The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Megan for help in class!
Exam 3 Answers
1. Productivity or generativity of language: the capacity to produce and understand an infinite number of novel sentences
Syntax: the component of grammar that governs the ordering of words in sentences (phrases, etc). A set of rules for how words go together must allow us to create all sentences.
2. Abstract based grammar: One set of rules about nouns, verbs, adjectives, articles, etc. Basically what we learned in grammar school. Adults use this.
Semantically based: Many rules to create sentences. Ex: Agent + action + recipient, Object/Person + IS + description, Agent + intransitive action. Kids use this.
3. Openclass (lexical class words): new items can be created. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs. Ex: “a selfie” “texting” “i.m.ing”
Closed class (function words): serve grammatical function, new items can’t be added. Articles, prepositions, conjunctions. Ex: “A”, “the”, “over”, “under”
Don't forget about the age old question of What does mmpi stand for?
4. Hierarchical structure of language: Sentence grows when you go up on hierarchical scale for creating sentences. *Sentence = Noun phrase + verb phrase *Noun phrase = (article) + (adjective) + noun *Verb phrase = verb + (adverb) or (noun phrase).
The ugly cat chased the little mouse = noun phrase + verb phrase = sentence 5. Morpheme: smallest element of language that carries meaning.
Bound morpheme: cannot stand alone, is bound to a stem (ex. s, ed, ing, pre, post) Free morpheme: morpheme that stands alone and has meaning (cat, run, shoe, help) Sentence with 6 words and 9 morphemes: Horses eat apples on grassy mountains. We also discuss several other topics like Why are forms of communications important?
English is a weak morpheme language. Example: to arrive: Person: I arrive, she arrives, you arrive, they arrive. Tense: I arrived late, she arrived late, they arrived late.
Inflectional morphemes: plurals, case, tense, etc. ex: Walk vs. Walked
Derivational morphemes: bound morphemes that change the meaning or class of a word. Ex: run + er runner; psyche psychology psychologist If you want to learn more check out What is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the idea that states foreign policy decisions are determined by their location, natural resources, and physical environment?
6. Descriptive language: the grammar used to communicate in one’s environment. We care about this one.
Prescriptive language: learned in syntax class. We don’t care about this one. Ex: Me and him ain’t never gone there. (This is okay)
7. Productive syntactic development studied with diaries, transcripts, MLU.
MLU: mean length of utterance. Reflects how many morphemes used in each utterance. Used to study production of language and grammatical abilities. This is better than counting words because you count free and bound morphemes, which shows more growth in language than just counting words.
MLU of 4, words count of 2: Dad’s crackers If you want to learn more check out What is populist?
8. Transitional forms: Starts after the one word phase. Transition period: Not quite multiword. Don't forget about the age old question of Why socrates says that love is not beautiful?
Vertical constructions: single words that seem to be related. Ex: “ow” “eye”. Pause between and each word has intonation of an isolated word.
Unanalyzed combinations: Chunk together words to have one meaning. Ex: “Iwanna” or “elemeno”.Not 3 words with distinct meanings.
“Word + jargon” combos: blahdamaba blankie bablahda
9. Two word speech: Productivity not just repetition. Not random order.
10. Relational meaning: the order of words provides meaning beyond the words themselves. Ex: possessive and descriptive
With 3 word phrases: same meanings, but filling in some words. Use content words mostly and miss grammatical morphemes
11. Telegraphic speech: contains content words, drops most everything else. Missing grammatical morphemes: word and word endings that mark grammatical relations. Ex: articles (the), verb endings (ing), and prepositions (of). Because: Not stressed by adults, not needed for meaning, memory load.
12. Children differ in their RATE of syntactic development: Some start 2word utterances before 18 months, while others don’t until after 24 months.
Children differ in their STYLE of acquisition: Holistic and Analytic
Differences found crosslinguistically in morphological development: between high morpheme and low morpheme languages
13. Imperatives (commands): Gimme juice!
Declaratives (statements): I like juice.
And Questions: Got juice?
Shifts from Imperative to Declarative. Question slowly increases
14. Negation: First: shake head with positive statement (gesture). Second: marker before a positive, then embedded. Ex: “No you go” “You no go”. Third: Single morpheme constructions. Ex: Can’t & don’t before can & do. Ex: So don’t is used as a single meaning (not “do” and “not”). Last: full meaning. Ex: “I do NOT want that”.
Yes/no questions: easier because it is a simpler inversion.
Wh questions: harder because of inversion of the sentences.
Passive forms difficult for children because it is more complex. Learn at 3 ½ 5 years old.
15. Holistic children mastering grammatical development: use chunking and doesn’t build up their syntax. Ex: “Iwanna”.
Analytical children mastering grammatical development: they use the words only when they truly understand the meaning.
16. Comprehension of syntax: What children understand. Hard to track, hard to test. Precedes production.
Comprehension strategies: *Response strategies: Respond with an action based on key words they know, not syntax. Ex: Where are your shoes? Vs. Who made your shoes? *Word order. Order of mention. Ex: Anne hit Jim. Vs. Jim was hit by Anne. *World knowledge: Use common sense to determine meaning. Ex: Put your shoes on after your socks.
17. Preferential looking investigates relation meanings in word combinations because it shows that children can comprehend the relationship between the words.
Study on preferential looking and relation meanings: “Where is she kissing the ball?” Show two pictures and see where child looks. (15 m/o)
18. Study on simple word order: Where is cookie monster washing big bird? Vs. Where is big bird washing cookie monster? (18 m/o) (agent vs direct object)
Study on complex object/action pairings: Where are Cookie Monster and Big Bird turning? Vs. Where is Cookie Monster turning big bird? (30 m/o)
Problem of coreference: Expect verbs to refer to closest noun. Sometimes up to 9 y/o. Nature/nurture debate revisited because: if it is innate, it shouldn’t take that long to figure out.
19. Arguments for children having abstract grammar and productivity in grammar: there is evidence because children use overregularizations. Ex: Feets, goed.
20. We see that children apply syntactic rules with…
Patterns in early word comprehension: they apply grammatical rules to new words and situations
Overregularizations: apply a rule to the exception. Ex: goed, braked, feets, childrens
Experimental tests of rule knowledge: Applying rules to completely new situations. Ex: I have one wug now I have two ______. Correct by age 2 (for nouns).
21. Constructivist theory: children have very limited productivity; children do NOT initially have abstract rules or categories
Generativist theory: children DO have abstract rules and categories from very early on, and use them to be highly productive.
Verb island theory: (Tomasello) Nouns are used in abstract ways by kids but not verbs. Kids learn each verbs’ arguments individually. This theory relates to constructivist theory because initially children do not have abstract rules.
Evidence for verb island theory: argument structure. Laugh = 1. Hit = 2. Bounce = 1 or 2.
Evidence against verb island theory: Fails to extend argument structures to newly learned verbs. Children don’t spontaneously use even wellknown verbs in all forms (but they do for nouns).
Dual route: children (and adults) use some abstract rules and some memorized forms (Pinker). Ex: the regular past tense = rules (add –ed) Walk walked. Laugh laughed.
22. Principles and parameters: (Chomsky) Born with a set of universal principles of language structure and set parameters based on language input. Universal Grammar.
Constructivist theory of grammar: Children build (construct) their grammatical knowledge from experiences with language. With: statistical learning (regularities of the language) and the social properties of communicative interactions.
23. Parents give negative feedback, not direct, when correcting overgeneralizations made by their children. When the kids use words such as ‘feets’, they show that they acquire grammar.
Innate grammar is possible, along with a reliable sequence of language development. People say no, because children are corrected and given feedback.
24. Linguistic Competence: Produce and understand wellformed, meaningful sentences. Communicative competence: Use language appropriately.
Communication: Exchange of thoughts, messages or information.
Intentionality: Having a purpose or goal. Important developmentally. Sharing one’s mind and actively creating a belief in the listeners mind.
Not all communication is intentional. We communicate from birth, but intentional communication is hard to develop.
Speech acts: doing things with language. Separate the content of the sentence from its intended function(s) and effect.
Illocutionary forces: Intended function. Ex: Get sugar.
Locution: Form. Question and imperative. Ex: Can I have some sugar? Give me sugar!
Perlocution: Effect. Ex: obtaining the requested object (get sugar). Transmitting information.
It is not a 1to1 mapping between linguistic form and intentional functions. There are multiple goals and forms.
25. Discourse: Sequences of connected speech Conversations & Narratives.
Four rules for effective discourse: Quantity, Quality, Relation (how relevant the information is), Manner (clear, brief, orderly, unambiguous)
26. Sociolinguistics: How language varies in relation to social situations, cultures, gender Language socialization: Cultures have different social norms about language Different registers: different speech styles of one person. Ex: formal, neutral, informal
27. Pragmatic knowledge: communicative functions of language and conventions that govern its use. Best linguistic form to all meanings you want to get across.
Pragmatic development: learning functions and conventions
Intentional communication: *Perlocutionary: (birth 10 months) having effects but not intentional. Ex: crying, fussing, and reaching. Communication before language. *Illocutionary: Having intentions (around 10 months), without language. Fussing with eye contact, good joint attention (around 1012 months). *Locution: (around 12 months) Using language to communicate their intentions.
Protoimparatives: use adults to obtain something. Illocutionary phase.
Protodeclaratives: use objects to direct adult attention. Illocutionary phase.
28. Two basic findings about how communication and intention interact in young children: *Kids have a range of communicative intentions before they have the language to express them. *These develop quickly over the first few years.
Number of prelinguistic communications children have before they have the language to express those communications: 89
29. Piaget’s egocentric child and how idea relates to language development: age 36, you can’t see another person’s perspective. Theory of cognitive abilities.
Theory of mind: seeing others as independent thinkers, with different thoughts, beliefs and ideas.
3 mountains task reveals developmental differences in theory of mind. Shows egocentric child. Children under 5 fail at this and can’t see the other person’s perspective.
Collective monologue: preschoolers take turns but have unrelated topics so they don’t give the correct information.
30. Private speech: talking to yourself with no outside listener. Also called Solitary monologues or Language Play. Presleep or while playing. Allows children to practice their language skills.
Piaget’s take: not really communicating
31. Action responses: Respond with action not words. This helps with turn taking.
Contingent responses in early conversations: child stays on the same topic and adds new information.
Noncontingent and imitation response decreases with time. Noncontingent responses: child is on a different topic. Imitation: on the same topic but no new information.
32. Contingent conversations help the child’s development when talking to adults, but less contingent responses with peers, which helps less.
Scaffolding: provided by a more competent speaker (adult)
Elaborative scaffolding: expands information and aids more in development Repetitive scaffolding: asks multiple times for similar information
Children tend to tell better narratives: About personal experiences vs recounting fictional stories and about dramatic events (such as injuries)
33. Developmental changes in children’s abilities to repair miscommunications: Increase in number of repairs between 12 and 18 mos. Shift from repeating (13 years) when misunderstood to revising (35 years).
34. Narrative: extended monologue. Starts in a conversation, scaffolded by parents. 4½3 yearolds: simply mention a past event, 1.7 clauses long.
45 yearolds: more structured story lines and longer, more remote events. But are missing information, poor tense system, pronouns unclear.
Skills improve in school years.
35. Sociolinguistics: Varying one’s language as a function of situation and speaker. This includes listeners: cognitive ability, social status, and shared knowledge.
Piaget tested children’s abilities to change registers by: *Describe how a water spout works to a small child vs. an adult. Fail at 6 y/o. *Referential communication: child describes one picture well enough for another person to pick it out of an array. Shows egocentric child at 5 y/o.
Newer research uses: different tasks based on cognitive ability and social status. With cognitive ability: At 4 y/o use shorter sentences, smaller words, directives. But some
evidence for 2 y/o. with social status: politeness registers for requesting things. More polite when increase understanding that is less direct at 35 y/o.
36. Gender differences: the word “sorry” and interruptions.
We see this in preschool. Boys interrupt, use imperatives, and threats and tell narratives with destruction, lots of characters, and less organization. Girls use cooperation, requests, and negotiations and tell narratives with more cohesion and harmony.
37. It is important to study special populations for applied and basic reasons. Applied reasons: to help in intervention
Basic reasons: to learn how various abilities contribute to language. Ex: social and autism, visual context and blindness, IQ and language in intellectual disabilities.
38. Dyslexia affects 517% of the population.
A common problem observed in kids with dyslexia: reading abilities lower than IQ would predict. Because of genetic factors. Predictor: phonological awareness deficits (not visual).
39. Sign language and spoken language differences: grammar, signing first words a little earlier Similarities: complete language, same place in brain, same to learn, babbling as a baby
40. Development of sign language: Nearly identical to learning speech, manual babbling, first words and first combinations a little earlier
41. Disadvantages with only signing: having hearing parents, different than signing English, reading, more difficult in hearing community
Advantages of signing: good language exposure, better in deaf culture
Learning spoken language as a deaf person has a success rate of 1555%. They do this by lip reading and speaking.
42. Phonology affected: Production and comprehension somewhat impacted. Visibility matters: voicing, /ba/ vs. /pa/
Semantics affected: slower and more variable
Syntax affected: Delayed and sometimes never fully developed. Common morphological errors
Reading in deaf people: reach 4th6th grade reading level. Because of phonology and the differences in signed and spoken languages.
43. Cochlear implant: Mechanism that stimulates auditory nerve simulating sound. Because of damage on cochlear hair cells. Sound – digital – electrical – implant – electrodes – auditory nerve – brain
Factors that determine if CI is successful: duration of use, Duration of CI use, Greater residual hearing preimplant, Parental involvement, Absence of additional disabilities, Age at implantation
Debate in deaf populations because: it ruins any residual hearing and it should be the child’s choice
44. Autism: born without the biological preconditions for psychologically metabolizing the social world.
Autism spectrum disorder: scale of severity of autism.
Diagnosis change between DSM4 and DSM5: clearer definitions, 3 types (autism spectrum disorder, Asperger’s, PDDNOS). No longer subtypes. Now it is one diagnosis with levels of severity.
45. Perception of autism has changed over time: 50s – Hallucinations and delusions. 60s – Blame parents. 70s – More research. 80s – Pervasive Developmental Disorders. ASD. Now: One diagnosis with severity levels.
46. Skills lacking: social communication and social interaction, restricted repetitive patterns of behavior.
Diagnosis changed overtime: because of definition. We have better research and more information. Diagnose with 13 severity level. Usually around 2 y/o because notice delayed language, unengaged or inattentive or loss of skills. IQ ranges a lot. Some use echolalia.
47. Autism influences language acquisition in low functioning kids: delay language. Kids are unengaged and inattentive.
Echolalia: repetition with similar intonation of words or phrases from someone else
Prelinguistic differences: less responsive to name, mother’s voice, native language. Less gestures, pointing, joint attention. Interested in nonhuman objects more than humans.
48. Causes of autism: genetics.
Vaccinations and autism: unrelated. Immunizations do not cause autism.