PSY-0022 Emotion: Study Guide #3
PSY-0022 Emotion: Study Guide #3 PSY-0022
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Bu on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-0022 at Tufts University taught by Dr. Heather Urry in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at Tufts University.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Exam 3 PSY 22 Fall 2015 Amy Bu 1 1 In what sense are emotions rational What are the two types of signals that emotions provide according to Oatley amp JohnsonLaird Rational Emotions a Must be based on beliefs about real events b must help us function c must constructively guide cognitive processes such as perception attention memory judgement 1 Primary Appraisal Organizational mode of readiness with an urge to act based on specific emotion Quick automatic interrupts all other processes 2 Secondary Appraisal Informational enable us to make mental models of events and their possible causes consequences implications 2 Gordon Bower developed an associative also referred to as semantic network theory to explain emotion congruence Explain what emotion congruence means and provide an example How does associative network theory explain emotion congruence Emotion Congruence when people are better able to learn material that is congruent with their current emotions because it is integrated into active memory and more easily retrieved eg Ps either happy or sad read a story about two college students where one is doing well and the other is doing poorly Happy Ps remember more about the one doing well sad Ps remember more about the one doing poorly Associative Network Theory activating one word node activates related concepts Emotion nodes activate past emotionrelated experiences Information related to emotions are more accessible when that emotion node is activated 3 Joe Forgas developed the affect infusion model to describe the circumstances under which emotions have an effect on cognitive processes Explain his model and at least one piece of evidence to support it Affect Infusion Model when emotions infuse into a cognitive task they in uence memory and judgment especially if task is complex eg happiness infuses positive evaluations into judgment tasks Affectively charged information influences cognitivejudgmental processes especially high level ones eg Heuristic Substantive Processing Evidence induce happysad mood in Ps by asking them to recall a memory then ask Ps to indicate how they would make a series of easy or difficult requests of someone Sad Ps were more polite overall although all Ps were more polite in more difficult situations 4 Explain feelingsasinformation theory Be sure to use and define heuristic Exam 3 PSY 22 Fall 2015 Amy Bu 2 Heuristic guesses that work better than chance shortcuts to making judgments or taking action Feelings as information Heuristic Processing judgements can39t take in all relevant info so emotions provide rapid signals about things that occur in the environment Hence emotions serve a heuristic shortcut purpose Example Schwartz 8 Clore call Ps on either beautifulgloomy weather day and ask about life satisfaction a ask about weather first b only ask about satisfaction Ps who were not made aware of the weather39s influence were more affected by its heuristic in uence Ps who were asked about weather reported similar satisfaction regardless of weather 5 What is a moral judgment How do emotions contribute to moral judgments according to Jonathan Haidt Be sure to address his five categories of moral intuition in your answer Moral Judgement judgments about right and wrong and about character and virtue Guided by deliberative processes eg perspective taking cost benefit analyses considering rights and duties 5 Categories of Moral Judgements 1 Harmrelated emotions eg sympathy concern perceptions of need of care or vulnerability motivate prosocial action 2 Fairness reciprocity justicerelated eg anger disgust contempt Arise from reciprocal altruism sensitive to who deserves what cheating and from actions that are unfairharmful 3 Selfcritical eg shame embarrassment guilt Arise when violates moral codes or ideas about virtuecharacter and motivates moral behavior 4 Otherpraising eg awe gratitude signal approval of others39 moral virtuesbehaviors 5 BodilySpiritual Purityrelated e g disgust about importance of respect to authority loyalty and obedience Condemn others39 transgressions stronger ingroup loyalty and outgroup derogation Emotions are socialmoral intuitions which amplify moral judgements The fast automatic experiences of emotions provide intuitions of rightwrong and virtuepunishment without elaborate conscious thought 6 Moral dilemmas such as those posed by the footbridge and switch trolley examples can be used to understand factors that in uence moral judgments Describe the footbridge and switch trolley examples In which example are we more likely to make a utilitarian decision How would Joshua Greene explain why this is from his dualprocess perspective DualProcess Perspective 2 systems are involved when considering moral dilemmas seesaw 1 Cognitive Control utilitarian rational save the most people possible 2 Emotional the negative emotional response to people dying Footbridge Problem a runaway trolley is going towards 5 people who would be killed upon contact Participants need to decide if they would push a large man from a bridge above the man39s fall would stop the trolley and save the 5 people but kill the man Trolley Problem a runaway trolley is going towards 5 people who would be killed upon contact Participants need to decide if they would pull a lever and direct it onto a different track where it would kill only one person Exam 3 PSY 22 Fall 2015 Amy Bu 3 Participants more likely to use utilitarian perspective in the switch trolley situation because the importance of saving 5 people is more salient than feeling bad about pushing the lever In the bridge situation feeling bad about pushing the man may be more emotionally powerful than the cognitive importance of saving 5 people 7 The Ultimatum Game demonstrates a possible role for one of Haidt s moral intuitions How so Make it clear that you understand what the Ultimatum Game entails and what is typically found in studies that have used this task Ultimatum Game 1 proposer 1 responder Proposer gets 10 and splits it with the responder who can accept or reject If reject neither player gets money In studies participants tend to accept 55 and 64 but when it becomes more extreme such as 73 or more participants become upset and reject the offer fMRIs showed that their heart rate slows and more when the ratio is more unfair This is usually prompted by activation in the amygdala by emotions of disgust rather than anger These reactions come from fairnessrelated moral intuitions 8 Describe the development of expressions of emotion during the first year of life After the first year of life at what point do social emotions emerge and to what cognitive milestones are those attached E mp ll lffE rubarmssmnnl F nnnl hamnf Elirl39h Han Find Anger Funr Eurmisn AltrulsrnIEng Guiltt Flngml 3 III I l I I 2 El 5 Iquot l 2 ll El 3 mnuths mnnl hs mnnlhn morning months i l l l l l mnnlhs years wars lures l Eunlmlf Mommy M urilallrl H gr E1 pnnl nnny illnlnll n Visual Disnnmluallnn nllnilmr llinrnr n lunnnri Visual MeansveE n EE E El f iEiii D lE l itmalinrm Language Hepmsenlaliunal iiugluljlnn lirm nrl n llnhnllnnnl Tlilllrliig Heisman nals all Llrlixtmtinz39ms Pinnwlndgu l innry ll Hiram illnderslanrjing Ele liel s E Thoughtej Basic emotions develop within the first year 912 months happiness sadness anger fear surprise Selfconscious emotions emerge after 18 months Cognitive processes such as consciousness and mentalizing are involved They start to recognize their own internal states know the difference between self and other and are capable of cooperation and altruism 9 Which discrete emotion is most tied to the development of stranger wariness How is stranger wariness assessed in a laboratory context What attachment styles have been identified using this task How does attachment in infancy relate to behavior in childhood and adulthood Exam 3 PSY 22 Fall 2015 Amy Bu 4 Stranger wariness the distress of young children when exposed to unfamiliar people is associated with fear It begins at 89 months and peaks at 1215 months where attachment forms Stranger wariness is assessed in the lab using Ainsworth39s Strange Situation Test 1 Secure attachment infant explores environment is distressed when parent leaves is comforted when parent returns and is outgoing to strangers when parent is present 2 Insecure attachment infant is much moreless inclined to explore moreless distressed when parent leaves either ambivalent or avoidant when the parent returns and shows much moreless stranger wariness when parent is present Secure attachment predicts better childhood peer relations which predicts feeling more secure in adolescent friendships which predicts higher positive and lower negative emotions in romantic relationships in early adulthood 10 When does the ability to discriminate different emotion expressions emerge How has this been studied in the lab How does emotion recognition help with social referencing How does childhood maltreatment impact emotion recognition in studies done by Seth Pollack and colleagues 23 month olds are able to distinguish happy sad and surprised expressions 57 month olds can distinguish fear Thus they are able to perform social referencing using others39 emotional signals to guide their own behavior e g they are discouraged by fearful expressions from others Pollack et al physically abused children have heightened sensitivity to expressions of anger and can detect it at much lower levels than nonabused children 11 Psychopathology is conceptualized either from a categorical or from a dimensional perspective What does this mean 1 Categorical divides psychopathology into clearly drawn diagnoses where patients have to meet a certain criteria Assumes that a problems are distinct from normal functioning b course of illness is similar for everyone diagnosed with it Criticism mental illnesses may not always be qualitatively different from one another or from normal functioning it does not take into account for comorbidity they vary by gendercultureage and does not account for subclinical disturbance 2 Dimensional assumes that all symptoms are experienced to varying degrees by all people thinks of it as a bell curve where they become maladaptive only for those who experience it the most intensely Captures natural variation in populations 12 Describe Achenbach s distinction between internalizing and externalizing disorders Where do eating disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder fit into this scheme Internalizing negative emotions such as anxiety and depression acting in eg major depression panic disorder agoraphobia More prevalent in women gt men Externalizing disinhibition acting out eg alcoholism conduct disorder antisocial behavior More prevalent in men gt women Eating disorders 8 ADHD neither because they are not emotional at the core but eating disorders may have underlying emotional issues Exam 3 PSY 22 Fall 2015 Amy Bu 5 13 What are four ways of conceptualizing emotionbased disorders 1 Predominance of one emotion eg sadness in depression anxiety in GAD anger for aggression resulting in imbalance of emotions 2 Inappropriate or atypical emotional responses e g crying when nothing happened being angry at a friendly person more common in externalizing disorders 3 Poor emotion regulation cannot inhibit emotions or reappraise situations to adjust experience and behavior eg cannot inhibit selfblame in internalizing disorders so remain depressed cannot focus on positive things in externalizing disorders so remain angry 4 Psychological patterns seen as disordered may be strategic adaptations to negative environments because they may be normal responses to stressful environments for survival eg aggressiveness may be adaptive in a highly hostile community 14 How does the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses depression anxiety impulse control or drug disorders alcohol disorders vary as a function of sex raceethnicity and marital status Sex more women suffer from internalizing disorders eg depression anxiety while more men suffer from externalizing disorders eg substance abuse antisocial behavior RaceEthnicity Black people are less susceptible than White people to have emotional disorder and less likely to have any mental disorder at all 70 of probability of white people Marital Status previously but no longer married people are twice as likely as people who are currently married or have never married to suffer a mental disorder 15 Gruber and Keltner 2007 describe emotionbased disorders as excesses deficits or dysfunctions of emotion Elaborate Emotions alone eg sadness anger happiness disgust are useful to us and emotionbased disorders involve the same brain areas as normal emotions The elicitor of the emotion is typically normal and adaptive Disorders arise only when an emotion39s duration intensity or amount is inappropriate Table 134 isec ers es seese eiss f f c emetiexi Excess sadnessquot cl epr essicn Excess Fear chelsiss general anxiety diserrler pesctreurnssic ss discreef panic discrder hyp echlczndrie eet cf rdisee se ebsessenelfcerriciuisice discreters seifrneclicstieri cl anxiety by clcchel and drugs Excess happiness menie entisccicl cersierrainitsr ciiserder Excess singer creed Luci disercler eppesi ti ccsiaeeiieri39t discreer inrterrn itterii expicsise s iscu rider Excess disgust exerexis Excess seifcecscies emeticri narcissistic pride Lecir ch sei39flceriscieLis emcti crr ed Lil 1 e uaiisrri Elie s ell erube rressrnentil psych epe thy I sch L39F gist i It cur remcrsel Dysi39li ricirierrs cf emetiee schisepi ireriie terrier psychcses Scarce Densec frcr39n Ember Es Eeltncr 330 Exam 3 PSY 22 Fall 2015 Amy Bu 6 16 What are some of the factors that make one vulnerable to emotional disorders Factors that Increase Vulnerability 1 Adverse life events when life roles are threatened may precipitate depressionpsychopathology if new roles are not assumed eg death of spouse loss of job change living conditions 2 Genetics psychopathology is heritable 46 concordance for monozygotic and 20 for fraternal twins Serotonin transportation polymorphism produces serotonin depression more likely for people with shortshort STP alleles compared to shortlong or longlong 3 Geneenvironment interaction see below Diathesisstress hypothesis 4 Social support relationships affect whether people develop disorders eg depression People with good social support are less likely than those without to become depressed following an adverse life event 5 Early experience those who had poor parental care lost their mother in early childhood or suffered neglect or abuse are more likely to develop depression What about factors that predict recurrence relapse or recovery RelapseRecurrence for depression severe interpersonal difficulties avoidanceoriented coping lack of social support Kindling is where people become progressively more vulnerable with each episode as the mental pattern becomes a habit Recovery making new plans or fresh starts such as a new role relationship or life project Those that go well predict recovery those that go wrong may further the depression Prolong recalling negative memories ruminating on symptoms of distress repetitively instead of solving the problem Depression may also deteriorate relationships which prolong depression due to poor social relations 17 What is a gene by environment interaction Interaction between a person39s genes and the environment can lead to disorders eg depression anxiety Although some people are genetically at higher risk for a disorder whether it manifests depends on the environment such as events and difficulties Genetic factor influences are diminished after age 20 How has this concept been demonstrated in the context of understanding depression The likelihood of twins both having diagnosis of depression was highly significant Monozygotic twins had higher rates than dizygotic twins of both having depression and are more likely to experience the same number of adverse life events Some people are genetically predisposed to experience more adverse life events which is contributed to by Neuroticism personality trait Exam 3 PSY 22 Fall 2015 Amy Bu 7 18 Describe the five families of emotion regulation processes and how they relate to the emotion generative cycle Gross amp Thompson 2007 1 Situation select and modify the situation usually by avoidance or problemsolving 2 Executive Function manage attention to a stimulus or situation usually by distraction or rumination 3 Cognitive Change altering the appraisal of a situation or stimulus usually by reappraisal or acceptance 4 Behavior and 5 Physiological Change changing emotions once they are under way usually by altering or suppressing emotional expressions multisystem response Reappraisal thinking about something in a different way changing your cognitive process of it eg thinking that something isn39t so bad after all reinterpreting someone39s rude actions as unintentional 20 Define the following termsphrases Note that the termsphrases below may appear anywhere on the exam not just in the Definitions section Similarly termphrases above may appear anywhere on the exam including in the Definitions section Affective forecasting The prediction of one39s emotions and feelings in the future Broaden and build Fredrickson39s theory that the function of positive emotions is to expand our resources e g creative thought important relational bonds learning cooperation Stressdiathesis hypothesis People have different levels of vulnerability to environmental risks geneenvironment interaction Differential emotions theory Discrete or basic emotions eg joy sadness anger disgust fear seen as natural kinds based on hardwired systems Each has a set of neural expressive and feeling components that occur automatically and nonconsciously in response to specific events The response patterns are restrictedstereotypical but can be modified by information processing mechanisms Differentiation theory Infants start with two basic emotion states negativitydistress or positivitypleasure More differentiated emotions emerge later in development eg negative gt sadness positive joy through biological maturation and interaction with environment Exam 3 PSY 22 Fall 2015 Amy Bu 8 Functionalist view Emotions are relational processes children establishalterrnaintain their relationship with the environment especially social environment of caregivers siblings and other people It is both an intrapersonal feeling and has interpersonal consequences Facial eXpressions are not unconscious responses but social signals Emotional development occurs as children establish new goal states and new ways of evaluating emotional events and as relationships change over time Prevalence The proportion of a population who suffer form the disorder over a time period Rumination Dwelling on symptoms of distress in a passive and repetitive manner rather than in a problemsolving way Two aspects 1 Brooding maladaptive 2 Reflective pondering thinking through problems that led to depressioninducing incidents may resolveshorten depression Social support General term for relationships that can protect people form disorder e g intimate relationships where one can confide lack of interpersonal friction high appreciation and integration in social network System 1 The automatic quick heuristic primary appraisal process System 2 The slower deliberative secondary appraisal process Suppression Deliberately not eXpressing an emotion as part of the emotion regulatory process modulate Multi System Response phase Affects the amygdala
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