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Quiz #3 Study Guide

by: Nolan Shapiro

Quiz #3 Study Guide EART 2 - 01

Nolan Shapiro
GPA 3.6
Earth Catastrophes
T. Lay

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About this Document

This is a completed study guide from the one that is located on Professor Lay's website.
Earth Catastrophes
T. Lay
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nolan Shapiro on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EART 2 - 01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by T. Lay in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Earth Catastrophes in Earth Sciences at University of California - Santa Cruz.

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Date Created: 12/01/15
1 What is the composition of the Earth39s atmosphere major and minor Why are trace gases important Be able to know about energy balances and processes such as absorption re ection albedo Main Components N2 78 O2 21 Ar 9 Trace components C02 360 ppm H2O l4 03 212 ppm in stratospheric CH4 2 ppm So trace gas molecules play a big role in absorption of infrared radiation both from the Sun and radiated from the warm Earth Re ection Incident light can bounce back to space Re ection from lightcolored surfaces clouds snow ice Albedo ratio of outgoing incoming radiation Earth is 33 Antarctic ice albedo 96 One way to measure albedo Earthshine lights up the backside of moon Absorption depends strongly on wavelength of light and atmospheric composition Absorption Some photons can interact with molecules or minerals in the atmosphere or surface imparting their energy or being absorbed by the atmosphere or land 2 What wavelength radiation energy enters the atmosphere from the Sun from the Earth How does the Greenhouse Effect work Know the spectral content and selective absorption of energy Ozone molecules in Stratosphere absorb ultraviolet radiation CO2 H20 CH4 in troposphere absorb infrared radiation Visible light gets through both up and down humans evolved bathed in visible light Leads to temperature of atmosphere varying with height and Greenhouse effect Greenhouse effect sun s short wavelength radiation warms objects inside the greenhouse heat builds up inside the greenhouse and is given off as infrared radiation of longer wavelengths Much of the solar radiation reaching Earth arrives in short wavelengths where it is absorbed and thus raises the temperatures of land water and vegetation Excess heat is radiated upward from the Earth s surface it is a long wavelengths that can be absorbed by gases in the atmosphere eX H20 CO2 Most of the energy is radiated back down to earth s surface this is the greenhouse effect and it warms the climate of Earth Thus the radiation from the earth is shifted way toward the infrared spectrum This effectively means that there is an asymmetry of radiation input into the atmosphere with shorter wavelength energy coming in from the solar radiation and longer wavelength energy coming up from the Earth This is key to the Greenhouse effect which occurs on this and all other planets with atmospheres Solar radiation reaching Earth is 30 re ected and scattered and 70 absorbed into Earth s climate system 3 Why is the Ozone in the Stratosphere important What is happening to it What human activities are being undertaken to in uence this Ozone OS naturally occurring molecule in our atmosphere Supersonic waves and chloro uorocarbons destroy it Hairspray banned bc cfc emission Bc of human emission ozone has been getting destroyed and thinning allowing more solar radiation to to earth s surface Montreal Accords Ozone can be rebuilt if no CFCs emitted agreement to globally stopmanage CFC Perhaps 5070 years if CFC stopped today 4 What are the major components of the Earth39s atmospheric circulation system What drives it What are Hadley cells Coriolis force Jet Stream Where are upwelling downwellings clouds concentrated How does evaporation and precipitation vary with latitude Earth s atmosphere circulates to disturb solar heat received in different amounts at different latitudes The redistribution of energy could be accomplished by one large convection cell blowing between the equator and pole in each hemisphere The intense sunshine received in the equatorial belt powers huge air circulation patterns known as Hadley cells The rising limb of Hadley cells carries enormous heat and moisture to the tropics Jet streams or jets are highenergy elongated ows common in Earth s atmosphere and oceans In the atmosphere jet streams are relatively narrow bands containing highvelocity winds that ow west to east at high altitudes The result aloft is that higherpressure tropical air ows toward the lowerpressure polar air in the upper atmosphere creating strong poleward ows of air Earth s rotation creates an apparent force known as the Coriolis effect it de ects the paths of large moving bodies to the right in the Northern Hemisphere Moving object experience Earth move out from beneath them in the Northern Hemisphere bodies move toward their righthanded sides while in the Southern Hemisphere they move toward their left Evaporation decreases with elevation precipitation increases with elevation Downburst A localized severe downdraft of air that includes an outburst of strong winds on the ground 5 What is climate What is weather Weather The state of the air at locale with respect to hot or cold wet or dry calm or storm Climate Avg weather conditions at a place over many years 6 How do we study paleoclimate What are climate proxies How do ocean sediments tell about past climates You had better know about Oxygen isotopes Has global climate changed through time Was it ever a lot warmer than now Geological climate indicators land glacial deposits permafrost pollen tree rings fossil species coastal terraces water lake sediments deep sea sediments Most important about past climate is oxygen isotopes heavy ones 018 kept in ocean while lighter ones 016 deposit on mountains and on land Seawater isotopic 018 composition re ects the size of continental polar ice rich in 016 Variation in amount of ice cause isotope ratio to vary 0 to 1 heavyglacial 1 to 2 light interglacial 7 What causes ice ages and did they take place in the Cretaceous Milankovitch CyclesThese changes affect amount Solar in ux in each season intensity of seasons and overall atmospheric and oceanic patterns Appear to control climate uctuations modulated by long term changes in trace gasses continental position volcanism etc For last 34 million years Earth has been in a cold state uctuation in and out of Ice ages Hottest in Cretaceous 100 million years ago No ice high ocean covering 17 of contents Polar temps up to 30 C 612 warmer than today 8 Is Global Warming clearly the result of human activity Is increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere clearly the result of human activity Why is prediction of climate change a hard problem Rate appears to be too fast for many ecosystems to adjust extinction Human induced changes are rapid and unprecedented don t have natural analogs No clearly answer Definite correlation between C02 increase and human activity and production 9 What drives winds How is sand and dust distributed in the air Wind is highly variable gusty turbulent Is driven by atmospheric pressure differences Wind circulation driven by air pressure differences transports particles of dust and sand as water over the surface of the Earth particles move by drag of the wind resisted by gravity Big particles sand and bigger move only short distances near ground as bed load Hopping slation Produces and dunes 10 What are the major features of the Water Cycle Can you sketch the general system Where does the water reside If you melt the world39s current glaciers how much will sea level go up Wind transports water evaporated from the surface Water changes from liquid to gas and gas to liquid to solid taking up and releasing energy 11 What causes oods What are important attributes of the storm and of the landscape that affect ooding How can humans affect the system Build up of lake sea above surrounding level due to large dam Dam collapse or uplift massive ood type of dam geographic highs ice ephemeral landslide Rainfalls vary in intensity and duration and so does the volume of rainwater that runs across the land when rains are heavy oods can result If a stream has too much water it will ow more rapidly and energetically If a stream is choked with sediment and has insufficient water to carry it away this also trigger negative feedback 12 How do we estimate 100 year oods Based on previous data and reality the probability of a an event happening every 100 years 13 What produced the Washington Scablands Work of J Harlen Bretz in the 1920 s and 1930 s involved mapping of the scablands and he advanced the notion that massive oods of a repeated nature had scalloped the land surface much as a river plain is carved by modest ows Bretz argued that the scaled up gravel rupples had been a product of massive ows that could activate bedload deposits on a grand scale In 60s and 70s glaciologists began to understand the nature of oods in glaciated lands and the specific case of jokulhlaups or oods from oating glaciers Prongs of glacial ice formed boundaries on glacial Lake Missoula Water level accumulated against the ice am eventually leading to pressures sufficient to oat the dam which allowed oodwaters to squirt forth in large volumes these oods formed scabland deposits 14 What happened to cause Lake Bonneville to drop to Lake Provo Lake Bonneville covered about 13 of Utah and resided in eastern portion of the Great Basin Trapped lake all drainages leading in Shoreline deposits and eroded terraces define the high water level of Lake Bonneville and lower shoreline of a subsequent lake called provo 3000015000 years ago there was a gradual 300 m increase in the lake level of Bonneville corresponding to the north american ice pack maX 20000 years ago Bonneville Flood result of catastrophic failure of one of the natural dams that had framed the maX lake level 20 days for water to squirt out 15 Can the history of the Black Sea account for Noah39s Flood myth How Sea level was low 20000 years ago Large Caspian Lake New EuXine Lake in western Eurasia drained into Mediterranean through the Sea of Marmara and Dardanelles Outlet The lowering of the water level lead people to margin of Black Sea Global sea level continue to rise 5600 BC broke through the dam and ooded 150000 square km over a year raising Black Sea 100m 16 What human activities have resulted in human catastrophes Discuss the Dust Bowl oil spills and other events 17 How has nuclear plant citing affected California


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