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Psychology 1410 - Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Carley Olejniczak

Psychology 1410 - Exam 3 Study Guide Psy-1410-007

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > Psychlogy > Psy-1410-007 > Psychology 1410 Exam 3 Study Guide
Carley Olejniczak
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About this Document

This study guide is covers Chapter 7 Intelligence, Chapter 9 Human Development, and Chapter 11 Personality for Dr. Marshall's Exam 3.
General Psychology
Dr. Seth Marshall
Study Guide
General Psychology 1410 Marshall Exam 3 Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carley Olejniczak on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy-1410-007 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
Study Guide – Exam 3 Psychology of Intelligence  How do we identify intelligence? o Theory of Mind  Awareness of one’s own mental process and the mental processes of others  Examples: o Self-awareness o Relationships o Empathy o Communication o Mirror Test  Self-recognition is a form of intelligence  Place child in front of mirror with a paint smear across face  If the child sees itself in the mirror and tries to wipe off the smudge, it can be assumed that the child recognizes its own reflection as themselves  If the child doesn’t try to wipe it off, or simply grabs at the mirror, they probably do not know that they are seeing themselves and they think that it is another child  Animals typically do not pass the mirror test o Shared Attention  When a baby points to something, they want you to look with them at an object elsewhere  When you point to something for a dog, the dog will only look at your pointing finger o Language  Humans can speak in multiple languages  Chimps can speak sign language  Human working vocab: approx. 10,000 words  Primate working vocab: approx. 1,000 words (KoKo the monkey) o Comparative Psychology  Comparing humans to other animals and how they are similar and different  Example: are humans the only species that uses tools? o Some animals can use tools as well o Intelligence  The knowledge to efficiently use and reason about the world in a flexible manner in different environments Assessment of Intelligence  Features of standardized tests o Norm referenced  Examples:  SAT  ACT  GRE  LSAT  IQ  The Norm Group should resemble who the test is related to  Can’t compare a 10 year old’s results with a norm group of 30 year olds o Foundation: reliability and validity o Statistical reliability or intelligence tests  Based on test-retest correlations  .80 or higher is acceptable  IQ tests are usually in the .85 to .95 range o Normal Distribution of IQ test  Bell curve  Average IQ score: 100  68% of people are in the range of 85-115 o Below average = intellectually disabled o Above Average = giftedness  Misuses of IQ tests o Immigration laws  Unfair – given only in English, not proctored by psychologists, and not specific for their age/gender/or given circumstances o Innate intelligence  Believed in innate intelligence  Believed in class boundaries based on IQ scores  <100 = jobs without prestige or monetary rewards  75-85 = semiskilled laborers  >75 – unskilled laborers o Classifying races  There are differences of education level between different ethnic groups in the US Human Development  Nature and Nurture o They both work together o Can depend on genetics and how your parents raised you  Does Parenting Matter? o Implications of nature only philosophy  The idea that children are born a certain way and no matter how much people try to change them, they are hardwired to like and act a particular way o Implications of nurture only philosophy  The idea that children are born as “blank slates” (John Locke) and what parents and society teaches them and exposes them to will determine how they will turn out  Attempting to Separate Genes from the Environment o Kinship studies  Identical twins reared apart  They have the exact same genes, but are raised in different locations  Identical twins separated at birth exhibit astonishing similarities (40-50%)  First Law of Behavioral Genetics: All behavioral traits are partially heritable  2 Non-related people (adopted children) raised in the same environment  Similarity provides support for shared environment  0-10% (very small)  Identical twins reared in the same environment  Why are they different if they have the SAME genes and the SAME environment?  Differences provide support for non-shared environment  Unique experiences of person even though they may have the same environment  50% o Genes + Shared Environment + Non-Shared Environment = Particular Trait o Is DNA destiny?  No – it is not all nature over nurture (or vise versa)  Three components  Genotype – inherited genetic endowment  Environment – the conditions in which you were born  Phenotype – the expression of the genotype  Epigenetic “marks”  Our genotype (heredity) gives us a reaction range (upper and lower boundaries)  The environment interacts within these limits, determining what will eventually be developed (our phenotype) Infant and Child Development  Are babies “blank slates?”  “blank slates” refers to John Locke’s theory that babies are born as a blank slate that adults “wrote on” to teach the child how to perceive and behave in the world  Babies are NOT blank slates – a combo of nature AND nurture shape them into how they develop and their future personalities Pre-Birth Leaning and Memory Studies  Studies of discrimination of sensory input o Test: as soon as a baby is born, they can administer a stranger’s milk rather than the mother’s milk. Look at the baby’s reaction – how much it drinks, its facial expressions, etc. o Test: cry melodies  Newborn babies’ cry melodies correspond to their mother’s tongue  German  French  Babies appear to be reproducing sounds heard in the womb o Test: expose baby to mother’s voice vs stranger’s voice. Measures baby’s brain waves. EEGs show that the brain recognizes the mother’s voice.  “Motherese” o Mother is primary initiator of language o Consider: neurobiological link between prenatal language acquisition and motor skills involved in speech  “Non-Nutritive Nipple” o Pacifier o Makes the baby suck o Sucking on pacifier – important in studies  Expose baby different sounds or images, and sees how much the baby is sucking on the pacifier  If baby is interested/engaged = rate of sucking slows  If baby is uninterested/unengaged = rate of sucking speeds up  Habituation o A change in behavioral response to a stimulus after repeated exposure o Habituation in newborns related to IQ and language ability in children  What do babies/infants see? o A baby at birth is only able to see the distance between its mother’s arms up to her face o Vision is very blurry  Babies like to look at attractive faces Building Blocks of Cognitive Development  Baby reflexes o Moro Reflex  Arms flail out if babies head is tipped backwards o Palmar Gras  Baby holds tightly onto adult’s finger o Plantar Grasp  Toes try to grasp something just like Palmar Grasp o Sucking o Rooting Reflex  If you put something near a baby’s mouth it will try to put it in their mouth to suck o Walking Reflex o Tonic Neck Reflex  If one arm is stretched out, the other is bowed inward o Swimming Reflex  Will hold breath in water and flair limbs o Imitation  Alan Meltzoff’s studies suggest that infants as young as 42 minutes can Jean Piaget’s Stage Theory of Cognitive Development  Children do not think like adults  Schemes o Schemas – a mental picture/idea/representation of an object/something o Assimilation – fitting new info into pre-existing mental schemas  Ex: a child sees a skunk for the first time and calls it a “cat” o Accommodation – people create new schemas or adjust old ones  Ex: A child learns that a skunk is not a cat, but it is a different animal; this creating a skunk scheme o We are prone to use assimilation before accommodation Sensorimotor Stage  Reflexes  Habits – circular reactions (repetitive movements)  Coordination – roll over, scoot around, crawl, toddle  Goal orientation – as their field of vision increases, they will want to act on the world when they see interesting things  Lack of object permanence – “out of sight, out of mind” o Babies’ short term memory (frontal lobe) is not developed Preoperational Stage  Ages 2-7  Symbolic functioning – the ability to represent the world mentally o A child creates mental images of objects o Pretend play  Centration – the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others o Appearance Reality Distinction - Whatever they observe is reality to them  Egocentrism – difficulty in seeing the world from another person’s point of view o They think everyone can see what they’re seeing o Example: when children over their eyes to not see the world, they believe they no one else can see them either o Theory of Mind – awareness of one’s own mental process and the mental processes of others  Conservation – a child’s ability to realize that some aspect of an object or substance remain unchanged, no matter how its form may be altered Concrete Operation Stage  Ages 7-11  Classification – Appearance reality distinction o Can differentiate between reality and fantasy/pretend  Decentering  Elimination of Ego - False Belief Task – testing egocentrism  Conservation ability Formal Operational  Ages 11-15  Abstract thinking  Ability to develop hypotheses and then test then against reality  Debate  Argumentative behavior  Idealism  Criticism  Planning and decision-making Music  The Mozart Effect o Theory that if you play Mozart to your baby, they will develop a high IQ o Gordon Shaw (1993), University of California o Reported spatial-reasoning improvements o Replication of test of Kenneth Steele, 1999  No effect found o Other studies:  9-11 year old musicians have significantly more grey matter  Children who took music lessons had significantly higher IQ Freud and the Psychodynamic Approach  Structure of Personality o Id – pleasure principle – unconscious o Ego – Reality principle – conscious o Superego – self-righteous side of ego – unconscious  Defense Mechanisms o Unconscious blocking or distorting impulses o Defenses are like circuit-breakers o Repression – blocking out o Rationalization – making excuses to perverse ourselves o Projection – rather than taking ownership, people will point the blame on someone else o Reaction formation – believing the opposite o Sublimation – taking problematic urges and transform them into something pro-social or good behaviors  Example: taking pent up rage and putting it into an athletic feat o Displacement – target an urge towards a person but take it out on someone else  Example: mad at your boss, take it out on your significant other o Denial o Compensation Assessing Personality  Psychoanalytic Projective personality measures o Ink blot test o Take an ambiguous picture and use it to tell a story o These tests aren’t always valid and reliable  Normed-referenced personality measures o Ex: the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Temperament  Temperament o An inborn style of approaching events and people o When parents’ personal styles matches that of if baby’s temperament, the parents tend to encourage the infant’s behavior, and increase the chance that temperamental qualities will be stable  Assessment of Temperament o Kagan’s test  Highly reactive (distressed) child – will be shy and quiet  Low reactive child – will be outgoing Big Five Personality Traits  Openness –being curious, original, intellectual, and open to new ideas  Conscientiousness – being organized, systematic, punctual, achievement oriented, and dependable  Extraversion – being outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoying social situations  Agreeableness – affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, kind, and warm  Neuroticism – anxious, irritable, temperamental, and moody  Personality traits that are most inheritable: o Extraversion o Neuroticism  Eysenck’s Personality Dimensions o Introversion-extraversion o Emotionality-stability o The traits that occur when crossing these two personality dimensions define the 4 basic temperaments: Melancholic (sad), Choleric (hot- headed), Phlegmatic (lethargic), Sanguine (optimistic)  Goodness of Fit o Goodness-of-fit – you get to know yourself and tend to seek out environments that match up to your personality Parenting  Diana Baumrind’s parenting styles o Authoritarian – parents have strong control and regulations over their children with little to no nurturing  Control is delivered in an impulsive way  Parent is not socially and emotionally connected to their child o Authoritative – good place to be  High on control and also high on nurture  Talks about the rationale of having all their rules and boundaries  Listens to their children and responds to them o Neglectful – low on control and low on nurture  Like the parent is not even present o Permissive – low on control, high on nurture  Communication is high  No rules or boundaries  Parent is more like a “best friend” than a parent Bi-Directionality of Parenting  A child might have a more difficult temperament which changes the way a parent will react Infant Attachment  Harry Harlow’s rhesus monkeys o Baby monkeys taken from their mothers and placed in isolation o Given surrogate “mothers”  Wire “mother” with a bottle w/ milk  Terry-cloth “mother” – no milk, but a soft, comforting touch o Found that the baby monkeys spent more time with the terry cloth mother (even though she did not provide food) because they clung to her for contact and comfort o Found that in their adult lives, these monkeys without a mother exhibited the following traits:  Failure to thrive  Violently antisocial  Autistic-like features  Self-harm (e.g. biting, sores)  Sexual dysfunction Research Ethics  Three criteria to guide o Cost-benefit o Effects on participant o Individual integrity


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