NHM 101 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
NHM 101 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE NHM 101
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NHM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Libo Tan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 224 views. For similar materials see Intro Human Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
***NHM 101 Final Exam Study Guide*** Trace Minerals: Chapter 13 Miner Function Food Sources Absorptio Rec. Deficiency al n Iron -Cofactor to many -Heme iron (~25% -More is -RDA for -Most enzymes absorbed): absorbed men: 8 common -Iron helps to -Red meats, fish, when mg/day nutrient accept, carry, and poultry stores are -RDA for deficiency release oxygen -Nonheme iron low women -Primarily -Found primarily in 2 (~17% absorbed) is of child preschoolers, proteins found in both plants -Heme iron is better bearing adolescent Hemoglobin and animal sources absorbed age: 18 girls, and Myoglobin Legumes, nuts, and than mg/day pregnant seeds -RDA for Dried fruits nonheme women iron women -Women more Iron fortified foods -Vitamin C over 50: prone to 8 mg/day deficiency enhances absorption Upper due to Limit menses -45 -Iron mg/day deficiency anemia= severe depletion that results in low hemoglobin -Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, headache -Pica Zinc -Part of many -Red meats, poultry, NONE NONE -Causes enzymes and shellfish growth -Involved in making -Whole grains retardation genetic material and -Impairs proteins immune -Assists defenses to response fight against free -Damages radical attacks central -Wound healing nervous -Sperm production system and fetal -Slows wound development healing Iodine -Part of two thyroid -Iodized salt NONE NONE -Cause goiter hormones that help -Seafood -Can regulate growth, -Bread eventually -Dairy products development and lead to brain metabolic rate damage Fluori Critical for healthy -Drinking water NONE NONE NONE de bones and teeth; (fluoridated) helps teeth resist -Tea decay -Seafood Seleni -Key antioxidant -Associated with NONE NONE -Keshan um nutrient – helps to protein in foods. Disease- prevent free radical Seafood meat heart disease formation -whole grains that is -fruits and vegetables prevalent in (influenced by soil China where content) foods and soil lack selenium Copper -Part of several -Seafood NONE NONE -Anemia -Nuts -Bone enzymes that are involved in -Grains abnormalities reactions that -Seeds -Legumes consume oxygen (antioxidants) -Necessary part of the absorption and use of iron in making hemoglobin Mangan -Acts as a -Nuts NONE NONE NONE ese cofactor for many -Whole grains enzymes, bone -Leafy vegetables -Tea formation Diet and Health (Chapter 18) 1. Identify modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for chronic diseases. a . Modifiable i. Diet ii. Physical activity iii. Smoking b . Nonmodifiable i. Gender ii. Age iii. Race c . Family history 2. CVD: risk factors; recommendations a . Not Modifiable i. Increasing Age ii. Male Gender iii. Family History b . Modifiable i. High blood LDL cholesterol ii. Low blood HDL cholesterol iii. Hypertension iv. Diabetes v. Obesity vi. Physical inactivity vii. Smoking viii. Atherogenic diet 3. Hypertension: risk factors; recommendations a. Risk Factors i. Increase in age ii. Family history iii. Obesity iv. Salt sensitivity v. Alcohol b . Recommendations i. Weight loss, if appropriate ii. Physical activity iii. Reduce salt intake iv. DASH diet 1. −Rich in fruits, vegetables, lowfat milk products, whole grains, nuts (fiber, potassium, magnesium, and calcium). 2. −Low in red meat (total and saturated fat), sweet and sugarcontaining beverages. 4. Diabetes: type 1 vs. type 2; recommendations a . Type 1 i. Less common: 510% of cases ii. Autoimmune disorder iii. Pancreas loses the ability to synthesize insulin. iv. Typically diagnosed at a young age b . Type 2 i. Most common: 9095% of cases ii. Insulin resistance (Cells do not respond to insulin) iii. Highly associated with obesity c . Recommendations i. Monitor carbohydrate intake ii. Watch carbohydrate sources 1. Choose whole grains iii. Reduce dietary fat iv. Weight loss & Regular, long term physical activity (if type 2) Weight Management (Chapter 9) Treatment options for overweight and obesity Eating Pattern Be realistic o 250500 kcal per day reduction if overweight o 5001000 kcal per day reduction if obese A weight loss of 1 to 2 pounds per week Low energy density foods o Foods containing water, rich in fiber, low in fat o Avoid added sugar Choose nutrient dense foods o Fruits, vegetables and whole grains Reduce portion sizes Physical activity o Increase energy expenditure o Any activity is better than no activity!!! Weightloss drugs should be prescribed only to those with medical risks, not for cosmetic reasons. o Drugs will not eliminate the need to change lifestyle Qsymia Enhances the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which suppresses appetite. Side effects: o Increased heart rate and blood pressure o Insomnia o Dizziness o Headache Orlistat Blocks the digestion and absorption of dietary fat and limits energy intake by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity. Side effects o Cramping o Diarrhea o Gas o Stomach pain o Reduced absorption of fatsoluble vitamins Surgery For morbidly obese o Gastric bypass o Gastric banding Physical activity and Nutrients (Chapter 14) 1. Glycogen, protein, fluids and physical activity i. Fuel (glycogen) 1. Carbohydrate and Fat ii. Build 1. Protein iii. Support (energy metabolism and tissue building) 1. Vitamins and Minerals iv. Carrier and removes waste 1. Fluid Fuel o Before Activity Goal: Fill up glycogen stores. o During Activity Goal: Maintain normal blood glucose levels or prevent a drastic drop in glycogen levels o After Activity Goal: Replenish glycogen stores. Build o Before activity Minimal protein needed o During activity Minimal protein needed o After activity Provide adequate protein to rebuild muscles and tissues. Fluid o Before activity Ensure that individual is not on the path to dehydration o During activity Remain hydrated o After activity Replace fluid lost Drink amount of fluid lost in body weight Support During Activity o Need to have adequate amount of vitamins and minerals to support the bodies functions Energy metabolism Tissue building Oxygen carrier Immunity Fight free radicals 2. Recommendations for a pregame and postgame meal. a . What are the general recommendations for a pregame meal? i. Plenty of fluids ii. Carbohydraterich foods iii. Low in fat and fiber b . Breads, potatoes, pasta, and fruit juices c . What are the general recommendations for a postgame meal? i. High in carbohydrate (sports drinks, fruit juices) ii. Moderate in protein iii. Low in fat and fiber Dietary Supplements (Highlights 10, 14 & 18) 1. Pros & Cons a . Pros i. Correct nutrient deficiencies ii. Prevent diseases iii. Individuals who omit certain foods iv. Meet needs during life stages where needs are increased 1. Infants: VD 2. Women of childbearing age and pregnant women: folate and iron 3. Elderly: Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D v. Improve the body’s defenses for people with prolonged illnesses, extensive injuries, or other severe stresses such as surgery. b . Cons i. Toxicity ii. Marketing is often misleading 1. Cure disease 2. Enhance athletic performance iii. Provide individuals with a false sense of security iv. Evidence is insufficient for most dietary supplements 2. Regulation: LOOSELY regulated by the FDA a . Regulated by the FDA as foods. i. Defined by the Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 b . What does DSHEA say? i. Nutrition labeling is required ii. Labels may make health claims that are supported by significant scientific agreement iii. Labels may claim to diagnose, treat, cure or relieve common symptoms but not a specific disease iv. Labels may make structurefunction claims about the role a nutrient play in the body. c . The manufacturer is responsible for ensuring the claims are truthful and not misleading. d . All must include an FDA disclaimer e . Do require good manufacturing practices but are not tested f . Rather than the manufacturers having to prove the safety of their products, FDA must prove that a supplement poses a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury. Lifecycle Nutrition (Chapter 15 & 16) 1. Nutrition prior to pregnancy a. Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight b. An adequate and balanced diet c. Be physically active d. Preconception care e. Manage chronic conditions f. Avoid harmful substances 2. Recommendations for weight gain during pregnancy a. Preconception: healthy body weight b . Weight Gain during pregnancy i. Fetal growth and maternal health depend on a sufficient weight gain during pregnancy. c . Recommended weight gains during pregnancy i. Underweight: 2840 lbs ii. Normal weight: 2535 lbs iii. Overweight: 1525 lbs iv. Obese: 1120 lbs d . Weightgain patterns i. First trimester: 24 lbs total ii. Second and third trimester: 1 lb per week 3. Energy and nutrients needs during pregnancy Energy st i. 1 ndrimester: + 0kcal/d ii. 2 trimester: +340 kcal/d iii. 3 trimester: +450 kcal/d 1. Nutrient dense food: wholegrain breads and cereals, legumes, dark green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, lowfat milk, lean meats, fish, poultry, and eggs. Protein i. +25 g/d ii. Longchain omega3 and omega6 Fatty Acids iii. Growth, function and structure of brain Folate, vitamin B12, iron and zinc i. DNA synthesis, cell divison and blood production Vitamin D, Ca, P, Mg, and Fluoride i. Bone development 4. Harmful substances to avoid during pregnancy a. Alcohol and other drugs b. No more than 12 oz fish/seafood per week i. Avoid Shark, swordfish, king mackerel high in mercury c. Excessive vitamin A intake d. Foods containing infectious microbes e. Limit caffeine i. A cup of coffee a day. 5. AAP Recommendations for breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods a. 1 year or longer i. Exclusive for first 6 months ii. Breastfeeding with complementary foods for at least 1 year b. 75% of women attempt breastfeeding c. 25% of newborns are given formula in their first 2 days of life. d. Exclusive breastfeeding for first 6 months: 16% e. Only 22% make it through the first year. 6. Energy and nutrients needs during lactation a . Energy for mother i. 500 additional kcals per day b . Increase Carbohydrates c . Vitamin D i. Supplementation needed if exclusively breastfed d . Water i. 13 cups of water/beverages per day 7. Nutrients needs during infancy, childhood and adolescence a . Infancy i. Weight gain ii. Energy needs 1. Very high iii. Protein intake iv. Vitamin D 1. Breast milk is low in VD 2. VD supplement is recommended for exclusively breastfed infants. v. Fluoride vi. Exclusively breastfed for first 6 months vii. Introduce food and cup at 6 months 1. First food is rice cereal b . Childhood i. Energy needs vary. ii. Nutrients of concern 1. Iron 2. Iron deficiency impairs intellectual performance. 3. 7 to 10 mg per day 4. Vitamin D 5. Dietary Fiber 6. Solid fats and/or added sugars 7. make up 1/3 of a child’s intake in the U.S. iii . Trends in dietary intake 1. Beverages contribute 2025% of calories 2. Decline in milk, veggies, grains, and eggs 3. Increase in fruits, fruit juices, sweetened beverages, poultry, and cheese 4. v1/3 of children are overweight or obese c . Adolescence i. Greater than any other time of life, except pregnancy and lactation. ii. Energy needs 1. Vary iii. Vitamin D and Calcium 1. Peak bone mass 2. Increase milk and milk products 3. VD supplement iv. Iron 1. Need is increased for both males and females 2. Iron deficiency is prevalent among adolescent girls. v. Excesses 1. Total fat 2. Saturated fat 3. Cholesterol 4. Sodium 5. sugar vi. Overweight and obesity 1. ~34% are overweight or obese 2. ~18% are obese
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