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Midterm 2 Study Guide

by: Janiel Celeena Santos

Midterm 2 Study Guide PSY 202

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Psychlogy > PSY 202 > Midterm 2 Study Guide
Janiel Celeena Santos

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About this Document

Includes notes from Chs 9-14, as well as a link to quizlet with all key terms defined through chs 9-14.
Mind and Society >2
Measelle J
Study Guide
Study Guide, psych
50 ?




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Popular in Psychlogy

This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Janiel Celeena Santos on Monday November 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Measelle J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 11/30/15
Week 7 - Psych 202 Lecture Psychopathology Psychopathology: refers to mental disorder, mental distress and or abnormal/maladaptive behavior  The disease model of psychopathology is most commonly used within psychiatry  Pathology refers to disease processes or a disorder  In Psychology , psychopathology is conceptualized on a continuum  Disease/Disorder vs Dimension/Continuum Abnormalities in Relation to Psychopathology  Personal suffering: Subjective distress  Violates normal standards of conduct  Disability: Harmful Dysfunction  Statistical Approach: abnormal if rare  Diagnosable: behavior conforms to specified patterns Models of Psychopathology Etiology (Cause) Diathesis-stress o Combines biology and environment Transactional Models of Psychopathology o Individual embedded in contexts o Causes may exist within different contexts but express themselves in the individual  50% of Adults with be diagnosed with a mental disorder in their lifetimes Classification of Disorders  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – 5 (DSM-5) o Problems:  Based on subjective judgements and norms within a given social context  Culturally Insensitive  Western construction of mental disorder  E.G. hearing voices in some cultures valued  Does week job of considering development  Maltreatment During Childhood will lead to o Depression o Anxiety o Aggression Autism Social Deficit  Social-Emotional reciprocity  Nonverbal communication, such as: o Absent/atypical use of eye contact, facial expressions o “wooden” body language  Developing, Maintaining and understanding relationships Restrictive/repetitive Behaviors  Hand flapping  Lining up toys  Parroting words (echolalia) Developmental Course  Gradual course of onset – certain behaviors or lack thereof during first 2 years -> typically around ages 3-4 o Retrospect, present in first year  Normal-near normal development followed by a loss of sills or regression during the 1 and 2 ndyear (20-47%) o Most regression involves loss of previously acquired language skill (communication, social, cognitive and self-help) o Generally do not regain skills immediately, very few recover fully o Many show pre-existing delays Rate of Autism  Increase over the years  Historical Views o Bad parenting o Unusual speech patterns o Lack of self-awareness o Echolalia Interaction between Biology and Environment  MMR Vaccine – multiple studies o Time trend studies show no evidence of sudden rise autism linked to the vaccine o Japan ceased using MMR but rate of ASD still increased sharply  Mercury – Multiple studies o Denmark: removal of mercury from vaccines in 1992 was followed by increase in diagnostic rates of ASD o Rates of ASD increased in US, Sweden and Denmark despite significant decreased in exposure ASD Risk Factors  .37 heritability  Candidate genes being identified  Irregularities in several regions of the brain  Irregular neurotransmitters identified (serotonin) Cognitive Deficits  Tom is the capacity to attribute states of mind (e.g. emotions, desires, goals to other people and is a key factor in social interactions Environmental Risk Factors  Advanced parental age  Maternal illness during pregnancy  Labor and delivery problems (oxygen deprivation to baby brain)  Prenatal exposure to pollution and pesticides  Use of some medications during pregnancy Adult Psychopathology  2/3 individuals with a mental illness do not seek treatment Diagnostic System  Strengths o Categorize disorders in terms of observable/reportable symptoms o Common language to talk about presenting problems  Weaknesses o Implies person disordered or not o Does not handle comorbidity well o Culturally insensitive o Developmentally insensitive Mood Disorders  Characterized by persistent/episodic disturbances in emotion that interfere with normal functioning in at least one realm of life  9.5% of US 18+ will have a mood disorder in any given year  2X as many women suffer from depression o Lack of support o Gender roles  Cross cultural differences o Manifest depression with physical complaints Major Depression o Severe negative moods or lack of interest in normally pleasurable activities; sleeping/eating disturbances, loss of energy Bipolar o Less common than depression o Episodes of major depression o Episodes of mania  Elevated mood  Increased anxiety  Diminished need for sleep  Grandiose ideas  Racing thoughts  Extreme distractibility  DSM 5 Criteria o 5-9 symptoms o Same symptoms in a 2-week period  Etiology o Cognitive  Negative trade/view of the world  Attributional style o Situational  Stressors  Social Isolation o Biological  Genetics  Depression: concordance rates between identical twins 2- 3 times higher than rates between fraternal twins o Neurobiology of Depression  Neurotransmitters (especially Serotonin)  Lowered serotonin affects depression Schizophrenia  Symptoms of psychosis that profoundly alter patients affect, thought, perceptions or consciousness Symptoms o Positive  Excess of functioning  Delusions  Hallucinations  Loosening of associations  Speech patterns in which thoughts are disorganized or meaningless  Disorganized behavior o Negative  Lack of emotion  Slowed speech/movement Types o Paranoid o Catatonic: motor abnormalities o Disorganized: loss of reality, inappropriately affect o Undifferentiated: marked by multiple features o Residual: history of one episode, still has some symptoms Brain disorder o Characterized by brain differences  Reduced brain tissue in frontal and medial temporal lobes o Occurs in individuals are genetically predisposed to it Environmental Factors o May be triggered by environmental stress  Urban setting = double the risk Social Class o Social drift  The tendency of individuals with mental illness to drift to lower socioeconomic classes  Social Causation  Chronic Stress of living in an urban environment may lead to increased rates Expressed Emotion o Families high in expressed emotion are overinvolved with each other, are overprotective and voice self-sacrificing attitudes toward family member with schizophrenia while o Critique  People with schizophrenia who elicit more expressed emotion may already be more prone to relapse  Family members may have some form of psychopathy o Support  Interventions that reduce family expressed emotion reduce relapse rate in individual with schizophrenia Anxiety Disorders  Characterized by intense and pervasive anxiety or fear in absence of true danger  18% prevalence in US  Phobic Disorder: fear of object or situation  Generalized Anxiety Disorder: diffuse, constant anxiety not associated with specific object or event  PTSD – involves nightmares, flashbacks to earlier trauma o After a traumatic event o Re-experiencing of traumatic event o Cultural and sex differences  Women more predisposed o Abuse  25% of rape survivors suffer PTSD 4-5 years after rape o Combat and war related trauma  Exposure to combat  Military sexual trauma  13% of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan o Risk Factors  Social  Severity, duration, proximity of trauma  Social Support  Psychological factors  Pre-existing distress  Feeling loss of control  Biological Factors  Physiological hyperactivity  Genetics o Generalized Anxiety Disorder  Symptoms  Excessive anxiety and worry, difficulty controlling it o Restless o Easily fatigued o Irritability o Sleep disturbances  Panic-Disorder – sudden overwhelming attack of terror  OCD – Frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive behaviors o Obsessions: persistent thought impulse or image that feels intrusive and inappropriate and is difficult to suppress or ignore o Compulsions: repetitive behavior or mental act that a person feels compelled to preform Etiology Cognitive o Anxious individuals perceive ambiguous or neutral situations as more threatening than non-anxious Situational o Anxious responses may develop when another person’s anxious response is o


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