FInal Exam Study Guide and Practice Test
FInal Exam Study Guide and Practice Test JOUR 2500
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cheyanne Skaggs on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to JOUR 2500 at Ohio University taught by Carson Wagner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 418 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Strategic Communication in Journalism Core at Ohio University.
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Introduction to Strategic Communications J2500 Carson Wagner Week 11 Social Influence Principles pt. 1 I. Automaticity (S.I.P pt1) II. Heuristics III. Selling Techniques IV. Social Influence Principle pt. 2 I. Automaticity 1. Automaticity Principle: the concept we’ve been revisiting throughout intro to strategic communication; the principle that we as consumers act “mindlessly” while making purchases when our metal and physical resources are exhausted and our motivation and opportunity are low. *Remember only 1/3 of the decisions we make are actually made effortfully **Automaticity has to do with Heuristics because when we act somewhat automatically we often employ heuristics (mental shortcuts) to help in our decision making ***Remember Representative Heuristic and Availability Heuristic II. Heuristics 2. Influence Heuristics: also called the “because heuristic” because “because” is used to justify almost any action. When you have limited cognitive capacity almost any reason could suffice as a legitimate reason because you aren’t fully in the moment and are otherwise distracted. Ex: You’re at the beach on the board walk and are very distracted by the sights and sounds. It’s a beautiful day and you’re in line to get tickets to see your favorite band. You’re standing in line with a group of friends when one of them asks you, “Hey can I have a drink of your water because I’m thirsty?” In this situation you are likely to say yes…why? Well because of the Because Heuristic. When our cognitive capacity has reached its limit such as when it’s a hot day on the beach and most of your attention is divided between the crowd and the goings on, we are less likely to respond effortfully to a request. So while we’re sweating in line next to loud strangers whilst thinking of how awesome the show that night will be we are more vulnerable to nonlegitimate reasoning. Of course a thirsty person would want a drink of water, that’s why everybody drinks water. But, when your resources are taken up you are less likely to ask yourself why your friend doesn’t just buy his own and you are more likely to give him the drink because “because” seems like a good enough reason at that particular moment. * “Because I’m thirsty,” is considered a placebic reason because it’s not a real reason **BUT larger requests require better reasoning so the Because Heuristic is limited in the respect that it is usually only effective when it comes to smaller requests Ex: If your friend asks you for $20 for 20 bottles of water because he’s thirsty you aren’t as likely to say yes. Other heuristics include… 3. PriceQuality Heuristic: the notion that you “get what you pay for” and that higher prices mean better quality *But some marketers contradict the price quality heuristic with a claim that certain products (think dish detergent and canned goods) can be bought at a lower price from their stores and have the same quality Ex: Kroger v. Whole Foods (for produce) Ex: Marshalls v. Vineyard Vines (for clothing) Ex: McDonalds v. Salaam (for dining out) III. Selling Techniques 4. Footinthedoor Technique: in sales when a sales person or marketer asks a small request followed by a larger one. Ex: Could you come to this booth to talk to one of our representatives for a free tshirt? Then… Could you make a donation? 5. Lowball technique: in sales when someone sells you on one idea and then changes that deal as if to say the two are one in the same This is seen by the consumer as ONE deal when it’s actually TWO Ex: Used often in car salesmanship a sales person might make a deal with you to purchase a vehicle for x amount of dollars only to spring something on you at the last minute like a sought after air conditioning unit and convince you to buy the vehicle at a now higher price. *This is also called BaitandSwitch 6. Doorintheface technique: to ask a larger request first anticipating that the consumer will say no. only to ask a smaller request which is the thing the marketer or salesperson actually wants Ex: A PETA representative comes up to you on the street and asks you to join a group dedicated to washing baby seals that have been covered in oil. The trip costs thousands of dollars and it is volunteer work that doesn’t pay and you have a job so you say hell no. (This would be the larger request) Then the representative gives up on you and asks humbly for a five dollar donation which is actually the representatives original intent, she only asked you about the volunteer program to get you thinking about how much you love baby seals and how much PETA needs your help. Since it is very unlikely that anyone who isn’t already in PETA would go on this volunteer trip the representative uses the doorintheface technique to get what she actually wants which is a donation (a smaller request). You are now more likely to give her the donation because it is a much less daunting task. *When it comes to footinthe door v doorinthe face techniques however the footinthe door technique creates more of a lasting response because that individual establishes that he/she has a positive attitude about a product or service because he/she has said yes to the initial request in this model (associated with selfperception theory) **BUT in the doorinthe face technique it is important that the SAME individual makes both of the request (the same representative must ask you to volunteer and make a donation there cannot be two different representatives) because of the… 7. Reciprocity Principle: this is a psychological principle that posits that when somebody does us a favor we feel obligated to return that favor. This also works in advertising when advertisers use such methods as doorinthe face technique because the reciprocity principle also works with requests. If we are unable to fulfil somebody’s initial request we are more likely to say yes to other smaller request because the fact that the person has asked us so many favors makes us feel obligated to accept at least one of them. SO therefore it is possible that we can be influenced into giving MORE than we get and any request can be enticing as long as it seems reasonable Other techniques include… 8. The that’snotall technique: a method of marketing used primarily in television advertising when a deal is changed into an even better deal before the consumer has time to respond Ex: But that’s not all! If you call within the next 10 minutes you’ll also receive sparkle glitter bead hair extensions with the Hairtasticstraightenerblowdryer curler, at no cost to you! Just pay shipping and handling. *the, that’s not all techniques is usually more effective than the door in the face technique most likely because there is a reasonable deal without having to prompt the consumer with a task. **This is related to Adaptation Level Theory because in the that’s not all technique we adapt to the first request and the tine is set from there 9. Evenapenny Technique: a technique employed by a marketer to make a request seem reasonable by legitimizing very small requests Ex: These starving children most of which have double pneumonia dysentery and super AIDS need your help. But any donation is accepted and every penny helps to provide these children with homes, food, shelter and medicine. *Interestingly enough the evenapenny technique increases consumer compliance and there is often an increase in the average donation amount contrary to what one might think since donations are advertised as being so low IV. Social Influence Principles Pt. 2 10. Scarcity Principle: the principle that suggests that since rare objects are valuable so are artificially rare objects at first glance. Products can be made “rare” simply by limiting production and supplying to select retailers for a limited time. Ex: Rare YuGiOh cards like the blue eyes white dragon are considered valuable since you can only find one in one out of every 100 packs and the cards are dispensed randomly to different retailers. 11. Social Validation Principle: in advertising when a brand uses statistics to legitimize its product such as how many followers the product has Ex: Honda is an awesome car and you should buy one because it was voted most reliable 4 years in a row. Ex: Your Mom thinks Everybody Loves Raymond is funny because the show has canned laughter when actually it’s not funny at all. **We can also do this using consensus information because it was found in a study that in a situation that calls for help more times than not a person will only help in a crowded room if it is the consensus of that crowd that the situation calls for it. ***So the validity of a product, service, or idea INCREASES with the number of supporters or amount of consensus 12. Authority Principle: in psychology, the theory that posits that positions and symbols of authority merit an increase in compliance of the individual Ex: The prisoners in the Stanford Prison Experiment were likely to comply from the beginning simply because the guards in the experiment were symbols of authority Ex: We are more likely to trust someone giving us factual evidence if that person is wearing glasses because we associate intelligence with wearing glasses and it has become a symbol of authority and wisdom to many professionals (doctors, lawyers, professors) 13. Confusion Principle: the principle that maintains that if one confuses an individual with irrelevant or technical details that that person does not understand it increases his/her compliance since the one giving the technical advice is perceived to have expertise. This works best when the one employing this technique confuses the individual initially and then simplifies the message in order to convince that individual. Ex: You know nothing about cars and you go to Michael’s Car Place for what you expect to be an ordinary oil change. But Mike comes out and tells you that after looking at your car he noticed that the fifth gadget on the transitory radiator is overflowing and the clinker engine is rickety and he recommends that you stay for a while, while they do a vehicular biopsy. You being the idiot you are about cars get confused and end up complying with Mike’s requests, Mike later convinces you to get new tires, windshield wiper extensions, and miracle engine protectant for an extra $500. You have no idea but Mike is actually a bad ass and he hustled the crap out of you using the confusion principle because you’re so dumb. Introduction to Strategic Communications J2500 Carson Wagner Week 12 I. Online Consumer Behavior pt.1 II. Online Consumer Behavior pt.2 III. Selfpersuasion principles I. Online Consumer Behavior pt. 1 1. Interactivity: interactivity pertains to how responsive technology is and the more immediately responsive the better it is and the more we may interact Ex: Response via instant messaging and text messaging v. a written letter 2. Customization: as it pertains to technology, when an internet service provider or search engine “customizes” the way information is packaged for the consumer. This is possible through tracking search terms and/or using “cookies” which are the sets of data advertisers use to track online behavior to better target the consumer with custom ads etc. *As the first generation to experience such a large volume of customizable advertising online we are limited in exposure control. Now things exist such as popup blockers for certain ads and cookie blockers but those devices may limit our online capabilities and web access and so exposure control becomes more difficult 3. Social Media: social media is beneficial to an extent when it comes to marketing much like negative and positive word of mouth are. Online consumers trade knowledge about products and should their approval and distain for products through things like “liking” ads or pages on FB or writing negative posts about a product or service. Related to social media and internet usage in general is also the online review. Online reviews are more trusted because consumers see these as less biased. 4. Cost Transparency: cost transparency is made better online because certain engine dedicated to transparency make it easy by giving consumers a list of prices or rates for much easier comparison shopping. This makes the online market an exceedingly competitive one and the lower prices offered online v. brick and mortar prices are possible because there are very minimal “overhead” costs (think rent for a building, paying employees etc.). II. Online Consumer Behavior pt. 2 *Online shopping orientation is defined by 3 orientation characteristics 1. Convenience orientation: people who are online oriented because of convenience may have limited mental or physical resources that may limit the time they can spend in brick and mortar stores. People who are convenience oriented don’t want to waste their time and money in stores and would rather purchase convenience products online cheaply and quickly. 2. Recreation orientation: much like it sounds consumers who are recreationally oriented towards online shopping do it because it provides entertainment value and they enjoy being able to compare various products and varieties which is sometimes more possible online than in person 3. Price orientation: since there are less overhead costs in running a virtual store the price oriented are attracted to online shopping. However, people become less price oriented online the more customizable the items are or in the case of specialty products only available online in which “price becomes no object” 4. SelfDetermination Theory: a macrotheory of human motivation and personality, concerning people's inherent growth tendencies and their innate psychological needs. It is concerned with the motivation behind the choices that people make without any external influence and interference. a. Intrinsic motivation: when one is motivated strictly by one’s own principles and the behavior is therefore likely to continue b. Extrinsic motivation: when behavior is motivated by such things as external rewards or other extenuating circumstances therefore the behavior is not as likely to continue What Effects Intrinsic Motivation… 5. Autonomy: in this context the freedom of the individual to seek information and different options 6. Competence: the intrinsic motivation one has to seek control over those options and one’s comfortability with the subject matter 7. Relatedness: the way in which an online interface is designed for the individual, the want to be able to interact and be connected to the online experience III. Selfpersuasion principles 1. Role Playing: playing a different “role” in other words interacting as someone or something else in a way in which you are not assigned in everyday life. Ex: Brad Pitt is a method actor so even though he is actually not a racist whitesupremacist if he is given the role of Hitler in a new film he will put himself in that “role” to get into character *In this way we can convince people to look at things differently simply by asking them to put themselves in another person’s shoes and become an actor in that role so to speak 2. Attitude Polarization: simply the act of thinking about a product can make one’s attitudes more extreme one way or the other. Since we rarely think about products in depth when presented with the opportunity we as intellectual beings will analyze the product further and to think more elaborately to further justify our thoughts and attitudes behind the given product. Typically, this results in the strengthening of one’s previously held opinion. Ex: SO if someone already likes Burt’s Bees Natural Beauty Products if the brand is in the forefront of that person’s mind and he/she has more time to think about the product in depth that person would most likely like that product even more because that individual has thought about the product in a more complex way and has justified his/her opinion even more. Ex: Bubba is already quite fond of shrimp products and when he visits a shrimp shipping factory in Alaska and goes shrimping in an old Viking style shrimp boat his love for shrimp products increases exponentially. Attitude Polarization is also connected to the… 3. Mere Thought Effect: merely thinking of a product is only one step in polarization it also has to do with the level of distraction and prior knowledge there are four possible combinations… *High prior knowledge/not distracted *High prior knowledge/ distracted *Low prior knowledge/not distracted *Low prior knowledge/distracted Of course it goes without saying that the group in which attitudes become the most polarized is the high prior knowledge/not distracted group because one can think most elaborately when these two conditions are present Other routes of “selfpersuasion” that strategic communicators use are… 3. Indirect Persuasion: a method used by both strategic communicators and advertisers in which they omit certain pieces of information in order to encourage consumers to make their “own” inferences. BUT the only logical inferences the consumer can make are dependent on the information given to them by the strategic communicator or advertiser. Therefore, these inferences actually aren’t entirely independent because the information is controlled and usually the marketer succeeds in getting individuals to form an opinion/attitude about their product or service in a favorable light. *indirect persuasion and the inferences that individuals make therein can lead to even greater persuasion because those individuals perceive there conclusions as their own and are more inclined to trust their own inferences **we as strategic communicators can predict how others will think and what types of inferences others will make by leading people down certain paths of logic such as with… 4. Syllogism: if A implies B; and B implies C; then A implies C 5. Syllogistic Inference Rule: In advertising a path of logic that leads consumers to a desired inference using philosophical reasoning Ex: If people prefer American made apparel And if Forever 21 and H&M’s apparel is made in developing countries But American Eagle has American made apparel Then, where should people go to buy apparel? American Eagle= Logical response *There are two different types of syllogisms Horizontal syllogisms and Vertical syllogisms 6. Horizontal Syllogism: a syllogism or line of reasoning in which several different lones of reasoning support the same conclusion Ex: People like actually getting on the correct flight, Southwest will get you on the right flight People like receiving their luggage at their final destination, Southwest will get it to you People like an airport staff that isn’t a bunch of assholes, Southwest employees aren’t usually assholes What airline should people fly with? 6. Vertical Syllogisms: a syllogism in which each previous line of logic rests on the previous statement Ex: People like going out to eat on special occasions, people like to go to sit down restaurants to enjoy themselves on special occasions People like to take their time sitting down and enjoying themselves; Eurocentric restaurants encourage people to take their time and enjoy themselves People like Eurocentric restaurants, Olive Garden is a Eurocentric restaurant Where should people go out to eat on special occasions? **The more convincing of the two is the vertical syllogism because it flows the most logically Introduction to Strategic Communications J2500 Carson Wagner Week 13 & 14 I. Dual Processes: Judgement and Behavior pt. 1 II. MODE model of Attitude Behavior III. Dual Processes Pt. 2 I. Dual Processes: Judgement and Behavior pt. 1 1. Zana and Rempel Model of Attitudes: the model of attitudes used in strategic communication that posits that cognition, affect, and behavior, influence attitudes and attitudes affect all three reciprocally 2. Attitude Behavior Personal Behaviors: a. Personal norms: individually adopted codes of conduct that may or may not effect attitudes and conflict with them b. Selfmonitoring: how aware an individual is about his/her place in society socially at any given moment i.e. how much he/she stands out in a crowd (one who blends in well in different types of social situations is considered to have high social monitoring while people who don’t care because they dgaf have low selfmonitoring). c. Locus of Control: for an individual where the forces that dictate any given outcome reside which can be either internally or externally prevalent d. Internal Locus of Control: an individual with an internal locus of control believes that he/she has an impact on his/her destiny and that individual decisions effect outcomes e. External Locus of Control: an individual with an external locus of control does not believe that the individual has much power in determining fate and that what happens is largely left up to other factors (fate etc.) f. Attitude Accessibility: how easily attitudes come to one’s mind in other words how accessible a memory is which then influences behavior. These attitudes could either be a direct influence in which they logically guide behavior or “selective perception” in which we only focus on the positive or negative memory. II. MODE Model of Attitude Behavior Relationships *The relationship between attitude and behavior is not always a positive correlation because behaviors are more complex and sometimes less logical than we would like to believe. In actuality, more often than not attitudes are only slightly related to behavior. 3. MODE theory: posits that there are two different ways attitudes guide behavior, the deliberate route and the spontaneous route. When we are deliberately influencing our own attitudes are the word implies we effortfully consider the behavior (what we are about to do) and compare this to our own attitudes. When we are spontaneous that is not always the case and the relationship is not as clear, this is what makes the relationship between attitude and behavior so complex. When it comes to spontaneity we chose a behavior without much thought and therefore without much reason so our attitudes are not directly related to that particular behavior. Ex: You want to get your girlfriend a present for her birthday and she’s a crazy bitch so you put a lot of thought into the gift in an effort not to mess it up. She collects stuffed animals so you go to Toys R Us and think very effortfully (deliberately) about the purchase as you compare different plush toys. For this you are influenced by your own attitudes when it comes to your girlfriend and the price you want to pay and what you think she’d like as well as her attitudes such as her irrational fear of birds (making a stuffed penguin a bad choice). But at the checkout line you realize it would be nice to add something to the present, you don’t really put much thought into this and you grab a random box of fancy chocolates at the register. This is a spontaneous purchase and a spontaneous behavior since you did not think effortfully about which type of chocolate your crazy girlfriend would prefer and your own attitude about the chocolate did not apply either. Here is what you need to take away from the MODE Model *For an attitude to be deliberate both motivation and opportunity need to be high *When an attitude is spontaneous you do not necessarily have to have high motivation or high opportunity and more often than not both are low *In MODE theory when people are unaware of the actual intent of a question (ex: implicitly asking questions regarding sexual orientation and gay marriage to see if that person is homophobic) people answer subconsciously which is measureable to uncover one’s implicit attitudes, (i.e., is this person against gay marriage/homophobic). *When people ARE aware of someone’s intent there are two types of false representation that they could apply if they don’t want to reveal their true attitude. They can do this knowingly or unknowingly. *Knowingly I’m not going to tell you whether or not I approve of gay marriage. *Unknowingly I don’t think I’d be the type of person to say something like that. **But when it comes to attitudes and beliefs if strength of association isn’t strong enough then our own ideas and attitudes don’t come into play and it becomes context dependent Ex: You hate country rock more than anything but while you’re at party having the time of your life you concede to your friend when he asks to play “Tractor Deer Shootin Baby.” Ex: You’re at college for welcome week and you don’t drink but everyone else is doing it and you’re in college so you do. III. Dual Processes Pt. II 3. Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion: in this model there are two different route to persuasion central and peripheral. In the central route of persuasion the individual is being persuaded “classically” by means of advertiser/Strat. Communicator in which the one in control of the message assimilates the individual into their desired thought process. But when using the peripheral route we are persuaded based on associations with our own attitudes about things through simple association and complex association. Central Ex: Strategic Communicator: Drugs are bad, mmk? You: Mmk. Peripheral Simple Assoc. Ex: Drugs=bad in my mind Peripheral Complex Assoc. Ex: Jarett Letto doesn’t like drugs and I like Jarett and have also been told drugs are bad so, mmk drug are bad. *We take the central route again when both motivation and opportunity are high Otherwise peripheral FINAL EXAM PRACTICE TEST INTRO TO STRAT. COMMUNICATIONS Cheyanne Skaggs Studysoup.com 1. Which type of syllogism is this: If people prefer fresh cut French fries And McDonald’s has old gross French fries But Wendy’s has fresh cut French fries Then where should people go for fries? A. Vertical B. Horizontal 2. If a person believes that he/she has an impact on his/her destiny and that individual decisions effect outcomes then that person has a(n) A. High selfmonitoring B. External locus of control C. Internal locus of control D. Selective perception 3. This Ranch Dressing was voted the ranchiest ranch in ranchville 17 years in a row! A. Social Validation Principle B. Consensus Information Principle C. Polarization Effect D. Miller’s Magic Number 4. If Jimmy asks you for a gumball and you say no and then he asks you for a paper clip you are likely to say yes because of the… A. Law of exponential returns B. Reciprocity Principle C. Social Validation Principle D. Jimmy Principle 5. True or False? So the validity of a product, service, or idea decreases with the number of supporters or amount of consensus 6. When you are motivated to sell more paper than your coworker Dwight because you simply like succeeding and seeing the look on his face you have… A. Extrinsic motivation B. Intrinsic motivation 7. What determines which route of persuasion we take in the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion? A. Complex and simple association B. Whether we are extrinsically of intrinsically motivated C. The strength of association D. Whether motivation and opportunity are high 8. True or False? We view product placement peripherally. 9. The available mental capacity and physical resources. A. Motivation B. Time C. Opportunity 10. Attitude polarization happens when… A. We think elaborately B. Our attitude is strengthened C. When we have high prior knowledge and are not distracted D. Both A and B E. All of the above 11. A method used by both strategic communicators and advertisers in which they omit certain pieces of information in order to encourage consumers to make their “own” inferences. A. Confusion Principle B. Reciprocity Principle C. Doorinthe face technique D. Indirect persuasion 12. Which is NOT a factor of attitude and personal behavior? A. Selfmonitoring B. Selfefficacy C. Internal Locus of Control D. Personal norms 13. Which model posits that attitudes are only slightly related to behavior? A. ELM model B. Dual Process Theory C. MODE model D. Price Quality model 14. “Hey can I have a drink of your water because I’m thirsty?” is an example of a… A. Influence heuristic B. Placebic reason C. “because” heuristic D. Legitimate reason 15. Why does the Because Heuristic work? A. Because motivation and opportunity are low B. We have limited cognitive capacity C. It is a small request D. It uses placebic reasoning E. Both A and B F. Both B and C G. All of the above 16. Which store model contradicts the price quality heuristic? A. Walmart B. Ebay C. Elder Bearman’s D. Coach 17. In sales when someone sells you on one idea and then changes that deal as if to say the two are one in the same. A. Door in the face technique B. Foot in the door technique C. Low ball technique D. That’s not all technique 18. True or false? People collect artificially rare items because of perceived value due to scarcity. 19. True or false? People are only price oriented while online shopping for specialty items. 20. True or false? The ELM and MODE models are connected. 1. B 2. C 3. A 4. B 5. F 6. B 7. D 8. T 9. C 10. E 11. D 12. B 13. A 14. B 15. F 16. A 17. C 18. T 19. F 20. T **EXAM 2 PRACTICE TEST** Cheyanne Skaggs StudySoup.com 1. A razor company adds a razor with only one shitty blade to its product line in order to highlight the features of its other razors that have more than one blade and actually work. The company is aware that consumers will make this comparison and choose the latter but they purposefully introduced the crappy razors into the market. This is an example of… a.) Availability Heuristic b.) Comparative Analysis c.) The Compromise Effect d.) Attraction Effect 2. The same razor company sells ultrahitech razors with many blades and moisturizing strips as well as middle of the ground razors with three blades and a movable head. The tendency of consumers to pick middle brands such as the razor with three blades instead of the high or low extremes is an example of… a.) Choice Heuristic b.) Tradeoff Contrast Effect c.) The Compromise Effect d.) Attraction Effect 3. What is the device that strategic communicators use to refer to the MessageLearning Approach to Persuasion? a.) Who says what and why through which channel b.) Who says what to whom through which channel c.) Mm whatcha saaaaay d.) Who says what in which manner to which channel 4. If the CEO of Burger King tells me that McDonalds uses human fat to cook its French fries in the message would be… a.) Credible b.) Not credible c.) Plausible d.) A source message factor 5. If I don’t think I can quit smoking simply because it’s too hard and I don’t believe that patches or gum will work for me I don’t have very high… a.) Self esteem b.) Selfefficacy c.) Selfbelief d.) Credibility 6. Since Silly Sam has low intelligence he is more likely to receive messages. T or F? 7. What are the three Determination Causes in Cognitive Approaches to Persuasion? a.) Selfefficacy, Coping Effectiveness, and Danger Likelihood b.) Need for recognition, selfesteem, and selfmonitoring c.) Distinctiveness, Consistency, Consensus 8. The fact that Clark Kent can overcome the constraints of beating up tornados to save the world because he has super powers is an example of the… a.) Coping Effectiveness Principle b.) Discounting Principle c.) Augmentation Principle d.) Superman Principle 9. Slow loading websites can lead to greater arousal. Tor F? 10. Only large discrepancies create positive arousal. T or F? 11. A theory that states consumers use contrast and assimilation through an order of alternatives in which they view things on a very positive to a very negative latitude of acceptance. a.) Acceptance Theory b.) Balancing Theory c.) Adaptation Level Theory d.) Social Judgment Theory 12. Within the context of this class what is a group of products recent enough in a consumer’s mind to be considered when choosing a brand? a.) Consumer Set b.) Evoked Set c.) Universal Set d.) Brand Awareness Set 13. When we set a minimum standard for a product by assigning the most important attributes and the first product to then meet those standards is chosen we are using… a.) Disjunctive Heuristic b.) Conjunctive Heuristic c.) Between Alternatives Heuristic d.) Within Alternatives Heuristic 14. When we look at just one brand but many attributes at one time we are using… a.) Within Alternatives Heuristic b.) Between Alternatives Heuristic c.) Disjunctive Heuristic d.) Conjunctive Heuristic 15. Why are twosided messages usually more credible? a.) Because of the attractiveness of the message and our familiarity to it b.) Because they are unethical c.) Because it goes against a company’s vested interested d.) Because it is within a company’s vested interest 16. Which is an example of a consumer using exposer control? a.) Never watching TV again b.) Fastforwarding commercials c.) Watching super bowl commercials d.) Both a and b e.) All of the above 17. What is a message characterized as if it appeals to all people most of the time? a.) Salient b.) Vivid c.) Ambivalent d.) Mysterious 18. A principle from a strategic communicator’s point of view in which we are aware that receptions and yielding are not always equally important since most of us are average and it is impossible to determine which of us fall on either end of the spectrum. a.) Combinatory Principle b.) SituationalWeighting Principle c.) Discount Principle 19. The bell used in Pavlov’s experiment was a(n)… a.) Conditional stimulus b.) Conditioned stimulus c.) Artificial Association 20. When we use differentiation in Balancing Theory we… a.) Separate the other variables from the brand itself b.) Separate ourselves from the message c.) Create consistencies by thinking of the brand negatively because of the other variable Answers: 1. D 2. C 3. B 4. B 5. B 6. F 7. C 8. C 9. T 10. F 11. D 12. A 13. B 14. A 15. C 16. E 17. A 18. B 19. A 20. A
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