Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide 1020-01
Popular in World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiana Thompson on Monday November 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1020-01 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Michele White in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800 in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 11/30/15
1 Final Exam Study Guide 1. Humanism and the Renaissance: Define Renaissance. What were the basic characteristics of the Renaissance? What was Humanism? What was Vernacular Literature? What was the impact of printing? Who were some major Renaissance artists and what were their works? Why were their works so revolutionary? a. Renaissance: Period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the middle ages and modern history. b. Basic Characteristics: i. Began in Italy (Italian City States) ii. Secular Movement—“Live in the moment.” iii. Center of movement was focused on the individual (make yourself the best you can be) (Modern Renaissance Man) iv. Started as urban elite based movement c. Humanism: an outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters. Humanist beliefs stress the potential value and goodness of human beings, emphasizes common human needs, and seek solely rational ways of solving human problems. i. Humanist: intellectual individuals who are advancing d. Vernacular Literature: literature written in the vernacular (specific to location) — the speech of the "common people". In the European tradition, this effectively means literature not written in Latin. e. Printing Press: The impact of the printing press made it easier for published works to become more available to people, and it promoted more literature so therefore more people became educated. f. Artists: i. Masaccio (B. 1401 – D. 1428) & Tribute Money, 14267 ii. Leonardo Da Vinci (14521519) & The Last Supper, Convent of Santa Maria Delle Grazie, Milan: 1498 1. Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa Del Gioconda The Louvre, 150306 iii. Raphael (B. 1483 – D. 1520) & Madonna, 1505 2 iv. Michelangelo (B. 1475 – D. 1564) & Sistine Chapel, 150812 1. Michelangelo’s David, 150104 g. Revolutionary Works: A new interest in Greek and Roman culture lead to an explosion in knowledge about the human form along with innovations in mathematics and science. i. Michelangelo: He showed the characteristics of a Renaissance man, he embraced his personal achievement and strived for perfection, he mixed realism with whimsical and created a unique style that people today still study and try to copy. He is considered to be the best artist of all time. ii. Da Vinci: He is considered the father of modern science and the perfect Renaissance man, he was also one of the greatest painters of all time. He was a selftaught genius and was a master in more fields than anyone and he had an understanding of things and designs way ahead of his time. 2. The Protestant Reformation: Why did the Reformation begin in the Germany territories of the Holy Roman Empire? Who was Martin Luther? What were some of his grievances with the Catholic Church? Why was Luther successful in his quest to break from the Catholic Church? Why, and how, did the Reformation spread? Know about the Reformation in Switzerland under Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin. Would there have been a Reformation without Luther? a. The two main reason why the Reformation began in the German territories was: the unholy Roman Empire or First Reich started in Germany and the Printing from movable type was invented in Germany b. Martin Luther: He was born in Germany in 1483, and became one of the most influential figures in Christian history when he began the Protestant Reformation in the 16 century. He called into question some of the basic tenants of Roman 3 Catholicism and his followers soon split from the Roman Catholic Church to begin the Protestant tradition. c. Grievances: Lack of morals and a general disregard for the sanctity of clerical celibacy, Absenteeism, Nepotism, and the Buying and Selling of Indulgences. d. Success: Luther succeeded because his ideas appealed to the people of all classes. In its maturity his theology was seen as revolutionary in economic, social, and political – as well as intellectual and doctrinal ways. The printing press quickly made his ideas more accessible and assured that they were recorded in permanent forms. Political circumstances also favored Luther and Lutheranism. The protection provided to Luther by his local prince meant that his ideas took hold before resistance to them could be felt. e. The Spread: When Luther presented his ideas, people began to realize that they were not so stupid after all. When people began to accept Lutheranism, the revolution sparked a growing interest in individual thought and reasoning. This type of thinking became very popular in Germany and soon after quickly began to spread throughout other areas. f. Reformation In Switzerland: i. Ulrich Zwingli: His reforms, introduced in 1523: banned all religious relics and images, whitewashed all church interiors, banned music in church services, new liturgy consisting of Scripture reading, prayer, and sermons, monasticism, pilgrimages, veneration of saints all abolished, and pope’s authority denied ii. John Calvin: Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1536: Predestination, Consistory g. Reformation without Luther?: Historians argue that there would not have been a reformation without Luther because many people were so deep under the Pope 4 that they were too scared to think differently and if you did, you kept quiet. And if there were to be a reformation without him, then it certainly would not have happened the same way it did. 3. The Reformation in England: Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, Elizabeth I. Be able to discuss the causes of the English Reformation. How did it begin? Assess the elements of Catholicism which Henry’s Church of England retained and those elements it abandoned. What happened to the church under Edward’s reign? How did Mary attempt to reverse the Reformation in England? When was Protestantism finally established in England and why? Would there have been an English Reformation without Henry VIII? Be able to compare and contrast the reformation as it took place on the continent with how it took place in England. a. Causes: Henry VIII’s break with Rome was an act of state, promptly primarily by political motives, but many of those who supported Henry were appalled at the abuses rife in the Catholic Church and at the corruption of the Papacy. b. How did it begin?: It began with Henry VIII’s quest for a male heir. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon so he could remarry, the English king declared in 1534 the he alone should be the final authority in matters relating to the English Church. c. What was kept and not kept?: i. Kept: celibacy of priests, mass, transubstantiation, all images, alters, and the candles, etc. ii. Different: denial of papal authority, got rid of monasteries and convent, and abolition of pilgrimages, etc. d. Under Edward: the church was completely protestant, but he had a few differences: no mass, replaced by service, 1 time issuing of Book of Common Prayer, iconoclasm, and priests could marry. 5 e. Mary attempts a reverse: Mary attempted a reverse in the Reformation by changing the Church back to Catholic because that was how she grew up and that is what she strongly believed. She tried to reverse it because she believed that every person should be Catholic. And if you were not, she beheaded you. f. When and why: Under Elizabeth I, Protestantism was completely established. It was established by the 16oo’s when the new church finally help sway over the Catholic Church. When Henry VIII was king, Protestantism was being established, but it wasn’t until the 1600’s when it finally was in full effect. g. No Henry, No Reformation?: Historians argue that if Henry VIII would have kept his wife, or even received his divorce, the Protestantism Reformation would not have happened. 4. Catholic/Counter Reformation: What was the Catholic Church’s response to the Reformation? a. The Society of Jesus: The Jesuits i. The Society of Jesus was a monastic order devoted to preaching and teaching. Seeing themselves as soldiers of Christ, the Jesuits were resolutely loyal to the pope and saw it as their divine mission to root out heresy and restore the unity of Christendom. To do this they founded missions and schools across the world in an attempt to educate and convert people, especially rulers, back to the Catholic Church. b. A Reformed Papacy (Papal Office), 15341549 i. Reform Commission Report, completed in 1537, concluded that the source of all of the church’s problems lay with corrupt popes and cardinals. 1. They had been too worldly. 2. They had been too concerned with accumulation of wealth and power. 3. They had been too involved in the secular world. c. The Council of Trent, 15451563 6 i. Scripture and tradition upheld as equal authorities in religious matters. ii. Both faith and good works were declared necessary for salvation. iii. The seven sacraments, transubstantiation, clerical celibacy, and the belief in purgatory upheld. iv. Use of indulgences was strengthened, but the selling of them prohibited. 5. The Development of Constitutional Monarchy in England: Trace the rise of Parliament and the establishment of Constitutional Monarchy under the reigns of: Charles I, Charles II, James II, and William and Mary (the Glorious Revolution). Why did Constitutional Monarchy develop in England while Absolutism developed in France? a. Charles I: i. Personal rule (16291640) ii. Problems with: the Scots (1637), the English Parliament (1640), the Irish (1641) iii. Open civil war with his English subjects, 16421649 b. Charles II: i. Return of the King in 1660 ii. England’s “Merry Monarchy,” successfully ruled from 16601685 c. James II: i. Ascended the throne upon Charles II death ii. He was suspected of being proFrench and proCatholic and having designs of becoming an absolute monarch d. William and Mary (The Glorious Revolution): i. Parliament invited James’ daughter Mary and her husband William to come to England and take the throne from James ii. James fled to France iii. The bloodless overthrowing of James II and replacing him with William and Mary is known as the Glorious Revolution of 1688 e. Why here and there?: In 1649, King James I was executed on order of parliament for rising taxes, dissolving parliament for years and starting a civil war. The monarchy was replaced by a republic headed by Oliver Cromwell who proved to be a worse dictator than any King. After his death, Charles II who was asked to become king. Absolutism has its origins in France, and the greatest European 7 monarch of the era, Louis XIV. This monarch fully embodied absolutist principles. 6. The Development of Absolutism France: What is absolutism? Be able to discuss Louis XIV and his absolutist policies. What were the keys to Louis’ successful reign? a. Absolutism: the acceptance of or belief in absolute principles in political, philosophical, ethical, or theological matter. b. Louis XIV and his policies: He inherited the throne at the age of five but took over supreme power at twenty three. At the time he expressed his determination to be sole ruler of France. His absolutist policies were built on Louis XIII’s policy of extending absolute royal rule (centralized absolutism) to all parts of the kingdom Louis had also said “Letat c’est moi” (I am state). c. Keys: i. Dealing with Those of Noble Birth ii. Location of Power: Versailles In 1682, Louis moved with his Court to the Château de Versailles. It served double duty: private residence of the king and the location of government 1. A noble was considered socially and politically dead if he did not live at Versailles iii. Wealth Economic Policy of Absolutist France: 1. Mercantilism: fixed amount of wealth in the world, and which ever country can accumulate the mostwins. Goal was to create a favorable balance. 2. Louis’s Finance Minister, 16611683: Jean Baptiste Colbert iv. Louis’s Army 1. 100,000 men in peacetime and 400,000 in time of war 2. Four major wars between 16671713 3. By 1700 France was the most powerful country in Europe 7. The Scientific Revolution: Revolution in Astronomy: Know how the Ptolemaic model of the Universe differed from the Heliocentric Model. Be able to discuss: Nicholaus Copernicus; Johannes Kepler; Galileo Galilei; and, Isaac Newton. Revolution in 8 Medicine and the spread of scientific thought: know about Galen, Andreas Vesalius, William Harvey, and Francis Bacon. a. Ptolemaic model of the Universe and Heliocentric Model: The Ptolemaic model of the Universe had levels: Levels 17: Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn; Level 8: Fixed Stars; Level 9: Its purpose was to give stars motion; Level 10: “Prime Mover” – give all other spheres motion; Beyond level 10: Heaven and saved souls; Earth’s Composition? Composition of other spheres? Highly Christianized. And the Heliocentric Model was Heliocentric Model; the reordering of the planets; Moon revolved around the earth; Earth rotated on its own axis; that explained day and night; took one year for the earth to move in a circular orbit around the sun. b. Nicholaus Copernicus: Identified the concept of a heliocentric solar system, in which the sun, rather than the Earth, is the center of the solar system. c. Johannes Kepler: German astronomer who discovered three major Laws of Planetary Motion, conventionally designated as follows: i. The planets move in an elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus ii. The time necessary to traverse any arc of a planetary orbit is proportional to the area of the sector between the central body and the arc iii. There is an exact relationship between the squares of the planets’ periodic times and the cubes of the radii of their orbits d. Galileo Galilei: He is an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician who has been called the “Father of Observational Astronomy”, the “Father of Physics”, and the “Father of Science.” His contributions to observational astronomy include: i. The telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus ii. The discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter iii. The observation and analysis of sunspots 9 e. Isaac Newton: English physicist and mathematician who was most famous for his Law of Gravitation, was instrumental in the scientific revolution. The Three Laws of Motion are: i. Every object continues in a straight line unless it is deflected by a force ii. The rate of change of motion of an object is directly proportional to the force acting upon it iii. To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction 1. Demonstrated that these three laws applied to planetary bodies as well as objects on earth. Key to his whole argument was the universal law of gravitation. Planetary bodies did not fall out of their orbit but remained in elliptical orbits around the sun. At its most basic: every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity 2. 2 last points: a. One law mathematically proven, could prove all motion in the universe b. A new concept of the universe: it was one huge, regulated machine which operated according to NATURAL LAWS. f. Medicine: Late Medieval beliefs: Reliance upon the teaching of the Ancient Greek Physician, Galen (129200) i. Galen: A Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher who believed that the body had two separate blood systems: digestion and muscular activity; and believed all blood flowed for the liver. ii. Andreas Vesalius: believed that blood did not flow from the liver, but from the heart. iii. William Harvey: believed there is one blood system; flows in a complete circuit throughout the body as it goes through the heart. g. Scientific Knowledge: 10 i. Francis Bacon: Credited with creating “Scientific Method”; He believed that all scientific inquiry should be performed through the use of INDUCTIVE REASONING; additionally, scientific method should use systematic observations and organized experimentation; He believed scientific reasoning could be used to conquer nation and give human domination over nature. 8. The Enlightenment: Define it. What were the goals of the Enlightenment? Who were the Philisophes? Be able to discuss: John Locke, Rene Descartes, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot. Be able to identify and discuss the Physiocrats: Francois Quesnay and Adam Smith. How does the Enlightenment compare and contrast with the Renaissance? a. Define: European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17thcentury philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith. b. Goals: i. The most important and original idea was that the methods of natural science could be used to examine and understand all aspects of life. Everything was to be submitted to rationalism. ii. Scientific Method: the scientific method was capable of discovering the laws of human society as well as those of nature. iii. Progress: The goal of the Enlightenment thinkers to create better societies and better people by discarding outmoded traditions and embracing rationalism. 11 c. Philosophers: Philosophes such as Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau had all been to England and based their thoughts on that of Thomas Hobbes, Isaac Newton, and John Locke. d. John Locke: The English philosopher and political theorist laid much of the groundwork for the Enlightenment and made central contributions to the development of liberalism. e. Rene Descartes: French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist f. Montesquieu: He was a jurist, social philosopher and satirist and became the first great French man associated with the Enlightenment g. Voltaire: one of France’s greatest Enlightenment writers h. Diderot: was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer; best known for serving as cofounder, chief editor, and contributor to Encyclopedia. i. Physiocrats: a member of an 18thcentury group of French economists who believed that agriculture was the source of all wealth and that agricultural products should be highly priced. Advocating adherence to a supposed natural order of social institutions, they also stressed the necessity of free trade. i. Francois Quesnay: was the leading figure of the Physiocrats, generally considered to be the first school of economic thinking. ii. Adam Smith: Scottish social philosopher economist who wrote The Wealth of Nations and achieved the first comprehensive system of political economy. j. Compare and Contrast: The Renaissance was a rebirth of learning, long ago lost to Europeans as they struggled with survival in medieval living. Learning had ceased and ignorance of the history of the Europeans and the rest of the world was common. The Enlightenment was the use of knowledge from the period of the Reformation. Man began to consider himself as master of his circumstances rather than being subservient to those circumstances. Learning led to exploration and 12 new discovery. Both are linked together on a common thread of education learning.
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