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Test Review/Study Guide Chapters 13-16

by: Brynn Beveridge

Test Review/Study Guide Chapters 13-16 PSYCH-1000

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > PSYCH-1000 > Test Review Study Guide Chapters 13 16
Brynn Beveridge
Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000)
Dr. Rollins

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About this Document

Here is an all inclusive test review/study guide for Dr. Rollin's upcoming Psychology test on Chapter 13: Social Psychology, Chapter 14: Personality and Self, Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders, a...
Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000)
Dr. Rollins
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brynn Beveridge on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH-1000 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Rollins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000) in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 12/01/15
Study Guide Chapters 1316 Introductory Psychology with Dr Rollins Chapter 13 Social Psychology Fill in the blank or answer the question Answers on page 11 1 focuses on how people think about in uence and relate to one another 2 Making involves the process of making inferences about the reasons 0139 causes Of some event 3 infer the behavior is caused by that person s personality 4 infer the behavior is caused by the circumstances that the person has experienced 5 The states we tend to overestimate the role of personality and underestimate the power of the situation 6 The explains the tendency to make dispositional attributions for others behaviors and situational attributions for our own bad behavior 7What are attitudes 8 TF Cognitive Dissonance is the tension that occurs when our attitudes and actions don t match 9 Explain the Festinger and Carlsmith experiments 10 is when we tend to adopt new roles to t a situation ll TF The conclusion of the Zimbardo Prison Study was that situations exert powerful in uences 12 involves changing one s beliefs or behaviors due to unspoken group pressure to match a group s beliefs l3 TF In Asch s Conformity Experiments none of the subjects followed the group and gave the wrong answer 14 involves going along with a request by someone who is not an authority gure 15 TF The footinthedoor technique begins with a smaller request why the doorintheface technique begins with a larger request 16 What did Milgram s obedience studies conclude 17 Why do we obey 18 is when people behave in uncharacteristic ways because they feel anonymous and less accountable 19 is when a group is unable to make wise decisions because they are unable to realistically consider options due to group dynamics 20 What are some ways to avoid groupthink 21 What is the difference between stereotypes and prejudices 22 What is the difference between overt and implicit attitudes Answers for Chapter 13 y A pWNP MerJN b r r H wwwo 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Social Psychology Attributions DispositionalIntemal Attributions SituationalExtemal Attributions Fundamental Attribution Error ActorObserver Bias Feelings that predispose our actions T Check book for answer Role Absorption T Conformity F In Asch s Conformity Experiments 30 of the subjects followed the group and gave the wrong answer Compliance T That ordinary people simply doing their jobs and without any particular hostility on their part can become agents in a terrible destructive process simply from obeying Authority responsibility and the power of the situation Deindividuation Groupthink Designate a devil s advocate allow anonymous expression of opinion and discuss ideas with outsiders Stereotypes are false assumptions that all members of a group share the same characteristics while prejudices are unjustified evaluations of a person based on their group membership Overt attitudes are ones we are conscious of having while implicit attitudes are beneath 011139 consciousness Chapter 14 Personality and Self Fill in the blank or answer the question Answers on pages 34 1 2 99 99 12 l3 14 15 l6 l7 l8 One s characteristic way of thinking feeling and acting is their The approach focuses on inner con icts and the relationship between the conscious and the unconscious was the key contributor tofounder of the psychodynamic approach What are the 3 components of personality according to Freud The operates on the pleasure principle and demands immediate grati cation The operates under the morality principle and acts as our conscience The is the mediator and seeks pleasure within social boundaries How is the mind like an iceberg Unconscious psychological techniques that protect us from unpleasant emotions by distorting memories are called The main defense mechanism is 11 Name and describe Freud s 5 psychosexual childhood stages Include the erogenous zone for each stage A is a maladaptive behavior that resulted from enduring focus on a particular erogenous zone How did NeoFreudians beliefs differ from Freud s How is the Psychodynamic approach tested In subjects respond to ambiguous stimuli Their responses are thought to project their unconscious minds The shows ambiguous pictures while the The shows ambiguous inkblots is optimistic and sees people as basically good It states that we are all guided by an innate drive to grow and reach our full potential states that people will always strive to grow and reach their full potential if they have supportive relationships According to Rogers for a relationship to be supportive it must have and 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 is pure genuine love and acceptance with no strings attached The believes that personality is a combination of traits are speci c stable internal characteristics believes personality operates on 2 dimensions introversionextroversion and stability instability have less nervous system activity causing them to seek stimulation experience more neutral emotions while experience more positive emotions explains the Behavioral Approach System and the Behavioral Inhibition System The handles sensitivity to reward while the handles sensitivity to punishment What 5 traits are included in the Big Five Model of Personality measure several personality traits at once The studies the interaction between personality thinking behavior and the situation believed that personality and the environment in uence each other states that we behave according to our expectations of results What is the difference between having an internal locus of control and an external locus of control Seligman and Maier s experiments with dogs and electric shocks found that when one is repeatedly put into situations beyond control they can develop What is the difference between defensive selfesteem and secure self esteem What do they have in common The The explains our tendency to think well of ourselves effect explains our illusion of superiority Answers to Chapter 14 Study Guide pWNP MPWF C Hy A r O 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Personality Psychodynamicpsychoanalytic Sigmund Freud ID EGO SUPEREGO ID SUPEREGO EGO Most of the iceberg is underwatermost of the mind is unconscious Defense mechanisms Repression lOral Stage infants get pleasure from sucking and biting mouth 2Anal Stage toddlers obtain pleasure by going to the bathroom anus 3Phallic Stage children enjoy pleasant genital stimulation genitals 4Latency Period social stage no erogenous zone SGenital Stage sexual feelings transfer from parents to people Within one s age group genitals Fixation They placed more emphasis on the conscious mind and social in uences but less emphasis on sex and aggression Projective Personality Tests Projective Personality Tests Thematic Apperception Test Rorsehach Inkblot Test Humanistic Approach Roger s PersonCentered Theory Genuineness empathy and acceptance Unconditional positive regard Trait Approach Traits Eysenck s Trait Theory Extroverts lntroverts Extroverts 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Gray s Biopsychological Trait Theory Behavioral Approach System Behavioral Inhibition System Openness conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness and neuroticism Personality Inventories Socialcognitive Approach Bandura Rotter s Expectancy Theory Someone with an internal locus of control has feelings of control over their life while someone with an external locus of control lacks feelings of control Learned Helplessness They are both forms of high selfesteem People with defensive selfesteem are more fragile and insecure while people with secure selfesteem are more stable and less likely to act out Selfserving bias Betterthanaverage Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders 3 8 10 11 T 13 14 15 6 l Across 4 perception Without sensation 7 a disorder Where one experiences sadness and hopelessness most of the time for at least 2 weeks 8 a disorder characterized by uncontrollable thoughts and irresistible urges irrational and repetitive 9 a disorder classi ed by worry nervousness fear dread and trouble concentrating 14 a disorder Where one experiences recurrent unpredictable panic attacks 16 the most commonly used manual to classify psychological disorders Down 1 a disorder characterized by extremes of mood mania and manic depression 2 a strong irrational fear of a speci c object or situation 3 the model that states that Whether one has a psychological disorder depends on their degree of predisposition and amount of stress 5 a disorder Where one fears other peoples39 judgment 6 a disorder that involves severely disordered and irrational thinking distorted perceptions inappropriate emotions and behaviors and psychosis 7 ongoing patterns of thought emotion and behavior that impair functioning deviate from the norm cause distress and disrupt lives 10 a disorder When one experiences anxiety for most of the time for no reason 11 a disorder that involves a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others 12 a disorder characterized by ashbacks nightmares and haunting memories 13 When one is rigidly immobile and unresponsive for hours symptom of schizophrenia 15 false beliefs Answers to Chapter 15 crossword puzzle Across 4 hallucinations 7 major depression 8 0CD 9 anxiety l4 panic disorder 15 DSMS Down 1 bipolar 2 phobia 3 diathesis 5 social anxiety 6 schizophrenia 7 mental illness 10 generalized anxiety ll antisocial personality disorder 12 PTSD l3 catatonic stupor 15 delusions Chapter 16 Treatments Answer true or false If false modify the statement to be true Answers on page 9 l 2 10 ll 13 14 15 16 17 18 TF Psychoanalysis developed by Freud was the rst psychotherapy used TF The contemporary version psychodynamic therapy focuses on social relationships and selfunderstandings TF Exposure Therapy aims to enhance selfawareness and selfacceptance In Roger s ClientCentered Therapy the therapist aims to judge a person s problems and guide them in the right direction Behavior Therapy sees problems as learned behaviors and wants to use the principals of learning to get rid of unwanted behaviors and teach new positive ones In Cognitive Therapy patients are exposed to unharmful stimuli It is usually used for people with OCD and phobias Systematic Desensitization involves increasingly anxietyprovoking stimuli while in a relaxed state Cognitive Therapy aims to change maladaptive thought patterns SelfStatement Modification aims to neutralize negative thoughts CognitiveBehavior Therapy a blend of the two styles is the most commonly used Therapy Biomedical treatments avoid medicinal treatments to treat disorders 12 Today Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy patients are given a sedative and a muscle relaxant Psychosurgery is effective in treating severe depression that has not responded to other treatment Prefrontal lobotomies involved brutal tactics that basically jumbled the frontal lobes Antipsychoticsneuroleptics are used to treat schizophrenia Antidepressant are serotonin andor norepinephrine andor dopamine agonists Anxiolytics are used to treat bipolar disorder Anxiolytics used to treat anxiety have calming and relaxing effects Answers for Chapter 16 True or False 1 2 3 4 U 10 11 14 15 16 17 18 T T F Humanistic Therapy aims to enhance self awareness and selfacceptance F in Roger s ClientCentered Therapy the therapist aims to be nonjudgmental accepting genuine and empathetic and let the client solve his or own problems T F In Exposure Therapy patients are exposed to unharmful stimuli It is usually used for people with OCD and phobias T T F SelfStatement Modi cation aims to replace negative selfstatements with positive 01165 T F Biomedical Treatments use medicinal treatments to treat disorders 12 13 T F Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy is effective in treating severe depression that has not responded to other treatment T T T F mood stabilizers are used to treat bipolar disorder T


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