MIS Exam 3 Study Guide
MIS Exam 3 Study Guide 69692
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Samar on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 69692 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. neuman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see MIS 111 in Business at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
MIS Exam 3 Study Guide Data Networking Fundamentals Strategic Use of Data Networking • More efficient and effective business operations • Geographical distance irrelevant (globalization) • More timely and efficient access to information • Enable a flexible and mobile workforce Selecting a route for a packet • Two metrics o Hop count (# sends) o Bandwidth (Link Speed) Packet Switching • Advantages o Bandwidth used to full Potential-‐Shared use o Not affected by single points of failure (redirects signal)-‐ original DOD objective o During a major disaster, the public telephone network might become congested, but e-‐mails and texts can still be sent via packet switching • Disadvantages o Under heavy use there can be a delay (latency) o Data packets can get lost or become corrupted § Recovered, but slows transmission latency o Real-‐time video streams, such as streaming video, can lose frames when packets arrive out of sequence Identifying Hosts • URL-‐Name-‐Descriptive name o Well suited for humans (“name”) o Example: www.eller.arizona.edu • IP Address-‐ Unique number o Well suited for machines (“phone number”) o Example: 220.127.116.11 Understanding a URL http://www.rcs.registrar.arizona.edu/defaut.htm • Protocol-‐ Method used to interpret the webpage o HTTP://-‐hypertext transfer protocol • Server-‐identifies the location of the website o Domain: Type of organization (.edu, .com, .net) o Organization: responsible party (.arizona) o Location of website on server: “www” directory • Resource: information about the website o Filename: default.htm (file name in “www” directory) o Type of website: HTM/HTML-‐ hypertext markup language Wireless Communication in Business Wireless Communication Methods • “Multiplexed Access” o Each person is assigned a specific time or frequency on which to speak • “Random Access” o Each person simply talks. If they find others talking when they talk, they stop, wait a ransom amount of time, and start talking again. Wireless Link Characteristics • Differences from wired link: o Decreasing signal strength: radio signal attenuates as it propagates through matter (path loss) o Interference from other sources: unregulated wireless network frequencies shared by other devices and general noise sources o Multi-‐path propagation: radio signal reflects off objects ground, arriving at destination at slightly different times • Makes communication much more difficult Wireless Transmission Media: Wireless transmission over unguided media refers to the methods of carrying data through the air using infrared, radio, or microwave signals. Wireless transmission: Human voice meets the criteria for wireless transmission 1. Unguided media (air) 2. Decreasing signal strength (distance) 3. Interference (noise) 4. Multi-‐path (echoes) Wireless Technologies • Wireless LAN’s: 802.11, WiFi • Cellular telephone networks o 1G Analog-‐low bandwidth o 2G Digital-‐voice (ISDN model) o 3G-‐ Web/video/IM/Voice o 4G WiFi/WiMax • Long-‐range: Microwaves, satellite o Good News: Have no right of way issues o Bad News: No physical barriers can exist between transmitter and receiver § Satellite § Microwave The Business of Mobile Commerce Semantic Web: the idea of having data on the web defined and linked in a way that it can be used by machines not just for display purposes. But for automation, integration and reuse of data across carious applications. Every person in the society in some way more or less participates in public business process, which we name as public commerce (P-‐commerce) o P-‐commerce service should be able to integrate different types of information with geographical data and manage different type of profiles related to preferences, security, privacy, transaction management ect.. mCommerce Business Opportunities o Mobile shoppers are simultaneously in the physical world and in the online world at times o They don’t want to get home and find out that the product they bought has terrible reviews or is 30% cheaper somewhere else o Disjointed to integrated § Traditional – Mass media, analog methods to reach shoppers § Transitional – digital tools used in way, underleveraging the media § Transformative – Digital tools that leverage the capability of the new media Location Based Commerce o Mobile coupons give you the opportunity to capture price sensitive customers, and they also allow you to capture data for future marketing o Have consumers sign up online or register via email address, SMS or QR code o receive offers to their phone o Scan a barcode directly on the phone § Target has cartwheel Accessibility and Human Computer Interface (HCI) Design Critical success factors for good produce design 1. Provide good design models to users 2. Make things visible 3. Provide appropriate metaphors that leverage the user’s experiences and background 4. Provide feedback Goals of HCI Design • Safety-‐ of users, of data • Utility –Services are provided • Effectiveness-‐ Accomplishing the task • Efficiency-‐ how quickly users and work • Usability -‐ ease of learning and use • Appeal – how well user like the interface Making things Visible • Affordances o Are physical properties of an object that show functionality o Their appearance shows the use how to use the object without the need for labels, instructions, ect… o Users know what to do instinctively o Simple thing should not need an explanation of how to use them Using Design Metaphors • A metaphor is an image or understanding of an object or action, used to describe the function of another thing • Reduced cognitive load required to complete a task • Should be based on an understanding of users cultural, frame of reference Causality • Users often assume that the thing that happens right after an action was caused by the action resulting in False causality (incorrect relationship) Human Factor design for error prevention • Avoidance o Use of techniques that eliminate invalid choices • Detection o Detection of errors o Required formatting o Trade off efficiency • Mitigation o Limit impact of users action, use of data Designing for accessibility • Major categories o Visual o Auditory o Motor o Cognitive • User Centered Design o A collection of techniques, processes, methods and procedures for designing usable products o Accessibility is a subset of usability (universal design) o It embodies a philosophy that places that user at the center of the process with users being consulted at each stage of the design process Motivations to create accessible web content • To capitalize on the a wider audience or consumer base • Accessibility has other benefits o Likely easier for all users to navigate o Useable designs are often better designs POUR • Developing with the POUR model o Perceivable o Operable o Understandable o Robust Internet of Things Internet of Things: The term internet of things was first used by Kevin Ashton in 1999. It refers to uniquely identifiable objects (things) and their virtual representations in an internet like structure. • From any time, any place connectivity for anyone, we will now have connectivity for anything Outlook to the future of IoTs Innovative development • Ubiquitous network society • Embedded intelligence and networking of embedded intelligence o Ambient monitoring in schools, buildings, environmental monitoring home automation, personalization, localization, positioning, ect. • Healthcare management; food traceability • Transportation Challenges in the Future of IoTs • IoT will inherit the drawbacks of the current internet on an infinitely larger, but more invisible scale o Privacy-‐ will be a huge issue when implementing IoT o Identity-‐ Online fragmentation of identity o Efficiency-‐ speed-‐ person loses identity and becomes a unique IP address o Decisions-‐ do not delegate too much of out decision making and freedom of choice to things and machines Transforming the web Managing Web Development Projects • Why the web evolves o Web landscape § Social media • Interaction among people in which they create, share, and/or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks § Content management systems • Software that allows publishing, editing, and modifying content from a central interface, providing procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment • WordPress, Joomla, Drupal § Mobile access • IPhone, IPad, Android Website Transformation Process o Our priorities § Defined audience § Content is king § Shared content § Timely and easy updates § Usability on desktop and mobile § Core system, no stand alone software § Consistent design and navigation § Enhance interactive components o Our process § Phase one: Defining the project • Team formation • Team project management site • Development, test, and production servers • Web surveys • Industry analysis • Site and content audits • Content management system selection • Project plan and creative brief § Phase 2: Developing site structure • Content outline and site map • Content analysis • Content delivery plan • Global features and content types • Content sharing relationships • User roles, content moderation, and workflow • Wireframes • Visual design § Phase 3: Production • Content creation and revision • CMS setup and configuration • Primarily theme and site production • CMS admin training • Site replication and customization § Phase 4: Training, Launch, and Build out • Style and user guides • CMS user training • Site build out and content addition • Phased site launch • Site archives • Project closeout § Phase 5: Site and CMS maintenance • Post launch evaluation • Site maintenance • CMS and server maintenance • Additional feature analysis, planning, and creation • Other site conversion • Expanded CMS training Sustainability and Information Systems Why Focus on Electronics? o Advances in technology have resulted in: o Increased sales of electronics worldwide o Increased energy consumption o A new stream of obsolete and discarded products Density of Use Fact o Americans own some 2 billion electronic products-‐ about 25 products per home Impact of Use Facts o US has more than 180 million computers in use, which consume nearly 58 billion kWh/year, or about 2% of the US annual electricity use o PCs and monitors consume between 5 to 13% of all the electricity used o Idle Equipment can waste energy when left running in “active” mode Impact of Disposal Facts o Electronic equipment contains materials such as lead, mercury, and other toxic materials o On average, about 460,000 PCs are discarded every day o Only about 25% of these are recycled Start Measuring and Analyzing o Start measuring and reporting consumption o Set targets for consumption o Create a dashboard o UA EcoReps Dashboard Its mostly a behavioral challenge o Create a social contract o Regularly communicate the goals and progress Switch off equipment when not in use o The opportunity o PCs and monitors account for more than 30% of IT power consumption and CO2 emissions o 60% of PCs are left on after hours o The Fix o Ditch the active screen savers o Use a low power state, such as standby, for PCs and monitors after hours. Printers and printing o The opportunity o The paper itself consumers 10x the energy of the process of printing on it o The fix o Print less-‐ analyze business flows o Consider duplex printing o Buy energy star devices o Recycle Business Case for Green IT o Financial Analysis o Capital vs. Operating expense § Some cultures “run until things break” • Some systems are 10-‐20 years old § Preserves older less energy efficient products o Consider the age of systems and the cost of powering them along with traditional support costs of aging technology In class questions: In general, what you think of as the quality of you network connection speed when you are using your pc, ipad, or smartphone is most influenced by which of the following? 1. Backbone Tier-‐1 ISPs 2. Regional Tier-‐2 ISPs 3. Local Tier-‐3 ISPs As I move farther away from campus, my connection to UAWiFi gets weaker, what will always cause this to occur? 1. Signal Blocked by strong encryption 2. Signal strength has limited power 3. Signal has multiple path propagation 4. Signal interference from other sources The benefits of using RFID from what category (driver) include tracking, tracing, control and authentication? 1. Reduce Cost 2. Increase Security 3. Generate value 4. Fulfill requirements In the following example, what type of addressing is used? <img alt=”Sears Ad” height= “200” src= “Sears.jpg” width=”141” /></p> 1. Absolute 2. Alternate 3. Hosted 4. Source 5. Relative What IoT technology discussed in class could by used to improve inventory management? 1. Geotagging 2. Product Metadata 3. RFID Tags 4. Crowdsourcing 5. Folksonomies What term is used to describe the information collected describing the action as opposed to the data itself? 1. Metadata 2. Hastagging 3. Packets 4. Entities What term is used to describe software that allows publishing, editing, and modifying website information from a central interface? 1. Decentralized Design 2. Project Management 3. Content Management 4. Social Media Platform 5. User Interface Design
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