aggression Autism Social Deficit Social-Emotional reciprocity Nonverbal communication, such as: o Absent/atypical use of eye contact, facial expressions o “wooden” body language Developing, Maintaining and understanding relationships Restrictive/repetitive Behaviors Hand flapping Lining up toys Parroting words (echolalia) Developmental Course Gradual course of onset – certain behaviors or lack thereof during first 2 years -> typically around ages 3-4 o Retrospect, present in first year Normal-near normal development followed by a loss of sills or regression during the 1 and 2 ndyear (20-47%) o Most regression involves loss of previously acquired language skill (communication, social, cognitive and self-help) o Generally do not regain skills immediately, very few recover fully o Many show pre-existing delays Rate of Autism Increase over the years Historical Views o Bad parenting o Unusual speech patterns o Lack of self-awareness o Echolalia Interaction between Biology and Environment MMR Vaccine – multiple studies o Time trend studies show no evidence of sudden rise autism linked to the vaccine o Japan ceased using MMR but rate of ASD still increased sharply Mercury – Multiple studies o Denmark: removal of mercury from vaccines in 1992 was followed by increase in diagnostic rates of ASD o Rates of ASD increased in US, Sweden and Denmark despite significant decreased in exposure ASD Risk Factors .37 heritability Candidate genes being identified Irregularities in several regions of the brain Irregular neurotransmitters identified (serotonin) Cognitive Deficits Tom is the capacity to attribute states of mind (e.g. emotions, desires, goals to other people and is a key factor in social interactions Environmental Risk Factors Advanced parental age Maternal illness during pregnancy Labor and delivery problems (oxygen deprivation to baby brain) Prenatal exposure to pollution and pesticides Use of some medications during pregnancy Adult Psychopathology 2/3 individuals with a mental illness do not seek treatment Diagnostic System Strengths o Categorize disorders in terms of observable/reportable symptoms o Common language to talk about presenting problems Weaknesses o Implies person disordered or not o Does not handle comorbidity well o Culturally insensitive o Developmentally insensitive Mood Disorders Characterized by persistent/episodic disturbances in emotion that interfere with normal functioning in at least one realm of life 9.5% of US 18+ will have a mood disorder in any given year 2X as many women suffer from depression o Lack of support o Gender roles Cross cultural differences o Manifest depression with physical complaints Major Depression o Severe negative moods or lack of interest in normally pleasurable activities; sleeping/eating disturbances, loss of energy Bipolar o Less common than depression o Episodes of major depression o Episodes of mania Elevated mood Increased anxiety Diminished need for sleep Grandiose ideas Racing thoughts Extreme distractibility DSM 5 Criteria o 5-9 symptoms o Same symptoms in a 2-week period Etiology o Cognitive Negative trade/view of the world Attributional style o Situational Stressors Social Isolation o Biological Genetics Depression: concordance rates between identical twins 2- 3 times higher than rates between fraternal twins o Neurobiology of Depression Neurotransmitters (especially Serotonin) Lowered serotonin affects depression Schizophrenia Symptoms of psychosis that profoundly alter patients affect, thought, perceptions or consciousness Symptoms o Positive Excess of functioning Delusions Hallucinations Loosening of associations Speech patterns in which thoughts are disorganized or meaningless Disorganized behavior o Negative Lack of emotion Slowed speech/movement Types o Paranoid o Catatonic: motor abnormalities o Disorganized: loss of reality, inappropriately affect o Undifferentiated: marked by multiple features o Residual: history of one episode, still has some symptoms Brain disorder o Characterized by brain differences Reduced brain tissue in frontal and medial temporal lobes o Occurs in individuals are genetically predisposed to it Environmental Factors o May be triggered by environmental stress Urban setting = double the risk Social Class o Social drift The tendency of individuals with mental illness to drift to lower socioeconomic classes Social Causation Chronic Stress of living in an urban environment may lead to increased rates Expressed Emotion o Families high in expressed emotion are overinvolved with each other, are overprotective and voice self-sacrificing attitudes toward family member with schizophrenia while o Critique People with schizophrenia who elicit more expressed emotion may already be more prone to relapse Family members may have some form of psychopathy o Support Interventions that reduce family expressed emotion reduce relapse rate in individual with schizophrenia Anxiety Disorders Characterized by intense and pervasive anxiety or fear in absence of true danger 18% prevalence in US Phobic Disorder: fear of object or situation Generalized Anxiety Disorder: diffuse, constant anxiety not associated with specific object or event PTSD – involves nightmares, flashbacks to earlier trauma o After a traumatic event o Re-experiencing of traumatic event o Cultural and sex differences Women more predisposed o Abuse 25% of rape survivors suffer PTSD 4-5 years after rape o Combat and war related trauma Exposure to combat Military sexual trauma 13% of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan o Risk Factors Social Severity, duration, proximity of trauma Social Support Psychological factors Pre-existing distress Feeling loss of control Biological Factors Physiological hyperactivity Genetics o Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms Excessive anxiety and worry, difficulty controlling it o Restless o Easily fatigued o Irritability o Sleep disturbances Panic-Disorder – sudden overwhelming attack of terror OCD – Frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive behaviors o Obsessions: persistent thought impulse or image that feels intrusive and inappropriate and is difficult to suppress or ignore o Compulsions: repetitive behavior or mental act that a person feels compelled to preform Etiology Cognitive o Anxious individuals perceive ambiguous or neutral situations as more threatening than non-anxious Situational o Anxious responses may develop when another person’s anxious response is o
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