psyc 3120 exam 3 study guide
psyc 3120 exam 3 study guide PSYC 3120
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
Exam 3 Study Guide (Chapters 11-14) • Egocentrism in adolescents thinking (imaginary audience, personal fables) o Adolescent Egocentrism § A state of self absorption in which the world is viewed as focused on oneself § Makes adolescents highly critical of authority figures such as parents and teachers, unwilling to accept criticism, and quick to find fault in others’ behavior o Imaginary Audience § An adolescent’s belief that his/her own behavior is a primary focus of others’ attentions and concerns § Usually perceived as focusing on one thing that adolescents think most about: themselves § Example: • Teenager at a basketball game thinking that everyone around is focusing on the pimple on his forehead o Personal Fables § The view held by some adolescents that what happens to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by non one else § Example: • Teenagers whose relationship feeling like no one else has been treated so badly, that no one can understand what they’ve been through, no one has experience their heart ache • Know the term Meta-Cognition o Metacognition § The knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes and their ability to monitor their cognition • Know/understand Piaget’s formal operational stage o Formal operational stage § The stage at which people develop the ability to think abstractly § reach this stage around age 12 (the start of adolescence) § Adolescents gain the ability to combine and classify items in a more sophisticated way, and the capacity for higher-order reasoning. § The child begins to manipulate ideas in its head, without any dependence on concrete manipulation § He/she can do mathematical calculations, think creatively, use abstract reasoning, and imagine the outcome of particular actions. § At this point, the person is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning. § Individuals don’t settle into this stage until about 15. Some people never fully employ formal operational thinking • Factors associated with eating disturbances (e.g., body image, risk factors, treatment) o Obesity § 1 in 5 adolescents is overweight and 1in 20 can be formally classified as obese § taxes the circulatory system and increases the likelihood for high blood pressure and diabetes § 80% chance of being obese as adults § lack of exercise is the main culprit • Especially women. Females virtually get no exercise outside of PE classes in school. Cultural norms suggest athletics is more the realm of boys than girls § Availability of fast foods is another factor • Large portions of high calorie, high fat cuisine at prices adolescents can afford § Many adolescents also spend a significant portion of their leisure time inside their homes watching TV, playing videogames, on social media • All typically by junk food and binge/bored eating o Anorexia § the fear of fat and the desire to avoid obesity sometimes becoming so strong that they turn it into a problem § definition • a severe eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior and appearance, (which may become skeletal) are out of the ordinary § dangerous psychological disorder • primarily affects women 12-40 but can be seen in boys • 15-20% victims literally starve themselves to death • although they may be tiny , their body images are so distorted that they see their reflections in mirrors as disgustingly fat and try to lose more and more weight § although they eat little they often fixate on food, (may go shopping often, collect cook books, talk about food, cook huge meals for others o Bulimia § An eating disorder characterized by binges on large quantities of food, followed by purges of the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives § May eat a gallon of ice cream than feel serious guilt and depression so they intentionally rid themselves of the food § Weight remains fairly normal but the constant vomiting and diarrhea of the binge purge cycle may produce a chemical imbalance that can lead to heart failure o Eating Disorders as a whole § Girls who mature earlier & have higher percentage of body fat are more susceptible § Dieting often precedes the development. The feeling of control and success encourages them to lose more and more weight § Depressed adolescents are likely to develop them § Only found in cultures that idealize slender female bodies (aka the US) § Psychological therapy and dietary modifications are likely to be needed for successful treatment. • In extreme cases hospitalization may be required • Difference in onset of puberty for boys and girls o Boys § Primary sex characteristics • Penis and scrotum begin to grow at an accelerated rate around 12 • Prostate gland and seminal vesicles enlarge which produces semen § Secondary Sex characteristics • Pubic hair begins to grow around 12, followed by underarm/facial hair • Voice deepens as the vocal cords become longer and the larynx gets larger o Girls § Menarche • The onset of menstruation • Most obvious signal of puberty in girls • Varies in different parts of the world § Environmental and cultural factors play a role • Menstruation begins later in more economically advantaged countries and in girls who are better nourished/healthier (higher body fat percentage initiates it) § Primary sex characteristics • Changes in vagina and uterus § Secondary sex characteristics • Development of breasts and pubic hair (10-11 years) • Factors related to being an early maturer vs. late maturer for boys and girls o Boys § Early • Positive o Helps in athletics o Tend to be more popular and have a higher self concept • Negative o Risk of delinquency & substance abuse § Larger size makes it more likely that they see out the company of older boys who may involve them in inappropriate behavior o More apt to have difficulties in school § Late • Boys who are smaller & lighter than their peers tend to be seen as less attractive o Leads to low self esteem • Less disadvantage when it comes to sports • Grow up to be assertive and insightful and more creative o Girls § Early • Mixed emotions • Development of breasts may lead them to feel uncomfortable and different from their peers o May endure ridicule from less mature classmates • Tend to be sought after more as potential dates and their popularity may enhance self concepts but they may not be socially ready to participate § Late • May be overlooked in junior high by boys and may have lower social status • By the time they do mature they end up Leaner than their peers who matured early • Higher self esteem & less emotional problems • Factors associated with depression and suicide (symptoms, gender differences in suicide method, terms related to suicide) o Suicide rd § 3 most common cause of death in the 15-24 age group • parents and medical personnel are often reluctant to report death as a suicide and label it as an accident § who’s at risk? • Depressed individuals who feel a profound sense of hopelessness, perfectionists, people with high stress levels and anxiety. Drug/alcohol abusers. etc § Method • girls attempt suicide more but guys are more successful • Boys o More violent, such as guns • Girls o Use a more peaceful strategy like drug overdose § Warning signs • Direct or indirect talk about suicide “I wish I were dead” “you wont have to worry about me much longer” • Sudden decline in grades/missing class • Writing a will • Loss in appetite • General depression, including a change in sleeping behavior, slowness, lethargy, uncommunicativeness • Dramatic change in behavior o Depression § On average girls experience it more than boys • Due to the conflicting demands of the traditional female gender role o Worried about being successful in school but also about being popular. If she feels that academic success undermines her popularity she is placed in a difficult bind that can leave her feeling helpless • Girls also have lower self esteem than boys § Can be triggered by environmental/social factors but can also be biological • Examples o Death of a loved one o Growing up with an alcoholic/depressed parent o Having few friends/experiencing rejection § Coping mechanism • Girls turn inward feeling a sense of helplessness and hopelessness • Boys react more externally by acting impulsively/aggressively or turning to drugs/alcohol • Know percentage of adolescents who experience depression o 3% experience major depression • Information in Chapter 14 in the Developmental Diversity box (i.e., gay & lesbian relationships) o Little difference between homosexual and heterosexual relationships. § Gay men describe successful relationships the same as straight couples. (they involve greater appreciation for the partner and the couple as a whole, less conflict, and more positive toward the partner) § Lesbian women in a relationship show high levels of attachment, caring, intimacy, affection and respect § Most gays/lesbians seek loving, long-term meaningful relationships not just sex like they’re stereotyped § Homosexual relationships do tend to be shorter though • Gender difference in academic achievement, academic attributions, career selection, salary o Male § Academic achievement • Men view themselves as above average § Career selection • Engineering, physical sciences, mathematics majors o Female § Academic achievement • Women make up 13% of doctorates • More women attend college than men § Career selection • Social sciences major leading to § Salary • Women earn 70 cents for every dollar than men earn. African American women earn 62 cents for every dollar men make. Hispanics earn 52 • Trends in college enrollment o Problem based learning § Team of students working on solving a problem the whole time based on mini lectures they’re given o Service learning § Some typical lectures, then you go out in the community and apply what you learn. From their you typically write a paper on what you learned/experienced o Community & civic engagement minor § Professors team up with a community and discus how they can benefit from each other oLearning communities § Take all your classes with a group of people to increase self esteem and experience • Factors involved in college success (i.e., deriving benefits from college) o Benefits § Self understanding • awareness of and ability to understand one's own actions and reactions. § Enhanced self esteem • Knowing they were facing a challenge but they were able to meet/overcome the challenge § Firmer sense of identity • Understanding this is how I want to spend my life • Labouvie-Vief’s Theory of Postformal thought o Labouvie-Vief suggests the nature of thinking changes qualitatively during early adulthood. As young adults are increasingly exposed to ambiguous situations their thinking must develop to handle them. Allows them to view the world in black & white with shades of grey. o Postformal thought § Thinking that acknowledges that adult predicaments must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms • Know Schaie’s 4 stages of cognitive development (know when each stage is supposed to occur and what each primary developmental/intellectual task is) Figure 13-5 o Acquisitive § Childhood and adolescence § The first stage of cognitive development in which the main developmental tasks is to acquire information o Achieving stage § Early adulthood § Intelligence is applied to specific situations involving the attainment of long term goals regarding careers, family, and societal contributions o Responsible § Middle adulthood § Major concerns relating to their personal situations, including protecting and nourishing their spouses, families, and careers o Executive § Middle adulthood § When people take a broader perspective than earlier, including concerns about the world § Responsibilities become highly complex o Reintegrative § Late adulthood § Focus on the tasks that have personal meaning. They no longer focus on acquiring knowledge as a means of solving potential problems they may encounter. • Be able to recognize the difference between dualistic and multiple thinking o Dualistic § Something is right or wrong. People are good or bad. Either for or against something. Everything was black or white there was no gray. § Believed everything the text or professor was true § Enter college thinking this way o Multiple § Shifting the way they think about authorities. Instead of presupposing that experts had all the answers, they began to assume that their own thinking on an issue had validity if their position was well thought out and rational § Multiple views for each theory. Start challenging them **William Perry interviewed Harvard college students and examined how they grew intellectually and morally to come up with these terms • Sternberg’s Triangular Theory o Believed love is more complex than a simple division into passionate and companionate love. Love is made up of 3 components: § Intimacy • Encompasses feelings of closeness, affection and connectedness § Passion • The motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness and romance • Exemplified by intense physiologically arousing feelings of attraction § Decision/commitment • Embodies both the initial cognition that one loves another person and the longer-tern determination to maintain that love • SVR theory o According to Murstein, couples generally proceed through three stages- the stimulus, value, and role stages.- as they move toward marriage. § Stage 1: Stimulus Value • A person's attraction to member of the other gender depends mainly on their stimulus value. • at this point, the individual focuses on relatively superficial and easily identifiable characteristics of the other person. -especially the person's physical attractiveness, social status, occupational success, and reputation. § Stage 2: Value Comparison • are they compatible in values? • The pair now explores their attitudes about religion, politics, sex, gender roles, leisure activities, and so forth. If they find that they are compatible, they may go forward to stage 3, if not the relationship may stall out. § Stage 3: Role • People begin to consider getting married • they start to evaluate whether the other person does a satisfactory job in the role of intimate companion. At this point, individuals focus on the distribution of power in their relationship, the reliability of emotional support, and the quality of their sexual liaison. • Know recent trends in marital age, Marriage Gradient, Proximity, Homogamy, evolutionary perspective, filtering model o Homogamy § Tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, religion, and other basic demographic characteristics o Proximity § Who we become associated with and whom we befriend can be best predicted by proximity § Examples: • Neighbors, coworkers, classmates, (anyone we see on a regular basis and create a relationship with) o Evolutionary Perspective § David Buss § Men seek out young, fertile women who have a high fertility capacity (able to produce more offspring over a longer period of time) § Women seek out mates who will be able to provide resources that will promote survival of the child (economically well-off men) o Marriage Trends § Although 90% of the population do marry, the age of first marriage is increasing § Median age for first marriage in the US is 27 years for men § Median age for first marriage in the US is 25 years for women o Marriage Gradient § Men tend to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller, and lower in status § Women tend to marry men who are slightly older, larger, and higher in status § “Bottom of the barrel” men – low status men who cannot find someone of low enough status to marry § “Cream of the crop” women – women who are of higher status than anyone in the available pool of men o Mate Selection: The Filtering Model § People screen potential mates through successively finer- grained filters § First filter consists of broad determinants of attractiveness § As the filters get more and more finer-grained, the pool of potential mates decreases • Factors associated with career selection (Ginzberg, Holland) o Career consolidation § A stage that is entered between the ages of 20 and 40 when young adults become centered on their careers o Eli Ginzberg § Fantasy period • until age 11 • Career choices are made without regard to skills, abilities or available job opportunities § Tentative period • Adolescence • Begin to think more practically about the requirements of various jobs and how their own abilities/interests might fit with them • Consider their personal values and goals, exploring how well a particular occupation might satisfy them § Realistic period • young adulthood • Start to explore specific career options either through actual experience on the job or through training for a profession • People begin to narrow their choices to a few alternative careers and eventually make a commitment to a particular one o Holland § Certain personality types match well with certain careers § Realistic • down to earth, practical problem solver, physically string but their social skills are mediocre • make good farmers, laborers, truck drivers § Intellectual • Oriented toward the theoretical and abstract. Not good with people. • Well suited to careers in math/science § Social • Related to verbal skills and interpersonal relations • Good at working with people and consequently make a goof salesperson, teacher, and counselor § Conventional • Prefer highly structured tasks • Make good clerks, secretaries, and bank tellars § Enterprising • risk takers and take charge types. Good leaders • effective managers or politicians § Artistic • express themselves. prefer art to social interactions • best suited to careers in art
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