EXAM 5 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 5 STUDY GUIDE ANT 304
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verified elite notetaker
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Bruederlin on Monday November 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 11/30/15
ANT 304 Intro to Archaeological Studies Study Guide November 30 2015 0 VOCABULARY 0 000000000 Ce Tecpactl Mixcoatl Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl Tenoch Tenochca Mexica Culhua Tenonchitlan Moctezuma Moctezuma Cuauhtemoc TOLTEC BACKGROUND Toltecs O O 0 Group in Mesoamerica in central Mexico that come to power between AD 900 and 1200 Disappear after AD 400 Power vacuum till mid to late 1300 when the Aztecs show up 0 Aztecs are semi civilized O O O 0 Sell themselves as mercenaries to the kingdom in the valley Eventually become powerful and strong Later become known for militaristic abilities Then proceed to rewrite history to legitimize their position of power and strength 0 Toltecs lead by O O O O O O 0 He finds what eventually becomes site of Tula Capital of toltecs He dies and his son becomes supreme ruler over toltecs Son of Ce Tecpactl Mixcoatl Religious and civil leader Has many rival Better known as Quetzalcoatl 0 CE ACATL year of birth 0 One of Quetzalcoatl s rivals gets him drunk during an evening s festivities O O 0 Since he is intoxicated he neglects his religious obligations for his people Humiliated embarrassed and has to leave Tula Many stories and myths that go along with this o Quetzalcoatl goes towards the gulf coast with a band of faithful followers 0 From here he sails east into the gulf of Mexico 0 Vowing that he will one day return to reclaim his throne and he will return in the anniversary year of his birth AZTECS IN THE VALLEY As time is going by Tula no longer around and neither are toltecs as a Toltec group 0 But grow in their stories As Aztecs come into Mexico all Mesoamerican groups claim to be descendant of the toltecs 0 To do this was to claim a superior birth right 0 Toltecs considered to be taller than most Mesoamericans at the time because they excelled in their crafts and artistry o Toltecs said to grow cotton in colors but lots of these things are not true and we know that Various kingdoms in valley of Mexico fighting for power and complete authority Into the valley comes the wandering group of semicivilized people that knew a little bit about a calendar and horticulture 0 But they had some nasty habits of when in battle 0 Would cut off ears of prisoners and wear it as part of a belt to show their promise of warfare 0 Known as o All across northern Mexico 0 Lead by One of the Chichimec groups comes into valley of Mexico and they are the ones who sell themselves as mercenaries to the various kingdoms 0 These were known as or 0 We will call them but they never called themselves this this is an archaeological name 0 Thriving in central Mexico Another group in central Mexico called o Considered to be a direct line of the toltecs 0 They gain the service of the Mexica to help them defeat others and gain traditional power 0 Defeat was successful After this success Mexica ask the king of Culhua for his daughter s hand to marry an Aztec prince so that they could purify their bloodline o This would legitimize their place in history 0 King agrees o Daughter sent off with Aztec priest to prepare for marriage and festivities 0 At appropriate time King of Culhua arrive to the Aztec village to witness and celebrate the marriage 0 When king arrives instead of finding marriage festivities in place he arrives to find a great dance that has taken place 0 One of the Aztec priests in dancing in an elaborate costume that is made of the skin of his daughter 0 Daughter had been offered as sacrifice o The greatest thing that the Aztecs could do or think of was offer this young woman as sacrifice 0 King was not happy and so he pulled his military together to go after them 0 Aztecs flee AZTECS AND TENOCHTITLAN Aztecs arrive to some swampy islands 0 On one of the islands they found an eagle perched on a cactus with a serpent in its mouth 0 Witnessing that the priest says that it s a sign from war god 0 This is where the build their cit o Citi known as and is the capital city of the Aztecs Tenochtitlan is named after their initial leader Tenoch Tenochtitlan built and time passes O Aztecs have various friends and area 0 Series of kings that come along from Aztecs we have that geneology O O O Moctezuma l Moctezuma ll Cuauhtemoc 0 Side story 0 O One of the kingdoms around the lake called Texcoco King of Texcoco was out one day and he is killed hung by a tree by one of competing groups in the area What people who killed the king don t realize is that his son was hiding in the tree so he saw the whole thing Son has to flee because he is now the heir to Texcoco He goes around and starts to secure alliances from various groups around the lakes and one of them was the Aztecs Aztecs assist young boy Go fonNard and almost obliterate the town where the killers lived From there is formed as what is known as a triple alliance Aztecs Texcoco people and defeated group Texcoco takes 25 of everything taken and defeated group takes 15 which is anyways subdued When the young boy dies really secure bring up the valley of Mexico along with Texcoco 0 Very set in what you could and couldn t do as well as the punishments 0 Lots of effort go into special events 0 PotteK and art are iiven awards 0 Botanical gardens are put together 0 Schools are started and everyone goes 0 Usually learned crafts 0 Some schools are for the nobility with prayers and actions and so forth 0 Aztecs in order to maintain empire have economic traders 0 People who go to far lands to trade and come back with more stuff Economic traders known as They were also government spies Would go off into area that were not conquered by Aztecs set economic friendships and at the same time gather data and info Who was in charge defense lines etc At some point Aztecs would come in and defeat them Pochteca would move un to next city Aztecs would extract tribute When it comes to humans being captured 0 They are captured in battle or warfare o Ideally they are captured alive o If alive can be offered as human sacrifice to god 0 Do not go into battle with intent of killing people on the battlefield In terms of social organization 0 Various levels to society 0 Have a king priests scribes who were busy rewriting history as much as possible 000 Twin temple complex When completed 20000 people sacrificed for its celebration Aztecs were feared and hated by those groups around them The nature of Aztec law was such that there was little need ofjails 0 Small wooden cages kept for minor offenses not sure what those were exactly 0 For the harshness of the law most Aztec citizens could feel very safe when walking anywhere 0 Crimes such as stealing corn punishable by death Aztec state also grew 5 rows of corns along their passages and those rows were available for those in need That s why it s so severely punished o A commoner can be punished with no defense nobles could go to trial essentially o A noble could be put to death for a crime while a commoner could go free 0 So the higher your position in life the more responsibilities you have and you had to conduct yourself in a certain way 0 Under no circumstances were individuals allowed to take action or settle disputes on their own 0 Cultivation O O 0 Agriculture done by an elaborate system called Were in essence floating gardens Remember than Tenochtitlan was swampy lands so only way to grow food 0 By the time the Spaniards arrive they are amazed by what they see 0 O O O 0 They see a fabulous city Canals go through it Amazed by how clean Tenochtitlan is Incredibly well organized and better than anything seen in Europe Go about destroying records as they come across time o Realize that paper skin murals potteK does not last 0 Made this connection back to the toltecs O O 00 King when Spaniards arrive Aztecs have gone from being semi civilized group to being the power in the valley of Mexico They represent the epitome of civilization By the time Spaniards arrive the king doesn t want much on the ground He s carried around most of the time If anyone wants to talk to him that person is cloaked because you can t be dressed well only Moctezuma does Must kiss ground before saying hi to king or eat with him or look at him By weird coincidence Spaniards arrive the anniversary year of Quetzacoatl Quetzalcoatl story earlier in lecture Moctezuma is faced with the problem on if it is really Quetzalcoatl Soon realize that s not the case it s Cortes OOO Arrises to thrown when Moctezuma dies Last king of the Aztecs Once Aztecs defeated Cortes marches to Honduras taking Cuauhtemoc with him and kills him somewhere in thejungle CHAPTER 16 MESOAMERICAN CIVILIZATION POSTCLASSIC MESOAMERICA 0 Know a lot about these times because it s in oral histories surviving indigenous books and complex interfaces between natives and Europeans that produced detailed descriptions o The Florentina Codex is an encyclopedic compilation of all things Aztec 0 Most celebrated kingdom in myth and history is Tula o Aztec Myth Tula was called Tollan and its inhabitants we called Toltecs Aztecs imagined it to be full of rich and accomplished people that were good at every single craft Lived harmoniously under Quetzacoatl Also worshipped a principal god named Quetzacoatl who required the sacrifice of butterflies Toltec wise men invented the arts of medicine and the counts of the days and years Tula fell when Quetzalcoatl was tricked by a mean god and he fled 0 History Tula emerged on the fringe of the Basic of Mexico Very little rainfall but has several large rivers which make it a good area for irrigation agriculture Most likely produced lime for making plaster Tula later grew into a huge city between AD 900 and 1200 Population grew to be about 60000 people People could live within city walls or out of them Those who lived on farmland nearby irrigated land or cultivated agave Created links with surrounding territories via trade Object imported from big distances were marine shell from the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico and pottery from Central America WHAT THE SPANIARDS FOUND 16th century 0 MAYA o The Maya had a landscape that was fragmented into small polities called BATABS Only had a few thousand subjects Batabs didn t always get along but suppressed their conflicts 0 Despite lack of Mayan overall political integration northern Maya societies were quite complex and still retained Classic patterns 0 Spaniards were impressed by the large towns they saw 0 Towns were organized around temple pyramids public plazas and elaborate houses 0 Most people grew Maize fished or produced special products such as salt Lowest in rake were slaves Usually war captives or debtors Were house servants or field hands Classic civilization still thrived in northern Yucatan when the Spaniards arrived 0 AZTECS 0 Most important people of the migrations caused by the collapse of Tula Nahuatl speakers Chichimec nahuatl word for the people who lived in the northern frontier The people Cortes encountered did not refer to themselves as Aztec Called themselves MexicaTenochca Acolhua Tepaneca or Chalca first is most common Mexica fled as despised refugees onto a set of small islands in Lake Texcoco Or were led there by their patron god legend This area was a no man s land and was surrounded by enemy politics Mexica founded capital called Tenochtitlan the Aztec capital Enlisted at mercenaries in the service of the powerful and aggressive Tepanecs In return they received a share of tribute from their combined military victories Mexica elect their own king who married into an exalted dynasty descended from the Toltecs probably the young woman story in Valdez lecture Fall out with Tepanec causes Mexica to rebel Overthrow the Tepanec with the help of the people of Texcoco and Tlacopan Triple Alliance Tenochtitlan Texcoco and Tlacopan As Tenochtitlan grew so did the landscape It was heavily transformed by terracing irrigation systems and artificially drained fields Represented the most productive agrarian region of Mesoamerica in the early 16th century Maize and beans were the most important staple crops Other crops included amaranth chia and agave Wild resources still used such as waterfowl and a bluegreen algae that was skimmed from the surface of lakes and made into high protein cakes Tenochtitlan was assembled through intimidation alliance and conquest 0 Biggest opponents to the Aztecs TARASCANS Were building their own empire at the time 1500000 people lived in the capital Exercised highly centralized control over its empire 0 Similar to Aztecs were TLAXCALANS Although surrounded by Aztec territory and allies they retained their independence Later became supporters of the Spaniards 0 Society was hierarchical King TLATOANI was the ruler He and his families along with other high nobles were the upper class Primary beneficiaries of tribute They were polygynous many wives and concubines so BIG families Nobles exempted from paying taxes but they were expected to serve the state in other ways Commoners Largest component of society Owed both service and texes to tlatoani and his overlord Mostly farmers or urban artisans Usually lived together in communities or neighborhoods with their own leaders schools and temples Owed collective obligations to the state unpaid labor and serving the army Richest among commoners POTCHECA 0 Professional merchants 0 Led caravan like trading expeditions 0 They could afford to buy sacrificial victims and if they did they were honored and praised SO THIS HAPPENED A LOT Under potcheca were MAYEQUE o Tied to the land and labored on the estates of kings and nobles 0 Paid taxes only to their immediate lords Bottom of society TLACOTIN o Occupied a depressed economic status 0 Essentially slaves o Owed service to other people 0 Some were war captives others were put in this condition due to debt or crime 0 SPANISH CONQUEST o Hernan Cortes and about 500 men land on shores of the empire where Aztec diviners prophesized the return of Quetzalcoatl Quetzacoatl said he would be back on the anniversary then this happened Seemed more like prophecy than coincidence to diviners Cortes and his men marched inland Reached Tlaxcalans first who resisted them at first but then realized they were good allies to have against Moctezuma ll Cortes Spaniards and Tlaxcalans get to Tenochtitlan They were received amicably and housed for 6 months During this time Moctezuma placed under house arrest Cortes and Moctezuma were buddies until the amity broke down Moctezuma dies under mysterious circumstances during a fight that broke out in the main temple of the city Supposedly the Spanish had arranged this With the fallen king Tenochtitlan showed its weakness and started losing allies After many months of intense fighting the Spaniards won against the Aztecs
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