Psych 224 Exam 3 Study guide
Psych 224 Exam 3 Study guide Psyc 224
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Gonzalez on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 224 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Dr. Kara Federmeier in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology Section A in Psychlogy at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
1 language a number of combinations in a language or a persons lexicon are determined by the rules of phonology i phenomes The smallest significant unit of sound in a language A phonemic system is the sound system of a language ii morphemes the smallest significant unit of meaning in a language b Noam Chomsky39s famous saying Colorless green ideas sleep furiously violates the rules of semantics c twitch on the television gt anticipation error d people recognize words more quickly when they are in a sentence is influenced by word frequency and context effects e characteristics of sound exchange errors Garrett 1975 i occur mostly in nearby words ii tend to NOT occur across phrases iii do not respect grammatical category or function f characteristics of word exchange errors i span some distance ii respect grammatical category and function 1 implies that words and sounds are on two different processing leveB a one for phenomes and morphemes and one for sytax g speech errors i sound exchange 1 exdnnkbeer gtdeerbnnk i anticipation errors 1 ex take my bike gt bake my bike iii preservation errors 1 ex beef noodle gt beef needle iv blends 1 ex taxi cab gt tab h language ambiguity i wmdambgmw 1 words can have multiple meanings 2 ex bank river or financial institution ii syntactic ambiguity 1 phrases that can be parsed in multiple ways 2 ex quotLast night saw an elephant in my pajamas How he got there iein my pajamas I39ll never knowquot i top down processing i using all information you have immediately ii have principles for dealing with conflict between information sources iii evidence about it solving ambiguity 1 sounds context effects are late 2 syntax context effects are early 3 word meaning pragmaticsusing elaborative inferences j connectionists model does a betterjob of explaining i how errors occur at the phenome level 1 related in sound and meaning ii errors that invent new words k garden path effect i sentences that begin to meal one thing but end up meaning another ii illustrates temporary ambiguity 1 initial ambiguity but meaning is made clear by the end iii shows that when people encounter ambiguity they 1 syntax first approach parsing a people first group words into phrases as governed by a number of syntax rules b reinterpret the sentence when errors in parsing occur I phenomic restoration effect i it was found that the oat ii an example of how our knowledge of the meanings of words and the likely meanings of sentences affects speech perception iii example of top down m experiment where a sentence is a garden path sentence in one context but an easy sentence in another context i supports serial bottom up model n Sapir Whorf hypothesis i weak version language favors some thought processes over others 1 will tend to think in ways that are most favorable to us 1 decision making a choosing between alternative courses of action b strategies i compensatory 1 single feature model a evaluating a single subset of a decision b not good for complex decisions 2 additive model a add pros and subtract cons b go with numerically higher choice c graduate programs problem i Northwestern university 5 pros 3 cons 1 5 and 32 ii UIUC 7 pros 3 cons 1 7 and 43 2 numerically the better decision d better for complex situations ii noncompensatory 1 elimination by aspects model a evaluating one dimension and criterion and eliminating options that don t match b c how Holly chose a class and how Bob chose a computer 2 satisficing a picking the first one that works i reason Shaival would only look at the first ten apartment options rather than all of the apartment op ons c representative heuristic i shortcut that involves comparing a current situation to a prototype of a particular event or behavior d expected utility theory 1 idea that people will use all relevant information to make a rational decision that will result in the most utility not necessarily the most value 2 utility the outcome that achieves a person s goals e expected value theory i value of outcome x probability of outcome ii 50 chance for 20 1 5 x 20 10 f risk aversion i tendency to avoid taking risks ii people who buy lottery tickets do not follow this g Heuristics i availability heuristic 1 events that are more easily remembered are judged as being more probable than events less easily remembered 2 what readily comes to mind or more prevalent in life a would lead a person to believe there are more words with R as a first letter and not third because those words are more prevalent b earthquakes are more easily remembered in California because they are more probable 3 reflects effectiveness of search not necessarily the actual probability ii representativeness 1 Estimate that something is more probable if it has many features that you associate with a particular outcome 2 making judgements based on resemblance a coin toss friend is wrong because i HHHHH only seems less probable because it follows a pattern and is therefore seen as more probable ii HHHHH is equally probable as HTTHT but less representative 3 people would assume Julie is a feminist her description meets that of a typical feminist a violates conjunction rule i reasoning error that says the probability of two events cannot be higher than the probability of the single events individually iii anchoringadjustment 1 starting from a readily available number the anchor and shifting either up or down to reach an answer that seems plausible a Fran will estimate a much lower number than Dave because Fran s anchor will be much lower than Dave s b a the second contestant on the price is right would have a higher guess because her initial anchor was higher h Elle may believe Detroit is safer than NY because of ignored information i changes in decisions associated with presenting the same information in different forms are called framing effects i When problem framed as something being saved most people go for certain gain When same problem framed as something being lost most people avoid certain loss 1 Jenny will attend her bio class more to avoid losing points 2 psychic budgets study if people have 100 cash and a 100 theater ticket and lose one a people who lose the ticket are most likely not ooino to buv another ticket and will walk away with their 100 cash i framed as saving money b people who lose the cash are most likely not ooino to get a full refund and will watch the show with no money ii sunk cost 1 losses that have already been incurred and should not be considered in future decision making but still influence them irrationally 2 can be beneficial in situations that require modest losses for gain a learning a skill or long term investment j sample size and base rate i to calculate base rate sample size is needed ii those who estimate the cab as being blue were ignoring the base rate 1 ratio of green cabs to blue cabs iii false positive rate 1 of false positivestrue positives false negatives 2 new blood test false positive rate a 8 false negatives 96 true positives 4 false negatives 8 false positive rate k wason selection task i studies outcomes of conditional reasoning ii found that people use schemas based on past experiences rather than logic 1 people have difficulty applying logic in everyday reasoning Problem solving 1 algorithm A systematic stepbystep procedure such as a mathematical formula that guarantees a solution to a problem of a certain type if applied appropriately and executed properly 2 analogy using the solution to different similar problem to solve a new problem o Is usually only applied when people are made aware of the analogy don39t make the association on their own i Found by Gick and Holyoak39s medicalmilitary problem 3 heuristics shortcut method to solution easier to process than algorithms 0 simple search i assessing the current state and possible future states of a problem and making decisions that move you closest to the goal 1 hill climbing set of steps to always move closer towards a desired outcome a disadvantages sometimes leads to temporarily backtracking b working backward ii A heuristic strategy in which a person discovers the steps needed to solve a problem defining the desired goal and working backward to the current condition also called backward search iii may be easier to start at the end and move backwards c endsmeans analysis iv by envisioning the end or ultimate goal and then determines the best strategy for attaining the goal in his current situation by using subgoals v differs from hill climbing 1 adds element of subgoals analyzes the difference between current situation and desired outcome to formulate steps to close the gap 4 Ex you are helping to build a robot that can solve welldefined problems 0 You initially recommend the algorithm approach i Consistent effective solution that can be time consuming 0 However the simplest approach to implement would be the heuristic meansends analysis i General problem solver computer program that uses meansends to solve problems 0 But warn that heuristics do not guarantee consistent solutions 5 Newell and Simon approach 0 viewed processing a solution as serial having limited memory resources 0 representations information processing system that acts on the task environment to create a problem space 0 problem space i initial state conditions at the beginning of a problem ii goal state solution 10 iii intermediate states states in between the initial and the goal iv operators steps that move the problem fonNard functional fixedness inability to use objects in ways other than how they are typically used 0 Many people failed to attach the candle to the wall due to lack of functional fixedness for the matchbox 0 Can be overcome for insight problems using incubation set effect subconscious tendencies to approach a problem in a particular way 0 shaped by past experiences 0 Luchin39s waterjug experiment showed that people need to find the right representation for each problem 0 Incubation helps break away from set effects think aloudl verbal protocol 0 verbalizing thoughts as the problem is being solved 0 reveals shifts in people s perception of elements of the problem to researchers 0 Beneficial for only for noninsight problems interferes with insight problems i Talking group A would be more likely to press the button more accurately better metacognition and would have more solutions than silent group b intermediate products 0 analyzing steps taken to reach goal 0 ex someone showing their work in a problem surface similarity between source problem and an analogous target problem 0 surface features may facilitate the mapping of steps 0 may help subjects notice the relationship between a source problem and a target problem Creativity 1 2 Convergent thinking focuses on single solution Divergent thinking designed to arrive at multiple possible solutions expands in many directions a Creativity tests to measure divergent thinking i Unusual Uses test Name as many things as you can think to do with papercups ii scored based on fluency flexibility and originality Incuba on a Allows people to break away from repetitive incorrect approaches set effects and functional fixedness Wallas39 traditional view of creativity process 1926 a Preparation setup problem b Incubation put problem aside c Illumination sudden insight d Verification positive working solution Expertise a Experts use deliberate practice i Cognitive stage full attention to instruction ii Associative stage needing cues or reminders for actions iii Autonomous stage effortless b Takes roughly 10 years c Experts have better representation of problems i Experts tend to use schemas take longer to get started and follow clear plans to the solutions d Chess experts i Have chunks in memory for important patterns and arrangement ii Would probably remember arrangement of basketball players better than novices e Physics experts i Grouped physics problems by structural features rather than surface features 1 ex force and momentum problems vs problems with blocks and puHeys f Talent i Ericsson and colleagues suggested deliberate practice was the key to expertise not innate talent ii Research suggests that talent is just a genetic predisposition to a practice in that domain
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