FINAL STUDY GUIDE
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carter Johnson on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL1020 at Auburn University taught by Scott Bowling in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY FINAL STUDY GUIDE The final exam for this course will be cumulative. It covers everything from Chapter 2-24, and 52-55. There will be somethings on the exam that are not on this study guide and there will be some things on this study guide that are not on the exam. This study guide will include vocab, textbook page numbers, practice problems and practice questions. Along with this study guide I would recommend reviewing the Mastering Biology questions and looking at the practice packets that Dr. Sundermann has posted for each chapter on her Canvas page. The final exam will be given during the regular lecture time on Monday, December 7, 2015 at 12.00 pm. Chapter 2: Atoms and Molecules (Pages 28-41) *compound, element, matter, essential elements, trace elements, atom, neutrons, protons, electrons, atomic nucleus, Dalton, atomic number, mass number, atomic mass, isotopes, radioactive isotope, half-life, energy, potential energy, electron shells, valence shell, valence electrons, orbital, chemical bonds, covalent bond, molecule, single bond, double bond, valence, electronegativity, nonpolar covalent bond, polar covalent bond, ions, cation, anion, ionic bonds, ionic compounds, hydrogen bond, van der waals interaction, reactants, products, chemical equilibrium *The reactivity of an atom arises from….. *In the term “trace element”, the adjective trace means….. *Compared with ^31P, the radioactive isotope ^32P has….. *What are some properties of elements? *How many valence electrons/ what is the valence number for 1^H, 6^C, and 8^O? Chapter 3: Water (Pages 44-53) *polar covalent bonds, polar molecules, cohesion, adhesion, surface tension, kinetic energy, thermal energy, temperature, heat, calorie, kilocalorie, specific heat, heat of vaporization, evaporative cooling, solution, solvent, solute, aqueous solution, hydration shell, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, molecular mass, mole, molarity, hydrogen ions, hydroxide ion, hydronium ion, acid, base, pH, buffer *Give an example of a hydrophilic material. *Measurements show that the pH of a lake is 4.0. What is the hydrogen ion concentration of the lake? *What are the properties of water? Chapter 4: Carbon (Pages 56-64) *organic chemistry, hydrocarbons, isomers, structural isomers, cis-trans isomers, enantiomers, functional groups, adenosine triphosphate *Organic chemistry is defined as….. *Which chemical group is most likely to be responsible for an organic molecule behaving as a base? *Which action could produce a carbonyl group? *What must a molecule have in order to be organic? *Be familiar with the functional groups. Chapter 5: Organic Molecules (Pages 66-89) *macromolecules, polymer, monomers, enzymes, dehydration reaction, hydrolysis, carbohydrates, monosaccharides, disaccharide, glyosidic linkage, polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin, lipids, fat, fatty acid, triacylglycerol, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid, trans fats, phospholipid, cholesterol, catalysts, polypeptide, protein, amino acid, peptide bond, primary structure, secondary structure, alpha helix, beta pleated sheet, tertiary structure, hydrophobic interaction, disulfide bridges, sickle-cell disease, denaturation, chaperonins, x-ray crystallography, gene, nucleic acids, DNA, RNA, gene expression, polynucleotides, nucleotides, pyrimidine, purines, deoxyribose, ribose, antiparallel *Name a characteristic of an unsaturated fat. *The structural level of a protein least affected by a disruption in hydrogen bonding is the….. *What binds together disaccharides? *What are the two functions of fat? *What are the functions of proteins? Chapter 6: Cell Structure (93-121) *light microscopes, organelles, electron microscope, cytosol, eukaryotic cell, prokaryotic cell, nucleoid, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, nucleus, nuclear envelope, chromosomes, chromatin, nucleolus, ribosomes, vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum, smooth ER, rough ER, golgi apparatus, lysosome, phagocytosis, vacuoles, mitochondria, chloroplasts, cristae, mitochondrial matrix, thylakoids, granum, stroma, plastids, cytoskeleton, motor proteins, microtubules, centrosomes, centrioles, flagella, cilia, basal body, pseudopodia, intermediate filaments, cell wall, plasmodesmata *Which structure is common to plant and animal cells? *Name the structures of a prokaryotic cell. *What is the structure of a microtubule? *Review slides on Canvas. Chapter 7: Cell Membranes (Pages 124-137) *selective permeability, fluid mosaic model, integral protein, peripheral protein, glycolipids, glycoproteins, transport protein, aquaporin, diffusion, concentration gradient, passive transport, osmosis, tonicity, isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic, osmoregulation, turgid, flaccid, plasmolysis, facilitated diffusion, ion channels, active transport, sodium-potassium pump, membrane potential, proton pump, exocytosis, *In what way do the membranes of a eukaryotic cell vary? *According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, proteins are mostly …… *What factors would increase membrane fluidity? *What is Brownian Motion? *Describe what happens when red blood cells and plant cells are placed in hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions. Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism (Pages 141-159) *metabolism, metabolic pathway, catabolic pathways, anabolic pathways, kinetic energy, thermal energy, heat, potential energy, chemical energy, thermodynamics, entropy, exergonic reaction, endergonic reaction, adenosine triphosphate, enzyme, catalyst, activation energy, substrate, enzyme-substrate complex, active site, cofactors, coenzyme, allosteric regulation, feedback inhibition, *Catabolism is to anabolism as ____________ is to ___________. *If an enzyme in a solution saturated with substrate, the most effective way to obtain a yield of products is to….. *If an enzyme is added to a solution where its substrate and product are in equilibrium, what will occur? *Oxidation ________ energy. Reduction ________ energy. *What can influence enzyme activity? *Know the different enzyme inhibitors. Chapter 9: Cell Respiration (Pages 163-183) *fermentation, aerobic respiration, cellular respiration, redox reduction, oxidations, reduction, reducing agent, oxidizing agent, electron transport chain, glycolysis, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, substrate level phosphorylation, acetyl CoA, cytochromes, ATP Synthase, chemiosmosis, alcohol fermentation, lactic acid fermentation *What is the immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis? *Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule? *The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is….. *What is the goal of glycolysis and the Kreb’s Cycle? *What is the final electron acceptor in the Electron Transport System? *Describe how a proton gradient works. Chapter 10: Photosynthesis (Pages 185-207) *photosynthesis, autotrophs, heterotrophs, mesophyll, stroma, thylakoids, chlorophyll, light reactions, Calvin Cycle, photophosphorylation, carbon fixation, wavelength, electromagnetic spectrum, visible light, photons, spectrophotometer, absorption spectrum, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, photosystem, reaction-center complex, primary electron acceptor, photosystem I, photosystem II, linear electron flow, cyclic electron flow, rubisco, C3 plants, photorespiration, C4 plants, bundle-sheath cells, PEP carboxylase, CAM plants *What do the light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin Cycle with? *What is the correct sequence flow of electrons during photosynthesis? *How is photosynthesis similar in C4 plants and CAM plants? *What is the goal of photosynthesis? *Be familiar with the Z Scheme and the Calvin Cycle. Chapter 12: Mitosis and Cell Cycle (Pages 232-248) *cell division, cell cycle, genome, chromosome, chromatin, somatic cells, gametes, sister chromatids, centromere, mitosis, M phase, S phase, G1 phase, G2 phase, Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, mitotic spindle, centrosome, aster, kinetochore, metaphase plate, cleavage furrow, cell plate, binary fission, origin of replication, G0 phase, growth factor, transformation *What is the difference between a cancer cell and a normal cell? *Name what occurs in each of the stages of mitosis. *What is the goal of mitosis? *View slides on Canvas. Chapter 13: Meiosis (Pages 252-265) *heredity, variation, genetics, genes, gametes, somatic cells, locus, asexual reproduction, clone, sexual reproduction, life cycle, karyotype, homologous chromosomes, sex chromosomes, autosomes, diploid cell, haploid cell, fertilization, zygote, meiosis I, meiosis II, synapsis, recombinant chromosomes *During what phase of meiosis do homologous chromosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell? *How is meiosis II similar to mitosis? *What do you call a human cell containing 22 autosomes and Y chromosome? *What is the goal of meiosis? *Know the four places where genetic variation can occur? *Fraternal vs Identical Twins Chapter 14/15: Genetics (Pages 267-288, 293-309) *character, hybridization, P generation, F generation, alleles, dominant allele, recessive allele, Law of Segregation, Punnett Square, homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype, genotype, monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross, Law of Independent Assortment, complete dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, pleiotropy, epistasis, pedigree, cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell disease, Huntington’s disease *sex-linked gene, X-Link gene, hemophilia, Barr body, linked gene, genetic recombination, parental types, recombinant types, crossing over, genetic map, linkage map, map units, deletion, duplication, translocation, Down Syndrome *Know and understand Mendel’s research and Punnett Squares. *What do the Law of Segregation and Law of Independent Assortment state? *When solving problems for genotype, who will tell you the genotype of the mother? *Practice problems on Canvas. *Practice Pedigree charts in lab manual. Chapter 16: DNA Replication (Pages 312-330) *DNA replication, transformation, double helix, antiparallel, semiconservative model, origins of replication, replication fork, helicases, single-strand binding proteins, topoisomerase, primer, primase, DNA polymerase, leading strand, lagging strand, Okazaki fragments, DNA ligase, nuclease, chromatin *What did Griffith discover in research with a pneumonia-causing bacteria and mice? *What is the basis for the difference in how the leading and lagging strands of DNA molecules are synthesized? *What is DNA wrapped around inside the nucleosome? *What did Hershey & Chase, Chargoff, Franklin, Watson & Crick and Meselson & Stahl contribute to the discovery of DNA? *Know the steps of DNA replication. Chapter 17: Protein Synthesis (Pages 333-357) *gene expression, transcription, mRNA, translation, ribosomes, primary transcript, template strand, triplet code, codons, reading frame, RNA polymerase, promoter, terminator, transcription unit, start point, transcription factors, transcription initiation complex, TATA box, RNA processing, poly-A tail, RNA splicing, introns, exons, spliceosome, tRNA, anticodon, rRNA, P site, A site, E site, signal peptide, SRP, polyribosomes, point mutations, silent mutation, missense mutation, nonsense mutation, insertions, deletions, mutagens, frameshift mutation *The anticodon of a particular tRNA molecule is….. *What component is not directly involved in translation? *Name two things that are true about a codon. *Summarize Beadle & Tatum’s research. *Know the steps of DNA replication. Chapter 20: Biotechnology (408-433) *DNA technology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, DNA sequencing, DNA cloning, plasmids, recombinant DNA, gene cloning, restriction enzyme, restriction site, sticky end, DNA ligase, gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, nucleic acid probe, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, complementary DNA, single nucleotide polymorphism, stem cell, gene therapy, genetic profile, GMOs, *In DNA technology, what can the term “vector” refer to? *Why are plants more readily manipulated by genetic engineering than animals? *Summarize the cloning process of Dolly the sheep? *What was the Human Genome Project? *What is gene therapy and what is used for? Chapter 23: Evolution of Population (Pages 481-498) *genetic variation, population, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, adaptive evolution, genetic drift, founder effect, bottleneck effect, gene flow, sexual selection, intrasexual selection, intersexual selection, balancing selection, heterozygote advantage, *Natural Selection changes allele frequencies because some ______________ survive and reproduce better than others. *What is the main source of genetic variation among humans? *Know and understand the Peppered Moths. *What are some examples of evidence for evolution? *Know what p, q, p^2, q^2 and 2pq stand for in the Hardy- Weinberg Equation, and what they should always equal.
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